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A MANUAL 



PRACTICAL HYGIENE 



STUDENTS, PHYSICIANS, AND MEDICAL OFFICERS. 



BY 

CHARLES HARRINGTON. M.D.. 

Anun-jiNT PuopcnoR ot Uvoicnb ih the Mkuical Bchool or Babvibd Univebntv. 
SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH TWELVE PLATES IN COLORS AND MONOCHROME, 
AND ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEEN ENQRAVINGS. 




LEA BROTHERS & CO., 

PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK. 
1902. 



&il«ed iccortlog to Act gf CongrsM, in the ywr IWi by 

LEA BROTHERS & CO., 

In the Offlc« of the Libnriui of CoDgrat. AU rlgbli mened. 



Wd*t1irt t THfl'ilOtl. ' ' wiLLI4ia J, DORHAH. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDMON. 



The demand for a second edition of this work within but little 
mure than a year from the appearance of the first is gratifying evidence 
ihai the book in some degree has filled a requirement. I>uriug tlie 
■nt^nal, research in the field of bygione has been active and fruitful, 
ami the results have been incorporated in great measure in the present 
i!Vll^ A chapter on the relation of insects to human diseasett, con- 
taining eight additional il lustrations, has been added, parts of other 
i^plers have been entirely rewritten, and throughout the book nu- 
mcrtius changes and additions have l»een made. The amount of new 
•raterial occupies about seventy pages, but the size of the book has 
wn kept within reasonable limitM by the excision of about thirty 
p!>)^ dealing chiefly with quarantine law and obsolete matter. 

The author entertains the hope that the second edition will be no 
W mrdiallv received than the first. 

C. H. 

688 BoTLWTON BTRRicr, Boston, 
August, 1902. 

95283 



PKEFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



I>" preiKiriDg this work, the object of the author has been t« 
pmvide a students' text-book which should cover the most irajwrtaut 
U>pics iooluded in the wide domain of Hygiene, and l>e useful in tlie 
labtiratoPi' and as a reference book for practitioners and health officers. 

The subject is so broad that it is imposHible to treat it in its entirety 
in a thorough manner in a single volume; therefore, certain tojjics 
which Jind a place in some of the lai^r works, and which are of 
interest chiefly to a somewhat limited circle of s|>e(^ia lists, have not 
iM-en CI m sidereal. 

Of late, it has become the custom to incorporate in works on 
hygiene a chapter on elementary bacteriology.'. It has seemed to the 
author that, inasmuch as a knowledge of this closely allied science is 
recogniKwl an a ven,- essential part of the e<iuipment of the modern 
medical practitioner, and is taught, as its importance deser\'es, either 
as a ricparate subject or in connection with pathology, it would be aK 
much a work of euperen^tion to give a brief description of species 
and technie herein as to include a chapter on elementary chemistry', 
phvriies, or other affiliated great subject. It is assumed that the reader 
hjis already acquired at least a fiiir working knowledge of bacteriolog\', 
or tiiat, lacking it, he will turn rather to special works in which the 
science is fully treated. 

Again, certain topics, which not infrequently are included in works 
of this nature, but which lie more properly within the fields of engi- 
neering and architecture, such, for example, as the conetnictioii of 
acpieducts and sewers, the nature and strength of bnilding materials, 
and the arrangement of hospitals, have l>een deemed as hanlly within 
the province of the hygicnist, and, consequentl}', have been excluded. 

To those who, by their writings and otherwise, have been of assist- 
ance in the preparation of this book, the author extends his sincere 
thanks; and especially to his friend and colleague Professor Harold 
(', Ernst for taking the photomicrographs fnim which the plates illus- 
trative of the starches and trichinte have been prepared. 

C, H. 

688 BoYUTKm Stbzbt, Bostok. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
POODS 17 

f 1- Genekai. CoNBitiKaATioKa 17 

The nutritive value of foods, 17. Amount of food aeceemtr, 18. Compoei- 
Uon of foods, 19. Proteidn, 19. FatB, 21. Carbohydrates, 21. Otigaaic 
acids, 22. Inorganic ralle, 23. 

} 2. AmimalFoom; Mk41»i, Fish, Eoos, AUD Meat PaODucTO . 23 

MeaiH, 24. Digestibility, 24. Flavor, 24. Texture, 26. Effects of cooking, 
2-5. Characteristics of (cood meat, 26. Comparative digestibility of meats, 
2tt. Red meat and while meat, 27. CompoMtion of meala, 27. Beef, 2a 
Pork, 29. Veal, 30. Mutton, 30. Lamb, 30. Poultry, 31, HotBe meat, 31. 
Meat preparationa, 32. Saiuages, 32. h^sh, 34. Digestibility, 35. Keeping 
qiialiti», 3.5. Oompoaition, 35. Meat and fish, and parasitic disease, 37. 
Transmiwion of disease by meat and &jh, 42. Tuberctiloais, 43. Typhoid 
ferer and cholera, 48. Poisoning by meat and fish, 53. PoiHODing due to 
uhstances normally prewnt in the living organitun, 53, Poisoning due to 
lacterial produclM in mealii and fish, 53. Onset and couree of symptoms, 57. 
Niture i)f symptomM, 57. Posl-niortem appearances, 58. Character of meets 
which cause poisoning, -58. Cbscm illustrative of poisoning by fish and meats, 
W. Poisoning by niuswis, 60. Pcjisoning by herrings, 61. Poisoning hy 
Blnion, 63. Poisoning by oysters, 63. Poisoning by veal, 64. Poisoninc by 
pork, fi6. Poisoning by beef, 70. Poisoning by horee meat, 73. Poisoning 
by musogeH, 74. Poisoning by kid meat, 76. Meat inspection and slaughter- 
ing, 76. Eggs, 78. Lord, 81. 

S 5. Milk asd Mii.k PBuufcis 82 

fom|)o(iition of cows' milk, 82. Fat, 83, Milk sugar, 84. Proleids, 84. 
Mineral matter, S-'t. Specific gravity, »■>. Reaction, 85. Appearance, 85. 
Ta»lf, Se, Pnsfence of alcohol, 86. Colostrum, 87, Changes produced in 
milk by boiling, 87. Changes due to bacterial iiction, 88. Preservation of 
milk, 91. Adulteration of milk, 94. Condenml milk, 95. Koiimixs and 
kefir, 9."i. Cream, i>6. Milk as a factor in the spread of disease, 96. Poison' 
om milk, 90, Milk from diseased cows, 98, Milk contaminated from with- 
out with nrganisms related to human diseases, 104. Diphtheria, 105. 
Cholera, 105. Scarlet fever, 106. Typhciid fever, 107. Cholera infanttim, 
108. .\nalysis of milk, 110. Determination of specific gravity. 111. 
Determination of fat, 112. Determination of total solids, 115. Determina- 
tion of milk sugar, 116. Determination nf ash, 117. Determination of pro- 
teids, 117. Detection of added coloring matters, 118. IDelection of preserva- 

7 



8 COXTESTS. 

rjLi 
liTet, 130. Mdlxok et ikanfmia^ Ui»n.u imv and cooked milk, 1^ 
Itaccdon III pialiB in mKBi. 12S. Batm-. 124. BonFf u a ram«r oF du- 
CBie. 1^. Amlnu of bunrr. 12>. ilxeae. I^ Conpoaitioa of chevt*-, 
IZL AdiUtnaOMi d clwcse. 13.1 Ataly^ of L-betnt. I35l Cb«eev aa a 
caow of poiwnini;. 136. 

) 4. Ve>ETlBL£ FouD^ ■ I 

Fannaotvu. rmls. I3T. C^nak. 137. Wlwat. 137. Ciaipuoiboa of vbtat, 
13p. \nKat flour, 13!>. PrriontiwB uf vb«ii floor, hnsd, 140. Macatrai, 
»|K^lKiii. and venaiivlli, 142. .Uidlmlioii of flour. I43l Rre, 144. 
brtt^^. 1 44. i taK l^i. Corn, 14& Rii«. 147. Bai^TlwaL I4fi. Lt^imes, 
14^. P«a>, llf. BeaiLS. 1.!m'. Lmdls. l.il. Fannaceou; prppaiadons. 151. 
Sa^n. 151. Tapioca, lol. .Vm>«n>i4. l.?>^ Fanr senfe < Not; I, 152. 
Almootb, I.)± (ocianuih 1-\1 Walnui^. l.ii Pojiais. 1.53- Oieanuts, 
153. Vtifctablp tau, 1->L Olirr («1. l.>t. Conon^wd oil. I'M. Tal«rFaod 
(uil^ IM. P<>t>u«s. l.M. SvAi piiaKvs 137. Aniofaokcs. l-)7. Roots, 
157. Hertsceoif artirk*, 1-^ Fmii pnJurt^ nvd a; T^Ktable«, 15(<. 
Fnihe. i». Apples l-i!>- Fcai^. l^C. Pnrbe. 16ti. Apnnttr!, 160. 
riuiiBs, IfKiL C1ic«Ti«s Ititl. (hanpiv. ItWX (lrap«». 161. Mcloos, 161. 
Banana.., 16^ Fig^ 162. BerricN 1«^ Kdibk funp. 16S. Mn^rnoois, 
I"*?. TmfflcK. 163. ^arrbariitr preparations lO-v Taiie ra^r, 163. Mapk 
•o^ar. IM. (.iloi'av. deiiiroe, 1^4. Molaaws. Itfi. Hmkt, 165. Coulee- 
tkuMrrj, 167. J«lli«$ and jams. Ifiili. 

{ .5. BCVERll.iK' 1 

SlimuUni hfrcniKs coniaioinp alkaliuds. ]6i^ Tm. 16^ .VdnlKraiion of 
wa. 17i'i Ci^«e. 171. Co(i«. 173. Ffmiont«d aloobolic bevi'tafrBs 175. 
BrvT. 17.1. PromB of loaDiifaoture of be*r. 177. .^tikviulM for barfej oialt, 
ITil^. ^hniliites for hopx. I7tt. Phr^^al pti>ppni» anl rbemic*! componi- 
Uoa of b««r. ISO. Adulieiation of Iwr. 1:I4>. .VnalTvi» of hwr. 181. Tahiti 
fhnwiae {vtreniaiR of aln^ol br vei^t and br volume. 18^ Dewctkin of 
pirwrratirfs. 1^^. WitiKi. ]^. Cla^fiation of viDH, 19]. Componlion 
of HTDes 191. .\duIlrration of wiiKS. 192. \ta\yiif <\f wines, IW. IVlpev 
tion of prefCTvativcj^ 19S. fidor, 196. r^rr. l!'7. IH^IIImI alrofaolic 
bevenuffs. 15*7. BrandT. 198. Whijfcvv. 199. Rum. 200. (iin. 201. 

J 6. OiXI-IJIENTS. SPICR*. .\S1I B.^KEBS' CHrMIiAO S 

Vinecar. 'i'KL Lomon jtiioe an>l limf jiiii-v, iS4. .Sob, 2W. Mustard, 20-j. 

Pcj'piT. ^i-i. Clnves. 20.1. I.'innaiiioii anil <■«»■! a. ^i^i. .\lbploe. 206. 

<iinp-r. iS!"!. XutnKtr. 2lH>. Mat*. 206, Osvenih' (lej'ppr. 3*6. Baking 
jKiicdfr-. 2" Hi. 

J 7. Fi'.'ii Pre^ebv.itiox 2 

Cold. 209, riiyinB. 2i>9. fnliini:. 209. Smofcinc, 2'>!>. ilnrmiinr. -Jr",'. iVmioil 
trralmeni. 211. Borir ai.'iil anil lainix. 21;^ Solioi li,- :i,-id, 216. SiilpliiieK. 
217. Fi'mialdehy.k\ 217. Hv.ln^'n jioiMiidf, 218. Siiliiiiii fliiortiW, 219. 
Sodium Int^rbonalo. 219, 

f 8. COXTAJIISATliiX OF Fculpf BY MlT.Mii . . , 2 

Copper. 219, Lrad. 221. Zini-. 221 Sickel. 222. Tin. 222. Mftaliic oon- 
tauiiiialion from kitt'hen uten.<iLs 222. 



CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTER II. 

AIR 224 

Oxygen, 224. Nitrogen, 226. Argon, 227. Hydrogen, 227, Carbon dioxide, 
227. <)tone, 229. Peroxide of hydrogen, 230. Ammonia, 230. Nitrogen 
acidn, '130. Aqueoiw vapor, 231. DuM and niicro-organinnB, 233. Carbon 
miini>xide, 23-^. " Sewer gUH," 237. Organic maltens 240. EffectH of vitiated 
air, 240, The air aa a carrier of infection, 244. Influence of fog, 251. 
Examination of air, 2ol. Determination of aqueous vapor, 252. Deter- 
mination i>f relative humidity, 253. (ilaisher'i; table, 254. IVble of 
tensions, 235. Determination of i.'urbun dioxide, 257. Determination of 
carbon monoxide, 265. Determination of oioDe, 266. Determina^on of 
diut, 267. Bacteriolo^cal examitiation, 368. 

CHAFfER HI. 

THE SOIL 270 

The soil, 270, Constituents of the Roil, 272. Physical properties of soils, 
273. Pore-volume, 273. Permeability of eoil.f, 274. Capacity for waler,ftnd 
water-retaining capacity, 278, Soil leniiwrature, 280. Changes in the char- 
acter of soils due to chemical and bioiogical agencies, 282. Soil«ir, 283. 
Soil-water, 286. Sources of soil-water, 289. Loss of soil moisture by evapora- 
tion, 289. Influence nf veKetatiim on noil moirture, 290. Other effects of 
vegetation upon the soil, 291. Pollution of the soil, 292. Bacteria of the soil, 
294, Soil and dixeaHe, 296. Soil dampneiw and diseane in general, 2%. Soil 
and pulmonary tuberculosiK, 207. Typhoid fever, 297. Cliolero, 300. Bubonic 
plague, 300. Diphtheria, .101. Malaria, 302. Tetanun and malignant cedema, 
303. Anlhrai, 304. Epidemic diarrhwa, 305. floilre, 306. Yellow fever, 
aOfi. Other diseasen, 306. Examination of soils, 307. Pore-volume, 308. 
Permeability lo air, 309. Permeability to water, 310, Water capacity, 312. 
Capillarity, 312. Moisture, 312. Organic and volatile ma Item, 31.3. Deter- 
minalioa of CO, in soil-air. 313. Bacteriolt^cal examination of aoil, 315. 

CHAPTER IV. 

WATER 316 

Introductory, 316. Rain, 316. Surince-waleni. 317. firound-waters, 318. 
Physical and chemical characteristics of WHter, 320. Appearance, 321. Re- 
action, 322. Odor, 322, Substances found normally in water, 324. Gaaeti, 
3S4. Carhon dioxide, 325. Organic mntter, 32.'), Ammonia, 32«. Albumi- 
noid ammonia, 328. Nitrites and nilmtes, 3*28, Mineral mntteni, 330. Salt, 
330. Ilardncfss 331. Bacteria in water, 332. Water supplies, 335. Stored 
rain, 335, Surtac^waters, 337. Gronnd-wulers, .^38. Springs, 338. Wells, 
339. Driven wells, 340. Drainafte area of weiln, .344. Filler Knlleri(«t, 346, 
Clainiflcatinn of waters from the sonitary Ktnndpoinl. 347. Purification of 
water, .349. Oxidation, 349, Dilution, 350. Sedimentnlion, 3.'i0, Bacterial 
action, 3o0, Vegetation, 3.50, Methods of purificntion, 3.'>I. Chcmiml treat- 
ment, 351. Boiling and dislillalion, 3-)."). Filtmtion, 3-Vi. Domestic filters, 
So.^. Filtration of public supplies, 357, " Mechanical filtmlion," '.USX Pbique 
filters, 363, Removal iif hardncH', 364, Removal of iron, 364, Action of 
water on lead and other metals, .365, Action on iron, 369, Action on zinc, 



PAVK 

3U9, Aclion OD lln, 370. W»Xm and HIdmlw, STl. Duorden TOiiim't«iI nltli 
mineral iiialIi.T, 372. LluurilrrH pc)iini.i--li'd with orfjnnic pollitiion, tfH. Ty- | 

. |ilii>ii! iiifivliiui ol WRliT HUfiplim, 37li. Inllii«nr<- ut lii(n.Kl<ivljoTi nt public i 

wuicr sti|ipli<*' till Ijphdid rnlm, 3T7. Clnniiimiioii r-t cilia oci-onling to 
typhoid fctcr dcnili-nilw, 37B. Kiumplu r/t lyphoid Sever npideiiiim nnil 
of linillwl iHilliK»k» trni'fil lo infoftni wni«r, 3S1. ANintif rliolem. 3S(>. Tbc 
projNiitatJun of chuli'ru iu Iiidiu. 3S1S. I'nnuiitai oiiil (irinliiii(;-wnter, SSI. lit', ^^ 
^^ C'iicniiral cxmniiiDTion of water, H94. Oillcninii of minpliu, a>H. ^H 
l>ol4^n»lTiAlioTi hf friv ami jilhtiminoiil ^TTinioiila, 3*J^. IVt^nuinulioii of ^ithvr ^^1 
nitruiCcri c«iii|iiiiii](i^ -UN), Niirilw. 400. Niinitvs, 401. tlcicniiinuticm of I 

cblarinc, '102. IX'ii-nninnlioii of miijiic, iil'X [H'[i:'riiiliiniii>n •>( hanlnro, 
408. [Julvnniiuiriiiii of "Uiyiceu iv<|iiiiwl," iM. iH-lcnii inn lion of color, 
40Q. Ik-lerriiiiulioii of odor, -lOTi, I Vic rai inn lion of ivsclion, 40,1, IVtci^ 
iiiinnlion of liirliidily, 40li. Ih'lwlioii iiiul dclciiiiiiiiition •>( li'iiii, 401!. i 

Ddvulitiii of till, 4Kit. lfcl«7lioii nnci di-Icrnunniioii of iron. 409. liifpmiom 
tu to cbnmclfr of miler from Ihc itwiilln of unnilaiy I'iipniicnl nnnlj-tin. 409. I 

llii«l«doli)|[icnl vxHmiuntiun nf wiiu^r, 412. C'Dllccliuu uf HlIuple^ 413. riaiit- 
in); of winplce. 413, (jiiontitBtivp dctcnntnnlion. 414. (^uniilBlive delete 
oiinalioii, 415. Comparalirti valtiv of ■.■iiviiiiiiii iinil hnclcrioloiiiiral almlvida 
of wsier, 41 7. 

- CHAPTKR V. 

Rabitattons, ficnoous, etx; *» 

{ I. nKNKIlAI. roSWIIHaiATEOJW. . - "ttD 

A(]>«:l, 420, (."<in"irii.'iion niid nrmngeuivnl, 420. Vurv of liRtutHliorw, 421. 
ediooU, 421. SrJinol fiimiliirr, 42S, I^iPMliirliiii wncnmiiig school*, 423. 

1 1 Vkxtii..«tios ash nB^Tiso . . ... 4SJt 

Vmtilntioii imd lioniing, 423. .Xniount of i.|i«c»' rv<iiiltvd for gtrnd vmiiilntion, 
42S, Nalunil fore™ in vi^nlilntion. 42i3l. Piftiiuon iind eravily, 427. P^ri- 
llsTinn anii !ii>|iirntion, 425". NHtunil drtiiilmion, *»l. InlfU nwl oullcls. 432, 
Mcchiiuiiid vixitilntiiin, 435. Ani/lcinl Iicntin]^ In Sin rvlntion u> vrnlilntion, 
43.\ Kndiiition, 4.'Sfl. Coniiiidion, 13t!. ('onvcclion, 43li. Metliodj. of 
wnriiiinK, IS7. Open Hrw, AtiT. Stovcn, 4.^7. I'nmnci*, 439, Ilut-wulrr 
pipw, 439, tittnin pin«, 4:!9, RcKuiulion of IrmiiTiitnrv, 4-10. N«'«v*itj' 
of providing nioirtiitv, 441. Di'ii-niiliiuliiui of rnlen of vcnlilulion, 443. 

{ 3, IjnriTtsr. , . , , ** 

Xsliiml tighlinjc. 44<^ Anifi.-inl lichiiiKt 447. I,iimini»ily of (liime. 447. 
Rm Wrnclv. 448, Vnrictiit of iliiiiiiiiiiitinK ((iit. 449. ('-ailipi)^ -1(9, Wiitcr- 
giiii,449. AcctjW^ ([)i*,4.W. GwolcDc- piN 4-11. Iminiiitic eivun off in 
liirliiinn. 151. Un» iiipus 4.>1. Fliturra, -402. Elwirie light ins. 4B2. 

(4. rM-«Bi»a *** 

Hnmbtnit, 4Si2. Thn nil-pipe and main drain, 4*4. W«W pifif^ 4.^0. Tmp*. 
4i». (ln^aw lni|H,4i14. T.o«Df «ail. 40(1. Non-«iplioninir lmi^4fiP. Watoi^ 
cl™<■l^ 470. The jwn ckwel, 473. The phintcer cJiwct, 474. IIop|»r cUncts, 
4T&. 0|H-n wath-oiii chwcto, 47.'V. Spluin cln>M», 47fi. riiwhinB iippiiralu*. 
478, Watifivhwl .■ni.ni-eiions 479. t'rinaK 4Hft Wauli Imnini, 4t«). Halh- 
laht, 482, Sink*. 4M. Tviiimlr,- Inhs 4S6, Houne wrviiw lanfcn, 4Sfi. Bm-k* 
lilp«,4»Wi. Twlins plumbing, 4S7. 



CONTENTS. 11 

CHAPTER VI. 

no I 
DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE 488 

Sewage, 488. Methodii of sewage dupoeal, 491. DucbHrge into the sea, 491. 
The pail system, 492. Chemical treatment, 493. Action of sewage efflueata 
on fish life, 494. Sewage irrigation, 494. Influence of sewage irrigation OD 
health, 498. The Wemng Bystem of irrigation, 499. Sewage filtiaiion, 500. 
Other biological proceiseti, 502. IMbdin's bacteria filler, 502. Cameron's 
aeptic tank, 504. The Scott-Monerieff system, 605. 

CHAPTER VII. 

DISPOSAL OP GARBAGE 607 

Garbage, 507. Methods of dispoHal of garbage, 508. Incineration, 608. Re- 
duction, 509. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

DISINFECTANTS AND DBINFECTION 511 

Disinfectants, .^11. Physical agents, 511. Light, 611. Heat, 614. Dry heat, 
615. Steam, 515. Boiling water, 519. Cold, 519. Chemical agents, 620. 
Oijgen,522. Ozone, 522. Hydrogen peroxide, 523. Chlorine, 624. "Chloride 
of lime," 524. Sodium hypochlorite, 526. Bromine and iodine, 526. Sul- 
phur dioxide, 526. Lime, 527. Ferrous sulphate, 628. Ferric sulphate, 

529. Feme chloride, 629. Zinc chloride, 529. Aluminum chloride, 529. 
Potassiuro pennaDganate, 630. Copper sulphate, 530. Mercuric chloride, 

530. Mineral acids, 532. Organic suhatanees, 532. Carbolic acid, phenol, 
phenic acid, 532. Cresols, 534. Creolin, 535. Lysoi, 536. Bacillol, 636. 
Lysofonn, 536. Saprol, 536. Bolveol, 536. Soliilol, 537. Alcohol, 537. 
EWntial oils, 538. Soaps, 538. Medicated soaps, 541. Formaldehyde, 542. 
Forrnaldebyde apparatua, 543. Germicidal properties, 549. Power of pene- 
ttatiou, 552. Con^lions favoring action, 553. Toxicity, 554. Amount neces- 
sary for room diHinfectioii, ^6. DiBait vantages, 556. Other applications of 
formaldehyde, 557. Prevention of dissemination of infectious material: 
Practical disinfection, 557. Disinfection of Isixa, 558. Urine, 669. Sputum, 
659. Discharges from the mouth, etc., 559. Eating utensils, 559. Bed linen 
and clothing, 559. Hands, 560. Air, 560. Room disinfection, 501. Diain- 
fecUon of boolcs, 564. Diiunfection of water^loseta, 564. 

CHAPTER IX. 

MILITARY HYGIENE 565 

Introductory, 565. The recntit, 567. Age, 568. Height, 571. Weight, .572. 
Eiaminalbn of the recruit, 572. Chest capacity, 573. Grounds for rejection, 
573. Hygiene of the soldier, 575. Personal cleanlinew, 575. Contentment 
and cheerfulness, 575. Clothing of the soldier, 676. Wool, 570. Cotton 
and linen, 576. Shoddy, 576. Color, 577, Military dress coats, 577, Gaitew 
and leggings, 677. Head covering;, 577. StockinKs, 578. Boots, 576. Under- 
clothing, 579. Abdominal bands, 579. Waterproof blankets, 580. The sol- 
dier's exercise and work, 580. Marching, -^80. Care of the feet on the march, 
686. dare of other parts, 686. The soldiet'e food ; " rations," 587. ^Ucohol 



20 



POOD& 



Gropp I. Allniminiitis IjimIk'-! iJopcIj- related to t^ ulbuniiu. ^^ 
' 1. Albumins, Sr.luble in water. E^gr allHiniin, aeruin alliutuiii, 
liididliiiaiiii, miiKi-lc iilliiiinii), vo^'tnhk- nllniiniii. 

i. (iluljuliriK. lD«<>litl>le in water, Milnliip in dilute Nilt solution. 
Kjff; ^luliulin (^viiclliri), fleruni gliilmlin, bctuglobulio, fdiriiioi^i, myo- 
sin, vc^^-lnblc (globulin. 

3. Proteids soluble in alwihul. SiiltAtiiiirfti very ^ligbtly soluble in 
^ntt<?r iiml .-'uli sohiiiiiiis. :«ilnli]c in dibitf alcobol, wime iu (4rong alco- 
*llol. Chiellv of vegetable ori(;in. Very ricli in inrlMin. 

1. AllmniiimtcH. I*rii(hii-t'< <>f tlu- netion of alkalies on nIbutniuM. 
Sliglilly Huluble tn water, easily soluble in alkalieit. 

5. Aeid albui»ini>. I'roduein ui' the iictiun of »cid« nu nlbiimina. 
Sohibk- in very dilute acids and alknlies. Syntouin, etc. 

Ij. Coii}rtilHtcct album ill.-. I'l-citeid subT-t^niiv." (ini^uliiliil by ibe 
iwHioii oi' liwil or enzynu'c. Fibrin, paru-<«*ein. etc 
Gkout II. Ciini|H>un<l prviteld.- oinii[>osiii nC nmleniiles wbich consUt 
of iin nlbunitii gnmp (ft,) jilii" imiitlier grouji, ii«ii«lly of h mwi- 
proteid nature, 

1. (ilyeo-prDlridH, », |)Iuh n mrlmhvdmle gruii]). Mucin, etc 

2. Htemoglobins. a, plus a oolorinf^-nialler };ruup, 

3. Nueleo-albn mills, «, pluw a nut^leiii yrou]), 

4. CiLMiiiw. Tbc^' conliiiii no tnie nnelcin ^roup. With rrnuet 
they jfive n eha met eristic eonpiltiliiui rtsielton. Tliey arc not magulatwl 
by liml like iilbuiniu nor by eiin^i'nie fte1ir>n like libnn. Milk (ii.-<>ia, 
li^umin, ete. 

5. Xiu'k-ina. a, plus a nuclein acid group. 

6. Ainyloi<l». 
GRorp III. Albuminniibi. 

«, Fmnie-work substancee. 

1. Kcnitin*. ("oiu'tiluenta of honi. .\ttai'kc<l wilb difiicidty 
pcpiiin and ti7*pBiii. Tliey uonluin much eulphur and yield niueh 
tyrosin. 

2. Elnntins, ronslitiionta of elastic tii«Aiip. They contain leas sul 
pluir !«ul yield lew^ tyrnsiii. 

;i. Ciilhit;>iiN, Constituent* of conneelive tWne, bone, mid eHrtilajj*-. 
Tliw <v.nlain ver^- little ^^lphu^, and yirld no aronmtic aniido-acidii. 
<ieliitin, isiiiglaw, cbiiiidrin, iv)]|ii|ri.>n, etc. 

A. AlbuniosiS' and Peptono^^. Produets of hydmlytie i>pHttin^ of 
variou.- pmteid wub^Iance-. Their niol(vule.> are much t^maller tluin 
thojiie of the iilbuniiu*!. 

0. Kimymw. Hodiec which wIicti present in v«a^- Kniatl amounts hnve _ 
the pmperty of bniikiiiK up verj- laiye amounU of certain other siib4 
BtiHiif", incliidina proli-idf, fal«, fitarclies. rte. 

The iilbuniin." urff not pn-cipihilwl liv :ilka)ine earlxinatcs. eommoD 
sail, I'r dilute n<-ids, Iml lliej- are eoiiKnkited by being henled to t>r>^- 
73° C. Casein, leniuuin, ivniphitin, -yiiionin. imd iilbuniiiinU*. oil tbo 
conlrarj", iirv mrt eoagulablo by Iimi. but arc prpeipiijitcd by oorauion 
salt, Bixliiim noitHle, and tri^Klium phosplmte. The albnnioses nre 



CONTENTS. 13 

ftam 

yi^It-A^tgt-niea, 692. Birth-rates, 6U3. Death-nitee, 695. Infiuence of sex, 

-g95- InSuence of age, 695. Influence of race, 696. Influence of demutj, 

ggl. Week!; cle«th-ntieH, etc., 698. Zymotic death-rate, 698. Infantile 

^tt^— aite, 698. High and low death-rates, 700. Correction of dealh-rateB, 

■]0\. <^la<«ilfication of causes of death, 702. Ueginlrstion of sickneas, 702. 

\)uI>-%£oa of life, 703. Probable duration of life, 703. Mean duration of 

lile,'''03. Expecladon of life, 703. Life tables, 704. 

CHAPTER XV. 

PESSOSAL HYGIENE 706 

(1. C*B£oF thbPebion. Baths 706 

\1 RBTiULATioN OF THE Diet 708 

13. RetT AN'D Rrcrkation ". 708 

f i Phwical Exercise 709 

Effedaof ai^tive exereine, 709. Circulation and respiration, 709. 8kin, 710. 
Nervous sjglein, 710. Digentive apparatuH, 711. Kidneys, 711, ESect of 
eierciiw on weight, 711. Amount of exereine required, 712. Kinds of exer- 
ctBc, 713. Golf, 713. Wheeling, 714. Tennis, etc., 714. Rowing, 714. 

is, tlOTHlNO 714 

Cojnr, 714. Texture, 714. Heal conductivity, 715. Hygroscopicity, 716. 
Materials, 715. Wool, 716. Slk, 717. Cotton, 718. Linen, 719. Rubber, 
719. Leather, 720. Fur, 720. Pell, 720. Adulteration of clothing, 720. 
dietnicnl analyms, 721. Microscopical examination, 721. Poiaonoug dyes, 
721. Selection of dolhing, 722. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

V.ACaSATION AND OTHER PREVENTIVE INOCUL.iTroNS 724 

Viccinilion, 724. Other preventive inoculations, 720. Asiatic cholera, 729. 
Babonic plague, 729. Diphtheria, 731. Typhoid fever, 731. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

QFARANTINE 732 

Qutrantine, 732. Law of 1893, 734. Interstate quarantine, 738. State quar- 
antine, 738. Sanitary cordon, 740. Municipal quarantine, 740. Qunps of 
detention, 741. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD 742 

Earth burial, 742. Sites for cemeteries, 744. Cremation, 744. History of 
modem cremation, 746. 



f 




20 FOODS. 

Qbovp I. Albimiinniis Ixxlioi oWely rclatHl to egg nibiimin. 

• 1. AlbtimiiK. Stltible in water, Gm; allmtuiR, scnim albumin, 

ladulbiimin, inuM-li' nlbnmii), vo^i-tjibli' nUiiiiiiiii, 

'2. (iliibiilins. lii>(>IitbU' in wuit^'r, •'iliiblc in (illiite nit «)intion. 
K)fg ^lobulii) (vitelliii), seniDi globulin, liictii^lobiiHD, Cibrino^oD, mro- 
»iu, vigctabk: glubiilin. 

3. PniteiiiB soluble in almhol. Suluttnni-cs very silighdy sniubic in 
water nml ^all MitiilionH, Miltibli- in ilibilv aU-oliol, Mime in Mrcing «lco- 
bol. C'liifily (if vcpetiiblo origin. A'erv ricJi in carlton. 

-I. Albuininalr>.>^ PnHltK-t.< of tbc nvtion of nlkiilivs uii filbuminfi. 
Sli}^Itlly Hilubk- in w:iU^r, t^ly soluble in alkalies. 

5. Arid iilbuniin.->. Pmduct» nl' tlic action of iicidti ou albiHoiDs. 
Soltibk- iu very dilute nt-idn und nikidii-n. Syntonin, fic. 

U. C'oa^iiliit«<l nlliiiiiiin.". I'rott-id t^iil>.'>tJin<x'H emkgiiLitfd by tltC 
action ofbi-nl i>r i-nnymei;, Fibrin, iianwa^in, etc. 
UkuI'1' II. ConiiHiuml jinilvitl.i i,iomi|kisc<I mI' nioli-iTnlex whii^i ooiubt 
of tm iilbiiiilin (.-roup (a,) plus unolbcr group, iikuiiHv of a non- 
|(i»teiil oabin.'. 

1. (tlyen-proteidf*. a, plus u etirliolmlnito ;;n»ip. Muoiii^ «tc. 

2. lIiemonliibinH, a, pins a wliirinnHnatUT grtm]t. 

3. Niioli-o-ullinminK. «, pliix » niivlein jn»np. 

4. CnwiQS. Tlie>' contain uo true nuclein proup. Witb renitpt 
tlioy give n cbiim<'tfriHtic <-o]i^'nIiilion nwtion. Tlicy iir*' not ci>;iniilnte<I 
by beat like aibiiniin nor by ciiin-nic action like fibrin. Milk cuiiein, 
tegumin, cl<>. 

•*). NiK-leins. (I, phL< a nuclein ucid ^roup. 

6. Amyloids. 
Ckoi-1' III. Albuminoids. 

n, PraniP-work i^uliKtdnivs. 

1. Kci-iilin^ Constitui'nts of Kom. Attackc<1 with difficulty b; 
pepc^in and tryivin. Tliiy contain much i^ulphur and yit-I<l much: 
h'i\K>in. 

2. Elaptinc, Conrtiinwitj* of elmtic tiiisue. Tbcy (<unt«iii less eiil 
phnr and yield less tynisin. 

3. Collnp-ns*. ConHiimcntt* of ooumrlive tiwiie, bone, »nd earti1iif!&^ 
Th«y iiintain ven" little Mdphur, and yield no aromatic aniido-acitk, 
Ovlutiil, i-Hinplftftfl, ehondrin, collagen, etc, 

i. AlbunioHw nn<l IVploni'.-. PriMliictf' of bydrolytie splittiup of 
VUrioHr" prrid'iii substance?;, llieir nioltviilnt ui'e nuicb KniulliT than 
those of tbe albumins. 

r, Kuzymets Bxlii* whidi when present in very small amount* Irnv 
the propeiiy of brrakinc up very larjn- lunountif of cerlain otiier su' 
Ftiinci'-i. including protfiil", fiits, «t.'iri'lie«, etc. 

Tbe albumins ar» not pnvipilaKHl by alkaline (ariioniiK*', eonimnn 
salt, ur dibite acids but tbcy arr- 4iin|;iiliitcd by Iwinp lii«ted lo ti5°- 
7.1° C. CaBfin, Iqnumin, ('onglulin, cynlonin, and albiiminattB, on the 
contniri', arc iml eoagtilablo by b«it, but are pnt-ipitated by ooiumoi 
nalt, iMKlium acetate, and trinodinm jilioHpltatc. Tlic idbiimo«^ 




PRACTICAL HYGIE:N"E. 



CHAPTER I. 



FOODS. 



Section i. OENXRAL COKSIDERATIOKS. 



Iv 



i.l 



Aade 



takt 



the 



*"0(»DS D»ay Ite *inl l-^ uiL-ludi? >\i:-iylhinj: takt-n inUi the sjstcm 
capablv of iK-ing utilizt^^ iliirctly i>r imliui-tlj- In liiitlil iip iiiirnwl 
Structure, repair waste, or produce energy In any form, but in the 
cuninioii ncHvpUtioTi of the U-rm (lii-y int liido nnly thn^ Hiil>>i|iini-v.'« 
which c»n Ite axidir^d in the svidcin, thus cxchi<lini; wiiUt aud iiir, 
wtllioiit whiirh thr riini-liiin.-> of the hinly can not be performed, Diet 
ia a Dii.xttirc of food mntcriuliS of vnriixu kiud:« bubitiuilly tiikcu iu Huvb 
<)itaiiiity 118 \» tmciicd Ut tnttintiiin or inipmvG the conditioQ of tlie t>y»tem. 



The Nutritive Vatoe of Foods. 



(The potcntinl dierj;;}' of fotnl i-i uKtiHunil by tlic oinonTit of Imit 
irhii-li can bi- ol>t»ined by it^ cunnplf-td ''ombn^ition, iiud in exprc»ied in 
ooitH of h«it or calories, Tlie iimount of fiiiTgj- roijiiin^il In niirx' the 
tcmiK'nitnn; of 1 kil(i);!nim of whUt 1^ (_'. U known its a liir^c wdorie ; 
thai required to rsise the tetnperiinire of 1 gr.vm to the Mime extent 
U kiiiiwu iL" A ^niall culnrie; thuK, I litrgc uilun« lyjuiils 1000 Mnall 
calorics. When ihc term is uncii without qiiulili cation, large wiloriei 
are understood. TIjese heat nnil<* eitrn-siKind In -I'i.*).!) unitH of work ; 
tluil is til «iy, llii'wiime nmnnnt of energy rcqiiirx'*! tn mise the temixra- 
ture of the given weight of water 1 " C. in iiul^cient tn raise 4"2.')..'i 
tinu^ the weight one nK-ler. The iinitKinl of wi>rk <lniie is vxpref«ed 
iu kilogram -meters. 
I^K The hent unit I'f the Kngli.-Ii "Vsteiii i.i the nnunnit of vnen.'^' rcpiireil 
l^tf) rui.-^- the (ein|icretiire of ii (M>nnd of water 1 '' F., iind its mechnnieal 
equivalent is 772 iinite of work : tliiit in to Siiy, tJie siinii- iinmiint nf 
enei^" will mi*' 772 [loiiod^ one t'wiU Aecjrding to the Kn^di^h 
method, work done is exprf*«(Hl in foot tons nither thiin in foot 
ponndt. 

The cnlorimetric valuwt of diflerent food nuiterials express al--«> iW-ir 
S 17 




FOODS. 

physiological values ai- nutritnent Rubn«r' determined tlie colon- 
metric viilue of Hw pnixinuitv princijiU* il-> fiilloww: 

Onv Jtmii n( pniUrlilH = 4.1 tiiliirie*. 

One gnun of (al 9.3 " 

III tlie itystem, tlie ruHxitiytlrat*-'' unl fiitii iire hiinicd Mnnplciely u 
carlxHiic acid and water, hut tbe proloids laive a ri'[-idue of urea in<!tipn- 
hk' of M'tW fiirllii-r oxidation. It i.-< i^M iiivitiHl ihiil the |>liysii>|«^k'!d 
value of the protuida aversf^ only about 75 per cent, of llieir uilari- 
metno value. 

The culorim(4ric valtu- of difft-rent foods of the wvcnil cliissee m 
not to be understood iis beiim* exarily tin- Mime. Thii-', two kiii<l.« of 
KUgur or two kiini.-« nf fut, or twn kinds of {irot<.-i<) liavc not cxnctly tlip 
flune calorinjotrio value*, and tlie figures aiH>ve given are to Iw ninler- 
stoud only ils Giir Average:^ UulnitT' liiv< dettqiuiued by iM*tuid ex-' 
iwrtnientfltion the relative ctdoriiiKiric valuer' of certain fo<id materials, 
and ba^ nlmwn that 10(1 (imiiiH of liil uiv fi|invaleiU loi^oof f-yntoiiin, 
or 2.12 i}f ^tnri-li, ■>r 'I'M of wuic supir. or 'li'.i >\i' mnsclf filicr. or 25(1 of 
grape MUgar. In olLer words, these several anunuita of food material are 
ii^Kiynaiiiic*. 

Amoimt of Food Necessary. 

For the nuiiiitenaiiee of a ]mi|K'r degn-e of henltli aud ritTcngtIi. lhi> 
individual mu.-4i ingest nu atiiount of fixKl Hillidejit to meet the daily 
low of nitrogen ami mrhon. Thiw niti^l necc^ssinly vary awnnling to 
<;in:iimntjinctft, and lu-ncc no rule ouii lie hiiil <lri«ii to fit all vases. Tlie 
Ixvt tliiit "in be done ic to make eeJliiin p^-neral ni!f:« iHWrtl on tlic 
anioimt of work perfurmed. f(ir the greater the amount of work done, 
tJ)i- gn^ler tliv unioiinl of ((hhI rcijiiiri-d lo mcci the nt^ivsntary e<iniiuni|f 
tion of fuel and to refxiir tlie Iif^ue?;. WhiTi jH-rlornnng hiiivy labor, 
tJw naiiiraJly ini-rt^wc*! fli-.-in- for fiKxl is shown i«rlieularly in tbe 
diiftrtion of fats, and Kecondarily of proteicbi. 

It ha.1 been entinuited b\- \*<)it, ai^er much experimentation and from 
voluminous ilati, that a nuni wfighiiig 70 to 75 kilos (154 to 1(>5 
pound»<) and workini; iit m<i<lfraU-ly hani lat»or !l t^i 10 Iioui-p a day 
rwiuirw 1 IH grnnis of pntteids, W i>f liil. atwi 500 of earbohyd rales. 
This is etjuivalent to .'tOfi4,B oalories, and if n-gardwi fpsienilly lie tlio 
niowl ac<Himtc catinrnte obtiiinuble. Krom ^'oil'w and other Rgunc, a 
number of writers have emk^voretl to conptrtiet »ir«ni!ard dietariw for 
the varioufi iiuiditioiDt nf tmn- ■iibsisii-net-, rest, and the performaiiee of 
diftenenl amountii of daily la))or, the i:ubci''tcni.v dii-l lieJng peekonetl ait 
suffieie-nt only for the inliTiin] work of the body in the abwiliitcly (xiMiivo 
rou<l!lion, and that lor n-fit an moeting tJie rvtiuiremiiiti) of very gentle 
exercise. 

Thi- fim.'ititwiit'* of tlie sljuHhini ilici^ arc pn^iienhed in the follow- 
ing prci]M>rtJom> ; For each pirt of iin>tci<l>^, two-thinl;^ of a {mrl of fal, 

' I^brbiK-li lioi' lIvKiwnf. UliiNc t»00, p. 438. 
• Ibidem, IS 430. 




COMPOSITION OF FOODS. 19 

Qiree aod one-sixth parts of carbobydratcs, and one-fonr(li of a part of 
nuneral matter. The proportion of 1 part of nitrogen to 15 of carbon 
akouid be maintained as nearly a^ poHsible. Id all dietaries it is 
DBcesasry to have the ditTerent constituents properly proportioned, and 
in sddition to vary from day to day the articles belonging to the same 
clfflaes, since otherwise they will become dista.'itefnl. The question of 
DDtritive value, while paramount, is not all, for taste and variety of 
livor are important in a high degree, and the palate must be 
flittered. 

Knowing the composition of various food materials, the nutritive 
ralae of a given weight, and problems of supplying given amounts of 
fnlaii, lats, and carbohydrates from means at hand can be worked 
out mathematically. 

OompoBition of Foods. 

The constituents of food materials are partly organic and partly in- 
wganic. The oi^nic constituents include proteids, fats, carbohydrates, 
and organic acids ; the inorganic include water and mineral salts. 

Proteids. — The proteids are the most important constituents of both 
animal and vegetable foods, and their presence is necessary for the 
^Mwing on of all the phenomena of life. They are very complex 
colloid substances composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and 
sdphur, possessing common properties and connecteil in very close 
Soeiic relationship. They are divided into animal proteids and vege- 
*^le proteids, but between the members of the one class and those of 
(tie other there are no important chemical differences, and they are 
•bout equal in nutritive value. Some of the vegetable proteids are not 
**llwds, for according to Schmiedebei^, Weyl, Maschka, and others, 
tliey are found in crystalline form in the tissues of certain plants, and 
"Wobbly m the bean, pea, lentil, and various nuts. 

Proteids when completely split up by acids yield as end products 
•JBmonia, nitrogen, ot^nic ba^es, and amido acids. They are never 
^^■ooiptetely absent from animal and vegetable tissues, but their amount 
'« different substances is very widely variable, some foods being very 
•ich in them, while in others they exist only in traces. 

Ingested in great excess of the needs of the system, they are likely 
*"> cause general disturbance, diarrhrea and albuminuria, while a diet 
■*im which they arc practically excluded will caufe nipid loss of 
strength, anseniia, great prostration, and greatly diminished resistance 
tv invasion by specific disea-ses, especially tul)erculosis and pneumonia. 

The animal proteids are more rapidly dipe^ted than the vegptahio 
proteids, some of which are lately wast«l throu;;li imjx;rfect digestion. 
TT» pn)tei<ls, whatever their source, yield in the main the same prod- 
•W* of digestion, and consequently nrmy rejilace each otlier in the 
iet. 

The most complete classification of proteids is that of Wroblewski,' 
W whom they are divided into three groujw as follows : 

*Beriubte der deultuben cfaemiscbeD UesellHchart, 1397, 30, pp. 3045, 3052. 



Gnocp I. Albuminoits boOies cIospIj- related to egg albamiu. 

I, Atlmniinn. SilnUlv in water. K^n; iilliiimin, oonim albunuD, 
lac1:ilbiiiiiiii, tiui><-k- ulKiiiiiin, re^^'table a]])iiiiiiu. 

'2. <tl(ihtiUiH. liiwikiblc in wuur, Miliilile in lUliitt- nalt soliitioti. 
Kjtff t^liiliiiliii (^vitellin), ficrntn j^lubiilin, liictuglobuliii, fibrioogvn, iiijo- 
siu, vejtetabli- (rlolinlm. 

.1. I'liitcitls ^ajliihlo in iilciihiil. SiibetanW-i- veri" sli^ihllj' ni)bibK' iii 
water anil Kitt filiitioni^, Jinliiblt- in ilihite jili-ohol, wmie iu stmiin aloo- 
bcil. <'iii<'liy iif vi'gfiablv origin. Vitv rJcb in cnrbon. 

4. Albuminates. IVxlnrt^ of tlic st-tioii of alkalies uu nlbumiiw. 
SligiitJy .'"oliibk' in wutiT, ta.-iily soluble in alknlicw. 

b. Acid a1bumin^. I'roduelf of iIk' action of aeids ua ulbiuiun*. 
Soluble in vcrv diliiic :idd> aixl alkalies. Synionin. el»". 

tl. Cons^lutcd allmminA. l'rrttw<I .lubhtaiicest <<ou|;n]at«l by Um 
action of Ileal i>r cnzyTHw. Fibrin, |iara-»'UNi'in. etc, 
Oliorp II. C'u[n])ound |in>tfid^ <;i)ni|)oe(Hl of mi)l('t;ulf)f wliii-b oint^ist 
of an nll)nniin );nHip {a,) jihiif iiiiot1ii.T groti|), tiBiially (if a noii- 
jirotud luitinv. 

1. <!Jlyeo-(»rotW(lx. n, phw n nirlKvliydmtv gnnip, Mudn, rt«. 

2. IlKmoglobini^ a^ f\an a coliirinK-malter t;r(>u|i. 

3. Xui-li<<)-ulbumin». (/, jiIuh a inielciii ^ii>u|>. 

4. Cawans. They wntnin no iruc andetn pronii. With rennet 
they give a elmmclcriHlic t-nngnlalion i\fieiion. Tbey an' not foiiipilatcd 
by l)«it like albumin Dor by enzyme action like tibriii. Milk «i»eiR, 
legiiQiin, flte. 

■>. Nii(']c!ii>^ a, lAus u uuclciu at'id group. 
a. Amyloids. 
Gnori- III, Albiiminoidit. 
a, Frame-work subHtanees. 

1. Ki-nitinii. C'onMitiient^ of Iioni. Attacked witb diffieidty by 
pejw^in and tr\'pein. Tbej- contain nuK-h Bulpliur and yield muoh | 
lyninin. 

2. EInstins. Constituents of elastic tissue. They omlain lens iful- 
phur and yiHd le^ tymi^in, 

3. C^llngeuK. Coni-titupntii of ronnedive tissue, bono, and cartibgr. 
Tliey ciintain very litlU? r-ulpluir, and yield no «n>nmtic ainiilo-aeiilj*. 
<iflatin, isinpliLv:. diundrin, eullngcn, etc. 

f). Albumo§a^ and Pe|HoneK. PdhIucIx of bydmlytici »}diltin(c «if 
vurii)nj' prot<'id Mnbiitim(«H. Their molecules are mucli smulli-r llian 
tboAe nf the nibuniinpi. 

e. KnKvmi--. [tiHlic_i wlnrli wlicn prenenl in von' MiMill 1lmo^l^l^ have 
the pmpmv "f briitkini; iiji very laiye Hni<itinti< »f ix-n.iiii otbiT *iiw- 
staiice-", im-lndin^ protriiU, 1:it". vtarc-biw, ele. 

The :d1iiiinin» urff not precipitatwl by alkaline Hirlwun' 

salt, fir <lilute oirid.", bni they nn- iimpnlntefl bv Ik ' ' 

73* C. Casein, k-pniiiin, mnptntin. ^ivntonin. am! 
oontrary. ari' not eoa^nlable by hiflt, but arc preeii 
Bah, Hodiuiu iiu'tiilo, luid triiKNliuin ]iho(i]i)iale. 




COMPOSITION OF FOODS. 21 

wiifely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, and are found 
la^y in the cereals. In the animal kingdom, diey are intermediate 
products of the action of pepsin on ordinarj' protcids, becoming even- 
tally converted to peptones. The eollagens sire very rich in nitrc^u, 
bat liave an inferior nutritive value. Gelatin, for instance, contains 
17-lS per cent., while the albumins contain but 16. 

hti. — The feta are compounds of the triatomic alcohol, glycerin, 
with fetty acid-s, mainly stearic, palmitic, and oleic. These several 
compounds are known as stearin, palmitin, and olein. The two first 
meDtioned ure solids at nsuul temi>eratures, while olein is a liquid. 
Most fats are combinations of two or all of these substances, and some, 
as, for example, butter, contain additional glycerides in small amount. 
Stearin and palmitin being solids, and olein liquid, the consistency of 
B fet is dependent upon the proportions in which these substances are 
present. Stearin is a component of most animal fats, but never is 
found in v^etable fats. The chief constituent of animal fiita is pal- 
mitin, and this occurs also in nearly all vegetable fats. Olein exists 
in both. Butyrin, caprin, oiproin, and caprylia are glycerides of 
wktile fatty acids present in the fat of milk. 

Fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and contain no nitro- 
pn. The hydrogen and oxygen are not present in the proportions in 
which they exLst m water and in carbohydnitcs, the oxygen being de- 
Scittit, 

-^ taken in food, fats are chiefly in the form of neutral substances, 
but more or less free fatty acid is always present, and in some foods 
which have been kept for a time, particularly in well-ri[»ene<l cheese, 
ratty acids may be present ui a free state in quite Ini^ proportion. 

The fats play an important part in the maintenance of animal heat 
^ mechanical energy. When hard labor is being performed, an excess 
of kt b instinctively taken. 

Carbohydrates. — The carbohydrates include the starches, sugars, 
Md cellulose. 

The StarcheB, though presenting verj' diSerrnt appearances under 
'ne microscope according to source, are of ctjual value as fotids, and 
lave the same composition. Starch is insoluble iu water, but, heated 
with it to 72° C, the cells swell and burst, and produce a sort of 
niuciiage. Heated with dilute mineral acids, it is converted into dex- 
tiwe. Subjected to the action of diastase, it is converted into maltose 

Starch is found almost exclusively in vegctjiblc cells. It forms the 
chief part of the seeds of the cereals and of the dried residue of certain 
flther vegetable pro<lucts, such a-i potatoes. A form of starch known 
&< animal starch or glycogen is found in thciivcr and muscles, and also 
la mme of the mollusca. Dextrin is an artificial prraluct formed from 
starch by the action of ferments or of dilute acids an<l heat. 

The Sngan are of v^etable and animal origin, and include the 
following : 

1. Sucrose, cane sugar. A di.saccharid. From sugar cane, sorghum, 
•ngar maple, sugar beet, and some other vegetable sources. Insoluble 



22 



FOODS. 



tn Mrnni; alcohol, (Iocs not n^ltivr rapper ; not dir(<rtly rormcntuble. 
Biiilcd wiiti liihilp acids, is converted to invert sugsir, a mixture- of 
d<-xtr<i;M- mui litvtilimu 

2. Dfxtroee, glueow, grape Aii^r. A momuopdiarid. Found b 
many fniirs and flowers. Forim-d from wine fliignr, nialtoAC, nUirvli, 
und (IomHii hy boiling witii diliile m'idc. In tlie prawncc of tk-oom- 
p>■t^Iug pniuiclrt, "iplitH intii two molwule;- iif Initio add. Fenueatti 
Willi jxaist, .■^I»liI^ intii iiUtiliol iind (tirljonii- uciil. 

8. Maltose, malt eu{;;nr. A disaccharid. (Two molecules of dex- 
trose-) Foniied from starch hy the iictinn of illii^ii.ttf. 

A. IjKviiliH^e, fi'Liit cng:!^ A moiicnratx^'hantl. Found iu honey and 
various fruits. Uotaic-i the my *if' iK)l:iri)fiil Ii(:Iit to tJie left. IXk« 
not limn crystiil-s. iMinierie with d^^^xlmw. 

d, Lartosp, milk sugar. A disaccliarid. (DcxtrrMe and galactose.) 
Found only in milk, [tohitvi,'^ like (ifxtn>s<r. 

6. Oalact«>pte. A nion'iHiecliiirid. FoniiGil from lactose hy boiling 
with dilute mineral aeids. 

7. Ino^itr, uniH.-le sugar, phuseomannite. Found in certain animal 
tissues, as the heart's muscle, and in eertain plants, a.i )>cn£i, Immw, and 
grajHt*. Hai* no rotsiton- ]K>wer, dftes not rrdiicc co|i]N.'r, and i* not fer- 
nientublf. It o»ntiiins the Ix-nncne ring, and hcacv is not a tnie sii|{ar. 
Ill the pixvii-nee of dwoinjioj-iiig proleids, it ic eonvcrtctl into Inetit* imd 
butyric acids. 

OelluloBe.-—^ 'Hhiliisc, while of value nn a fnml for horhivoni, hai> no 
nutritive value lor man. It i" i-onverted to dcxtruw by boiling with 
dilute Nulphui'i<- acid. 

Pectin. — IV-tiu t" si >-nl*tmi»T not nn^-ommonly el.-is>ilutl bk a cup- 
bohydnito. It is cumimst'd of carbtin, bydivijjeii, imd osypen, l«il its 
prwiw comgwsiiiun ii> unknown. It i* fhuiid in various HtKhy f'niits 
un<l in root'', .ind 'n^ bcliovcd to be fonni-d from pLvtoec by the uctioo 
«f vep'trtble Ill-id--". It is known al«> as vejfetahle' jelly. 

Pectose. — IWtose i^ ini insoluble fuhjstnmv found in nnripe fruits 
and nml- : an earlier stage of |>ei_tin. 

Thccarbohyilnitw play an inijMirlant imrt in the niiiinicnniH'e <if 
hcBt and the production of force. Tlurv le^<H'ii tlic niiil of (iit and 
frmn fiilty ti.tMii-. Kxeessivc inp'^tion inlerili-es with the nii-tiimor- 
phui'is of niln>Kvnous tissue, cjuistk dc|Mi»jlii)n of liit in (■X<'es'j', anil is 
likely to produce di^-slive difitiirliances. Deprivation for a lime can 
be borne, provided tlie ^stcm nreivt^ Millicinit fatty food, but not 
otherwise. 

Or^nic Acids. — 'Hie orgiuiiv aciiU exii«t in f<M>dn either in the ftrc 
state or in combination as suits. In the syotcin tbc^- are convcrtKl to 
rarbonati's, whieli vxervli^ a most imjMiriant inliut'iice in conlrolliug 
tile alkulliiity of the hlooti and other Hiiithi. Deprix'ation IitwU to a 
peeuliar disturbance of the system resulting in wurvy. They incliule 
mitlir, itectic, Im-tii-, oxalic, citric, and ttirUirii' acids. Mnlie noid is a 
cnnt'tituent of opplcs, pciu-v, .ind i^oinc other fniit«. Acetic iiciii is llie 
Visciitiul elvnioiit of viuc^r. Oxalic acid is Ibund iu considemble 



ASIMAL FOODS: XEAT8, FISH, EQCS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS. 23 

imoonts in spinach, tomatoes, strawberries, sorrel, and rhubarb. Lactic 
Kid 19 present in fresh meats and in milk. The two most important 
uds are citric and tartaric. The former is found in oranges, lemons, 
HioeH, and other fruiti ; the latter largely ia grapes. 

Not all vegetables oontain the&e acids, and, therefore, not all have 
■Dtiscori>utic properties. Potatoes, cabbage, and roots are very effici- 
€Dt la this respect, while peas and beans are notable examples to the 
voatraiy. 

Inorganic Bolts. — The important inorganic salts taken into the 
mtem with food include sodium and potassium chlorides, sodium, 
potasttium, magnesium and calcium phosphates, and conipouuds of iron. 
Hw )ialphates are of minor importance and are ingested in only small 
imouDts. The sulphur essential to growth is taken into the system in 
coml>iiiation in the proteids. The chlorides keep the globulins of the 
blood and other fluids of the body in solution, and are the source of the 
hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice. The phosphates are very essential 
to the growth of bone and to the nervous system, and iron is needed for 
the hzoK^Iobin of the blood. Deficiency of calcium and magne^iiun 
Baits leads to rickets and other abnormal conditions. 



Section 2. ANIMAL FOODS: HEATS, FISH, EGOS, 
AXD UZAT PRODUCTS. 

Tlie foods of animal origm used by man include the flesh and various 
organs of the herbivora and swine, domestic and wild fowl, (^gs, fish 
and shellfish, milk and milk products. The flesh of all carnivorous 
animals except fish is unpalatable, and, therefore, undesirable as food, 
thoQuh under ^itress of circumstances it may be borne. Thus, during 
thesiqie of Paris, about 5,000 cata and 1,200 di^ are said to have 
hwn eaten when the food supply had become «) meagre that anything 
in the form of flehh was iiccoptalde. In Germany, acconling to a cora- 
munrration of Cousul-General Guenther to the State Dcpiirtment at 
Washington, under date of May 26, 1900, the statistical year-l)ook 
shows t^t, on account of the high price of other meats, not only hori^e*, 
but also di^ are much used as food. At Breslau, Chemnitz, Dresden, 
Leipzig, Zwickau, and other places, dogs are slaughtered extenaivcly 
ibrthis purpose and r^;ularly inspected. 

Pirl' reports that in Saxony during 1894, 295 ; in 1895, 388 ; in 
I8flG, 399; and in 1897, 474 dogs were slaughtered and inspectetl. 
In Dessau, between 1893 and 1898, the number avcraf^l 251 yearlv, 
and in-ipm-tion shnwal that one in 202 was trichinous. According 
to Tempcl,' of 289 killed at Chemnitz during 1897, 1.391 per wnt., 
and of 147 killed during the first half of the year 1898, 2.04 per 
cent, were found to be trichinous. The meat \h eaten chiefly in the 
roasted state, but also, in many parts of Saxony, mw, but highly sea- 

' Zeitochrifl fur Fleixch- und Milchhygiene, X., No. 1, 
•IMdom, IX, Nal. 



24 FOODS. 

Boncd. The same animals are commonly eaten by the Chinese, and the 
Canada lynx aod the skunk are rated as delicacies by the Nordi Ameri- 
COD IndiaDH. 

HEATS. 

The value of meat as food depends upon the presence of proteids, 
fat, and mineral salts. The nitrogenous extractive matters (creatin, 
etc.), sometimes culled " meat bases," formed by cleavage of tjje pro- 
teids, give flavor, but have little value as foods. The carbohydrates 
play btit an insignificant part, being present chiefly as muscle sugar and 
U> only a very small extent. All meat, however lean, contains fat, some 
of whicli is visible and some indistinguishable from the muscle fibres by 
which it is surrounded. The visible fat varies widely in amount. 
Very fat beef may contain considerably more than a quarter of its 
weight of visible fat, and &t pork meat more than a half, while chicken 
and veal coiitjiiu comparatively little. 

'i'he content of water varies verj- widely and in general may be said 
to Iw govcnitti by the richness in fiit, for, while the proteids are 
fairly »iiistunt in amoimt, the remainder is almost wholly water and 
fat, and the greater the amount of the one, the less the amount of 
the other. The less f»t a niait contains, the \e»s, therefore, its relative 
nutritive value. 

Di^Btibility. — While the amount of nutriment contained in meats 
chiefly determines their fo<id value, the latter is to no inconsiderable 
extent dependent u]K>n the ability of the ulinientan>- tract to digest and 
ithsorh them, ttastric digestion is by no mc-.ms to be accepted as a 
im'iisHn' of the tnic digestibility of a i'ltoA, and the same is tnie of the 
n-sults of artificial Inborsitort- cxjK'rinients ; hence many of the accepted 
statements l)«iring t>n this subject, l>asc<:l ujxin the oft-quoted experi- 
ments OH .Vh'xis St. Martin and n|Kin test-tube obser\-ations, may be 
wholly disrvysinled, 

Kaw meat is digestiil nion' «isily, hut less ccmipletely, than that 
which hjis nndcnpine the jinHi-ss of ttmking. and masted meat is more 
e^iniplctcly dijn-stcil than tluu which has Ixvn ImuIwI, Fat meats, as 
l>e<'f and iiiutlon, and (■sjHH-ially jtork. iwiniix' nwm' time for d^re^tion 
lluin th<ts<' which, like cbickon and vesd. contain but little fiit. In 
p'nenil. it may In- :«til lluit nittits ar^' af*iniilaled nioiv easily than vege- 
tabh- timils, 

FlaTOr. — The flavor of meats dci>ciuls iar^ly ujx^n the nature and 
amounts of iiitnigiHious extrjietivt-i which tlivy (Mutain. and is greatly 
nuHiilic*! by the ivndition of (he aninud «lh-n killiil. its age, sex, and 
the cliaraeier of its fo.id. TIm' hiirh flavor of hinU and game is due to 
the rit-hncss in extnictivts. whih- in the i-«sc of nh'-.its iK^cient in these 
sulte.taiM><s. as, tor example, mutton and (>i>rk. the flavor is due largely 
U> ihcir ivut.-iimxi fits. Most nnwt^ art- inipT\>Vf'd in flavor by being 
kept for a lime, during which, s<lt lit ioii.il flavors due ui ilwrnipo- 
siiitw pi\>iUKis similar to tJn- cximcnvcts, arv- dcvoKijw.1. The meat 
of ^»ul^; uunuds is flavoretl h'v:^ higtily ihan tliat of adult^ and 



MEATS. 2& 

that of females than that of males, ibough in the case of the goo»4e 
this condition la reversed, and in that of swine no difference is ob- 
eemiAe. 

Asexualization by spaying or castration produces » fatter, more 
ttaia, and better flavore<l meat. Thus, the flesh of oxen is far pre- 
fetsble to tliat of bulls or cows, and tliat of capons and poulards to 
lIiU of cocks and hens. 

Texttire. — Whether a given meat b tough or tender depends ujmn 
the character of the walls of the muscle tubes and upon the amount of 
connective tissue present. The tube walls are thin and delicate, and 
tlie connective tissue is small in amount in the young and well-fed, but 
■3 llie animal becomes older or b made to work, the tubes thicken and 
become hard, the connective tissue increases in amount, the fat may 
dimioisb, and the result is a coarser flesh. Very young animals have 
1 Very watery, gelatinous, and flavorless flesh. 

The texture of meat undergoes very considerable change after 
slanghter. When freshly slaughtered, it is tender and juicy, but as 
Hpr mortis supervenes, it beoomeH hardened and tough. The stage 
of rigor b succeeded by the first stage of decom|K>sition, during which 
lactic acid b formed. This acta upon the connective tissue and causes 
softening and tenderness, and as the process of decomposition proceeds 
within proper hmits, increase of flavor is developed. 

ElTects of Cookilif . — When meat is cooketl, the connecti^'c tissue 
is Mftened, the bundles of fibrillie are loosened from each other, the 
alhumin in coagulated, flavors arc inii)rovcd and new ones devel"iK^, 
para.*iles and niicnuji^nism.^ are destroyed, and the whole mass is 
rendered more acceptable to the eye and imlate. In the process of 
routing or broiling, considerable shrinkage due to loss of water occurs. 
The he;it to which the meat is subjected should be sufficiently intense to 
produce speedy coagulation of the exterior and ]>revent the meat juices 
from becoming dried up. In order that the surface shall not tw buniod, 
the meat must be basted from time to time with hot melted fat, which 
forms a protective coating. The beat employed should be less intense 
with large jointa than with small ones, since before the heat can pene- 
trate well into the interior, the outer [Kirts will become burned. 

In boHing, the temperature of the water into which the meat is im- 
mersed \-aries according to the object sought. If a rich broth is de- 
sired, the meat b placed in cold water, wliicli then b heated gradually. 
During the heating process, the soluble albumins together with a por- 
tion of the salt« and the extraetiviw arc <lissiilvcd out. When the tem- 
perature reaches 1.14° F., the albumin bcfiius to coagulate, and aliove 
l*i(}°, the connective ti.isue is changed to gelatin and dissolved. The 
solution of certain of the constituents is assisted by the small amounts 
of lactic acid formed. 

If, on the other hand, it is desired to have the juices and flavoi-s re- 
tained within the mass, the mciit should be plunged into boiling water, 
which 4]uickly coagulates the albumins at the surface and causes thcnby 
the formation of a protective coating. After this is formed, the teni' 



26 FOODS. 

perature should be lowered to about 1 80° F., for otherwiae the meat be- 
com(3H tou^h, even to the center. The shrinlcage in meat that has been 
properly boiled amounte to from 20 to 40 per cent of its weight. 

In frying, the meat is dropped into very hot fat, aa lard or vegetable 
oil. wliich causes speedy coHgiilation of the surface, such as is brought 
about in the process of boiling, whereby all the flavors and juices are 
retjiined. It is essential that the fat be very hot, gioce otherwise it 
will i)enetnite the ti^ues and cause the meat t« become greasy and un- 
pa lit table. 

Ill Btewisg, the meat i» cut into small pieces and pkced in cold water, 
which then is heated slowly to about 180° F., at whicli temperature 
tlie whole b kept for several hourn. If heated above 180°, the meat 
becomes tough^ stringy, unpalatable, and of diminished digestibility. 

Oharacteriatica of Qood Meat. — Meat should have a uniform color, 
neither tibnurmiilly pale nor inclined Uy purplish. It should have little 
or no odor, and such as it has should give nn disagreeable impression 
siu'li iL-^ the sickly cada^'e^ic smell characteristic of diseased or decom- 
|Mtsiiig flesh. It should be firm and elastic, and should not pit nor crackle 
on pn.'.-'sure. On being handled, it should scarcely moisten the fingers, 
and with keeping, the exterior should become diy rather than wet. 
There should be no evidence whatever of the preseuce of parasites. 

Itcef has a bright red color and a marbled appearance, due to the 
prcs<'nct' of fat between the bimdles of muscular fibers. This marbling 
is much less apparent in the flesh of animals that have not been well 
ft<<l and of old cows and bulls. Bull meat is darker than that of oxen 
au<l cows, and is coarse, stringy, and of strong flavor, 

V«il is nuich jtidcr tlian beef and less firm to the touch, and coming 
from a very yoiuig animal, " bob-veal," it is flabby and waterj-, and its 
fat lias a tallowy apiKiinmiv. 

Mutton should lie of a dull-n-d color and firm to the touch. Its fat 
is white, sometimes vcllowisli. luul hard. 

I^inih is soniewliiit Ics.-' tirni to the touch and has a decidedly lighter 
color than nuittou. 

I'ork is much los,i firm to the tou<'h than beef and mutton, and its 
fat is i|iiin' M>ft in com]»!iris.in. 

IIoi-x- nu'jit, the use of whii-h is iiicniising rapidly abroad and to a 
much gn-iiter extent in ihis conutr)- than is cummouly l>elieved, is 
darker ;ind e.>:irs<'r rlian Int-f and (ni-s^is.-^'s a very difterent odor. The 
tat is yellow ;uid oily :nid has a nitlicr disifrrvi-ahlc wior. 

The tle>h of birds is not marbled like that of nianmiaK Tliat of 
wild fowl rhat feed on fish Iuls a strouj: flavor, which is not improved 
by kfrping, 

ComparatiTe Digestibility of Meats. — Beef is eommonly and eor- 
reelly r^'jpinleil as one of the ni'>st dii:(Stil>lc of uu-.its. bwi according to 
the ex|X'ricmv and ti'stimonv of m;niv victims ,if dvsjx'psia it is inferior 
in this res|Hfl to nnuion. I'oik is. without doubt, digested with 
gixtiter dirticulty than any mlier ine;ir, on atXMunt of itti high content 
wf &t. Tin.' eviilenw as to v«d is nn»st ivuflictiug, st>me holding that 



MEATS. 37 

it ia digested very easily, while others maintaiii the coDtrary view. 
Ceitiin it is that many perrons bear it very badly. The whit« meat 
of chickens, fowls, and turkey»<, is more delicate and is digested more 
aaiy than the dark meat, prohabty by reason of Its smaller amount 
of^ The flesh of ducks and geese is harder, richer, and more difti- 
cult of digestion. Gume birds are less &t than poultry and are often 
murh better borne. Their habits of life are unfavorable to the depo- 
wtion of much fet. Liver, kidneys, and hejirt are gcner^ly r^;arded 
u DDguitable as foods for persons with weak stomachs, but tripe and 
snetbreads are usually easily bonie. 

" Ktd He&t " and " White Heat." — The prohibition of red meats 
(beef, mutton, venison) to patients with gouty and rheumatic tendencies 
ditei tnim the time of Sydenham, whose dietetic rules allowed only 
the white meats (veal, goat, yoimg pig, chicken) and fish to such 
perwns. Today, many practitioners extend this prohibition to those 
with disease*) of the stomach, intestines, and kidneys, and various 
nenmses. The foundation of this prejudice against the red meats is the 
supposed presence in thera of a greater jjercentage of the nitrogenous 
eitractives (creatin, xanthin, guaniii, etc.), which are believed to exert 
injiirioos action in two ways : First, locally, by irritating the kidneys 
duriog the process of their elimination from the body ; and second, in 
^asesof impaired functional activity of the kidneys, by causing systemic 
intoxication. Unfortunately, however, for the stability of this belief, 
exact analysis has shown that the very small amounts of these sub- 
stances present are practically the same in both red and white meats, 
with the single exception of venison, which contains them not, as would 
be surmised, in highest percentage, but, in feet, in lowest. Further- 
more, the^e extractives are not eliminated as such, but as the uonnal ulti- 
mate product of metamorphosis, urea. It has been supposed, too, that 
the DOD-nitnigenous extractives (lactic, butyric, and acetic acids, etc) are 
present to a greater extent in red than in white meats and may cause 
ui^'turbiince ; but as a matter of fact, these are present in extremely 
small amounts in both red and white meat, and cannot possibly be 
reRanled a,H harmful, in view of the fact that ai»preciable amounts exert 
DO influenoe on the system. 

Compositioil of Heata. — In the following tables, showing the com- 
position of the edible portions of meats, tlie figures given are taken, 
tinlesw otherwise stated, from Bulletin Xo. 28 (revised edition) of the 
(Mrv r>f Experiment Stations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture : 
The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials.' 
' Qovemment Printing Office, Washinifton, 1899, 



28 



FOODS. 



BEEF. 



CuU . 




1^ 


■5 

1 


t 


.a 


111 


Cbuck, including Bhoulder. 


3 

1 
2 
4 
4 
2 


646 

73.8 
71.3 
68.3 
62.3 
63.2 


15.8 

22.3 

20.2 
19.6 
18.5 
17^ 


28.6 

3.9 

8.2 
11.9 
18.8 
29.0 


0.9 

0.8 
1.0 
0.9 
0.9 
0.9 


1495 
680 




720 

866 


fat 


1135 
1555 






13 

1 

U 

7 
2 


66.0 


19.2 


15.4 


0.9 

1.1" 

1.0 

1.0 

0.8 

1.0 

1.2"" 

1.0 

0.9 

0.8 

0.7 


1005 




75.8 
71.3 
62.7 
62.0 


22.2 
19.5 
18.5 
16.6 


1.4 

8.3 

18.0 

31.1 


470 

715 

1105 




1620 








21 


66.8 


19.0 


13.4 


920 


Flank, very lean 


3 
3 
S 
3 

2 
16 


70.7 
67.8 
60.2 
54.2 
34.7 


26.9 
20.B 
18.9 
17.1 
14.0 


3.3 
11.3 

21.0 
284 
61.8 


620 

865 

1240 

1615 




2445 




69.3 


19.6 


21.1 


0.9 
1.3 

1.0 

1.0 

0.9 

0.9 

1.0 " 

1.0 

1.0 

0.8 

0.8 

0.7 

1.0 

0.9 

0.7 

0.6 


1255 




3 

12 

32 

6 

3 

66 


70.8 
67.0 
60.6 
64,7 
49.7 
61.3 
60.0 
61.9 
42.2 
59.2 
(i5.7 
67.9 
65.5 
48.5 
45.9 


24.6 
19.7 

18.5 
17.6 
17.8 
19.0 
21.9 
18,9 
13.3 
16.2 
21.9 
19.6 
17.5 
15.0 
14.6 


3.7 
12.7 
20.2 
27.6 
32.3 


615 
900 




1190 




1490 




1695 








IP.l 
20.4 
18.6 
43.7 
24.4 


1156 




7 

21 

1 

6 

4 

6 

15 

9 

1 

35 

"2 

3 

i 


1270 
1130 




2100 




1330 








1.1 
12.0 

26.6 
36.6 
38.7 


455 




870 




14.50 

1780 


very fat 


1905 




57.0 
73.7 
69.0 
63.9 


17.8 
20.8 
20.2 
19.3 
17.2 


24.6 
5.0 
10.5 
16.7 
31.3 


0.9 
1.0 
1.0 
0.9 
0.8 
0.9' 
~1.3 
l.I 
1.1 
1.0 
0.8 
1.1 " 


1370 




600 

820 
1066 


&t 


2 
11 


51.5 


1640 


Average 


64.8 


19.4 
22.6 
21.3 
20.3 
19.5 
18.2 


16.5 


1015 


Round, very lean 


6 

31 
18 

2 
62 


73.6 

70.0 
65.5 
60.4 
55.9 
67,8 
69,8 


2.8 

7.9 

13.6 

19.5 

26.2 


540 
730 
950 


fat 


1185 




1445 


Average 


20.9 


10.6 


835 




2 

4 

4 

10 

6 


20.4 


8.6 
5.1 
13.7 
25.5 
35.7 
44 3 


1.1 

1.2 
I.O 

0.9 
0.8 
0.8 
0.9" 


740 




71.2 
65.7 
56.7 
47.1 


23.0 
20.9 
17.4 
16.8 
15.0 
18.7 


645 

965 




1400 
1820 




very fat 


1 40.2 


2150 




24 


57-B 


23.1 


132.5 



MEATS. 



29 



•SEEF.—OmHnvxd. 



Cut. 



Bafhort 

EiilncT (cubohTd rates 0.4) 
Lircr (carbohydrates l.G) . 

Miirow 

T«pi( 

^W 



Vma beef (ptit not specified) 
SltIoIh (tesk. baked .... 
BniiW lenderloiii .... 
Booed eeak 



7 
1 
6 

Craned roraed beef ]5 

Cinntd roa»t beef 4 

CuQtd whole lopgue j 5 

Craned iripe I 2 

Comed beef fall ciita) I^To"" 

Toopioi, pickled ] 2 

Trip((cirbohydrateB0.2) 4 



n 

2 
3 
6 
1 
3 
1 
9 






62.6 

76.7 

71.2 

3.3 

70.8 
79.7 
13.7 



I 
I 



1G.0 
16.6 
20.7 

2.2 
18.9 
16.4 

4.7 



48.2 


22.3 


63.7 


23,9 


64.3 


23.5 


63.0 


27.6 


51.8 


26.3 


68.9 


25.9 


51.3 


19.5 


74.6 


16.8 


.W6 


15.6 


62.3 


12.8 


86.6 


11.7 



20.4 

4.8 
4.5 

92.8 
9.2 
3.2 

81.8 



28.6 
10.2 
20.4 

7.7 



18.7 
14.8 
23.2 
_8..5_ 
28.2 
20.6 
1.2 



5 



1.0 
1.2 
1.6 
1.3 
1.0 
1.0 
0.3 



1.3 
1,4 
1,2 
1.8 



m 
it 

1160 

520 
605 

3B55 
740 
440 

3540 



1620 
875 

1300 
840 



4.0 


1280 


1.3 


1105 


4.0 


1340 


0.5 


670 


4.9 


1395 


4.7 


1105 


0.3 


270 



PORK. 



CoU 



Hm, Ernh, leu 

KKdiam fat 

£tt 

_ nuUe fat Urgel}> removed 

Loin fchops), lean 

medimnfat 

fil 

TeixlcrliiiD 

Wiooldfr 

Feet 

He^Jcbeeae 

KidpfT 

LiT»r'(cirholiydrateal.4) . . 

Ham, smoked, lean 

mnlitim fat 

fiL 

smoked, boiled 

^boaldfr, smoked, medium fat 

fal 

Sill pork, fat 

lean end» 

Baonn, smoked. lean 

medium fat 



as 

IS 



I 



2 

10 

5 

3 

1 

19 

4 

11 

19 

8 

3 

2 

1 

3 

14 
4 
2 
3 



60,0 
63.9 
38,7 
64.5 
60,3 
52.0 
41.8 
66.5 
51.3 
50.7 
43,3 
77.8 
_71.4_ 
53,5 
40,3 
27.9 
51.3 
45,0 
20,5 



S 



7 


7.9 


4 


19,9 


2 


31,8 


17 


18.8 



25,0 
15.3 
12.4 
19.2 
20.3 
16.6 
14.5 
18,9 
13.3 

8,3 
19,5 
15,5 
JK3 
19.8 
16.3 
H,8 
20.2 
l-i,9 
16.1 

1,9 

8.4 
15.5 

9.9 



14.4 

28.9 
50.0 
16.3 
19,0 
30.1 
UA 
13,0 
34.2 
17.4 
33.8 
4.8 
4..5 
"20.8 
3R.8 
-52.3 
22.4 
33,5 
53.6 
80.2 
67,1 
42,6 
67,4 



/I 



1.3 

0.8 
0,7 
0.9 
1.0 
1.0 
0.7 
1,0 
0.8 
0,4 
3,3 
1.2 
_1^ 

~5J" 
4.8 
3,7 
6,1 
6.7 
5,2 
3.9 
5,7 
11,0 
4.4 



m 

1075 

1505 

2345 

1040 

1180 

1580 

2145 

900 

1690 

1090 

1790 

190 

615_ 

'1245 

1940 

132(1 
1 r.K5 
2--)45 
3670 
29W6 
2(l«5 
31130 



30 



FOODS. 



VEAL. 



Cut. 



Breast, lean • . 
medium fat 

Leg, lean . . . 
medium fkt 
cutleU . . 

Loin, leau . . 
mediuin fat 
fat ... . 

Heart .... 

Kidney .... 

Liver .... 



-«■ 




Ji 








SB 


1 


1 


1 


■s 




i< 










£ia. 


.■i 


72.1 


21.7 


5.6 


1.1 


640 


7 


6Q.0 


19.6 


14.0 


1.0 


955 


9 


73.5 


21.S 


4.1 


1.2 


570 


10 


70.0 


20.2 


9.0 


1.2 


755 


3 


70.7 


20.3 


7.7 


1.1 


705 


5 


73.3 


20.4 


6.« 


1,2 


615 


6 


69.0 


19.9 


10.8 


1.0 


825 


3 


G1.6 


1S.7 


18.9 


1.0 


1145 


1 


73.2 


16.8 


9.6 


1.0 


720 


2 


75.8 


16.9 


6.4 


1.3 


585 


2 


73.0 


19.0 


5.3 


1.3 


675 



MUTTOX. 



Cut 



Hind leg, lean 3 

medium fal 11 

fat : ] 

Loin, medium fat without tciduev and tolluw . 13 

fat witliout kidney and tallow 3 

very fat nilhout Sidney and tallow ... 1 

Fore quarter 10 

Hind quarter 10 

Koant leg, cooked 2 

Kidn.'y ' 1 

LiTer icarbohTdrates S.Oj 'Z 




67.-1 
62.8 
55.0 
50.2 
43.3 
30.8 
62.9 
H.8 
50.9 
69.5 
61.2 



LAMB. 



I 



CM. 



It 

MS. 



m 



?.< 



_l_ 

Hind 1^, medium fnl 

fnl 

verr fal 

T^in, without kidney and (.illow 

Fore quarter 

Hind iiunrter 

firoileUchouB 

KoaM leg 



6:1.',' 

.>4.(i 
51. S 
.13.1 
.i.-. 1 
60.9 
47 .r. 
67.1 



I!'.-.; 

17.6 
IS.T 

1(1.6 
■21.7 
19.7 



16.5 

27.4 
30,1 
28.3 
2.1.S 

ifl.1 

29.9 
12.7 



I..E.- 



1.1 
0.9 
0.9 
1.0 
1.0 

1.0 
1,3 
0.8 



105,1 
1495 
1.195 
1540 
M30 
1170 
1665 
900 



HEATS. 



31 



POULTRY. 



CuL 



Bidter cbidceua 

Fnli 

VoDDg gooae 

ToAm 

QiiduD liver (carbohjdntce 2.4) 
Goae liter 





C 


fl 






2i 

II 


a 

< 
* 




I 


■a 


S 


74.8 


21.5 


2.5 


I.l 


2fi 


63.7 


19.3 


16.3 


1.0 


1 


46.7 


16.3 


36.2 


0-8 


3 


56.5 


21.1 


22.9 


1.0 


1 


69.3 


22.4 


4.2 


1.7 


1 


73.B 


ie.6 


5.8 


1.0 1 



in 
m_ 

505 

1045 

1S30 

1360 

640 

610 



Bom Heat. — The meaa of twelve analyees of horse meat as given 
by Konig ' ia as follows : 

Water 74.27 

Proteids 21.71 

F«t - 2.55 

A*h 1.01 

The objection to the ase of horseflesh as food is very lai^ly senti- 

mentat. It has not the pleiLsant flavor of beef, to which we nre accus- 

tonwd, but when eaten in ignorance of its true ebaracter, it uiakes no 

UEplea^iant impression. Its use is increasing steadily in Euro[»e, and 

.is Sndbg Ikvor in America. In Paris, during 1898,21,667 horsew, 

53 mules, and 310 donkeys were slaughtered for food, and of these but 

"34 bnrses, 1 mule, ami 7 donkeys were condemned as unsalable. Tlie 

meat was disposed of in 193 shops, where the best cuts brought about 

a fianc (19.3 cents), and the inferior parts 10 centimes ('i cents) per 

pound. During 1896, 822 horses and mules were t^laughtered in 

Stnssburg, and in 1898 the number rose to 1,099. In Vienna, where 

the sale of the meat was permitted flrst in 1854, tliere were Klaughtered, 

in 1899,2.5,646 horses and 58 donkeys. In the whole of Pnis,sia, 

there were slaughtered, in 1897, at .'167 abattoirs, 58,484 horses, and 

in the following year the number rose to 63,531. In Frankfort, where, 

in 1847, the first horse-meat dinner ever given occurred, about a thon- 

sand horses are slaughtered annually, at a f^pecial abattoir. In the 

f niled States, during 1899, 3,232 horses were slaughtered and ofti- 

•iaily inspeirted with other food animals. 

It is said that, unless the fat of some other animal or tionie starchy 
food is eaten with it, horse ment may cause diurrhcra. Whatever 
rauxes thin disturbance is soluble in water, and may thus l>e remove*! 
partially when the meat Is boiled. From water in wliieli liorse-metit 
had been boiled, E, Pfiiiger' wpuratwi jceorin, lecithin, and (pn)!»ably) 
neurin. He recommends the addition of ubimt 25 gnnus of l>ecf or 
matton kidnev-fat to each kilogram of the nieiit when a mince is to 
be made, and tliat, in whatever form it is consumed, it be served with 
a fat gravy. 

' ZunnmiFiiseuonK der meiiHchlichen XahnmgH- untl Gcnuwimittel, Berlin, 13H2. 
'Ardiiv f iir die gc«4Dute niydologie, 1900, Bd. 80, p. 111. 



32 



FOODS. 



. 



h 



Heat Preparations. — Meat Exfcracta. — T\ifst^ »rv prcimniHniM 
wiiicli iin- MipiHistHi olu-ii crnjm'oii.-ily tit <-ontain iiU tlie nntritivc parW ' 
of iIh' niniu Iroiii wliirli tliev are inailp, Imt ilu-j' aiv tn Ix- ii'^riinUnJ i\f 
eliiiitiliintr' nitlK-r tlmii fbii(Ir<, niiuv they rr[imsi-Dt tliu extractive^ »nil 
not the siibmaiic^s wliit-h deteruiine the true tbod value. In ]K>iin of 
fiHt, sii I'lir aw ihi-ir nutritive ]ir()|H-rlit^«' iire etniwrtiwi. it liiis iteen 
bhnwn thut utiinnilM will die m»rp ijtiickty of glurvalioii w)i<-ii fol ex- 
elii-ively iipini these ntiniulatiii); |>n-|iiiniliiniji thim whrn i-ntin-Iy dc- 
[>rive<l (if llxjci. 'I'hey are, however, of c«n>iiderable vahie tii their 
pmper place, purtieiilarly in ooiiditioiiH of )jji<jit liitigue niid exhniiMion. 

VmX Powder. — MeJit may wwily be treuteii set a« to relaiti all of ils 
nutriment iiud vet have a very miieb diuiiiiLilKH] voltinie. The lejin 
]»<iM--' ari' cut into Mnudl r<tri]is, cli]>]H'(l for n few miiiiitc» into very hot 
i'at (fried), druined. and then slowly drie<l in an oven. When om- 
pMi'ly dr\', ihey an- );irmnd in mi ordinary «pice mill or coflce mill to 
a fiUf powder, whieh keejjs well, has an ajn«eable taste ainl a |d»u-<iim , 
odor, ifl digestetl iimily, iiml nmy be used in u jjitiit iiumy diil'erent wtivs. 

SaasagM. — iSiiitiine is nmk'rst'Mxl pcnerally to mean an article of 
fiMxl eonhosting ehieriy of (imly ehojUH-d meal, mainly pork anti Ix-ef, 
witJi or without the iiddition of ii i>!mall amount of meal, hit^hly sea- I 
soneil with spices, herbs, and other flavorings, and sluH'i-d into iiisiiifr* 
mtidi' \'T\im rleane<l and pre]>arc<l intotiiii-s. Thwr nutritive value is, 
therefore. alMiui the same as ihat of average nitnt. As may be supiMisi-d, 
lh<- IhwI cat.* of meal tin- not nw<l in their niaiiufui'liirf. bm only Mieh 
jnirts as cannot be disi>osed of in pieces of fair size and of attractive 
npiH'umnei'. lint then- an' wnsjigi's and sjiusiijrtw. There are tho«^' 
made from meat of giHtd tjiuiHty and olhcrs from materials whieh^ 
WouM not I>e ^liable in any other form. ^H 

Many of tlic so-<'iilli'<l Frankforters, wild tit verj' low rates, and th^^ 
cheuji Itolo(fiias nre said to oousisl lately of horse meat, itnmalniv 
vmI, and the flesh of <v>ws that are no longi^r in c<in<lition lo prixhiee 
milk. Cerisin it is that a not inconsiderable number of pers»ms gain 
a fflir livelihoiHl by goin^; about in the conntry buying np newly iNira j 
calves and decrepit etiws. tuberculous and otlierwise, ant! horsiT, and 
tlmt these animals are not tnken to comfortable stables and inviting 
pnftnn's, but to small slaughtering esliiblishTnent.'«, the output of which 
is not ven" larg*'lv Imlcbers' niesit. To the cheap grades of sausages 
the Miying of J«u) I**«i, "Only a god cim eat wuisage, for oidy such 
can knoiv of what it is made,'* applies \cri- aplly. Even sausages 
made fi»in ]W)rk, e-'"(>«'cially lliose which have undergone a pr<ici«<j>f 
tvMiking before being stuffed, are nol always bcyonil suspicion, for the 
trichinoas [wirk eondemiied bv government insjieclors at public abal- 
(oirs i.s neither ik-stroyol nor i^mverleil into fcrtiliwr>i, but i.» allowed 
t» be sold nfier Iteing subjei'lol to a hegtl -uJIicient to kill the parasites; 
tnd cooked [>ork ii* not commonly to Im> f<mnd on s»le n» stich. 

Horw- meut is ssid to eiimbine two advanlJigc* in the preparation of 
eatififl^ : it is incx|Miisive, ami it lends ii (irnincs^ which incniises ili 
the snusagi- is b<.iile<l. A nnnilwr t>f cheminil pi-occsses Iwvc been pro- 




MEATS. 



33 






Lve 

' pi- 

wi. 



N-- 



r .1, 



(iir iu cli>looljon, and amnng them the folUiwiiig : Hiimbort' 
.H attoMt of ;;n»iii for iiii lioiir in '^Oll cc, itf wak-r. juIiN iilraiit 10 
oc. t»f :itn>iig Dtlric acid after pooling, anil then tiheTt- tluimgli p!i|iir. 
Some of the filimtc, «ontaiu«] in u u^uiiiIk-, k iIk'h tn-jiU'd with a 
volume of freOily prepare*) iodine water by careful !i<]dition, wi that 
10 liqaiils do not mix. At ilic line of junetirm, a n-ddi.-ili vinlii »>De 
will lir »een, if tbe gpeciineii ctutiiineJ imy cousidcniblc proportion of 
bonv niiat. 

Thi8 reaolioR of iodiae upon glycogci). ivhich In a normal con»titu«nt 
of b<iri<«> fli'!*li, fiinn» the liaws of a numlwr of proceft-es for the dctfi- 
tioo of this m«it, but it is critici&cil by NJclx-l ' und ii(iier« a* nticcrtjiiii, 
»iin>> gly«ip<ii U pi\-M-nt iiUo in liver, meal extr.iL-t-i. and veiT young 
veal, aod since <h'.\lrin resulting frrmi iiildwl stiin-lnw givtw n ^imilllr 
lUrration. Another prooe** suggested <Iiffer8 from the above in that 
»celic acid U arldcd dnring tbe boiling |>nM'ft<ii, ami tlie reagent <;in- 
plovcd is a stronger preparatiou of iodine, being u 1 0-|3cr-cent. imltitiun 
with [wtii.iiinni iiHlidr. 

Id tbe manufacture of all gra<les of aausiige, scrupulous care ^hollld 

obwr\-vd to socim^ eli^udiiK'n^ of the ctU4ing»<, whieli injuire more 

lhomu;rh treatment than tbe mere piiBsige of water tbniugb Ihciii, Dr. 

Si-iiilting ' n'piirW lh«- ex ami mil ion of prepared intcstims* whifh yielded 

gnuibi of excrement per meter. 

Owing to tin- occiirr<-nee of a gray otilor, which is said by M(^"er ' to 
be tlae (o the |)U)u<3gi- of ^uilt by dilftu^ioii from tbe c>outcDt» to the 
cn.Miiir. whii-h i.H rich in wntiT ami )HH>r in Kill, the iiimnicn-ial vabio 
f certain varielie^ of *ausiige U irajiaind, and bciice it Iwcorncs iii'c«s- 
flaiy lo apply artitieial colors, or so to lre;it the ^lulling limt tbo change 
ID color :>hiil] iiol occur. The very nil appearance u liich «o oth-n siig- 
ibe preeence of coal-tar products may Im' dne lo the nctiim of 
luniibsM [M«)iwrv-ative», like nilcr, or the liiciiinglobin of swine hlrKxl. 
In nuch rase, the extract with ahvjbol, glycerin, or amvl alcohol will 
lot dye wool, and llie color cinnot Im- |in-cipitatc<l li^ a lake. 
Aoeonling to J. Htildanc,* the red color of eookitl italttHl mt^als U 
line to tl»e prwence of NO-hieDionbroniiig<-n pnHlnceil by the ilcconiposi- 
lioQ of NO-lm-inoplobin, wbtcb U formed by the actitm of a nitrite on 
the NO-hieniocbromogeu in the absents- of iixygcn and presciin- of ri- 
turing agi-nln. Tin- nitrite i* lormed by reduction, witbin tbe niw 
t. of th« niter u^ in !^lling. 
Cvrtaia of tbr arliliciiil »iin«ige colore, a» " Orangt- II.," the sodium 
It of ^naplitholazobenzeiic, are extractetl easily H'itli acidulaliHl 
', and will dvi- wo*>ten IUkth inmierMtl thcnin. 

■ Iknidi Ar \M\nnv W-mriiiMliv, \»M. 

•Z*il?<'hiift frir FIWhIi- i.nd Mjlcbljyjcifiiir. IH%. n. S&. 

'Ikiit-chi' iin-<licini.«cln- Woclwriiolirift, ll'OO. p. 802. 

• nirniikcT '/Miaag, I'MK p. 3. 

* Jonn»\ ot llrgtim, \»0l, \oL I, p. lib. 




34 FOODS. 



TIBS. 



Id the ordinary seose of the word, fish includeB, is addition to the 
varieties of fish in its narrow sense, molliisks (clams, oysters, mu&sels, 
etc.) snd crustaceans (lobtit«?rs, crabs, crawfish, and shrimps). 

Many pr^udices have e:[ist«d from the earliest times, and to a cer- 
tain extent still exist, agaiiii^t the utie of fish in the diet. The ancient 
belief that a fish diet is a common cause of leprosy still obtains to a 
certain extent, even among enlightened people, in spite of all scientifio 
evidence to the contrarj'. Thus, Mr, Jonathan Hutchinson ' main- 
tains that this disease is so caused, es]>ecially if the fish is poorly cooked 
or partially decomi>osed. He asserts that the diseiiee prevails near the 
sea and is disappearing before the advance of agriculture; but oj>- 
posed to this is the fact that, in the interior of India, the disease is very 
common among jH-ojile whose religion forbids the use of fish, and who 
cannot obtain it even if it were desired. 

Some varieties of fish cannot be eaten, because of their inherent 
j>oisonous propertii's. But few of these are, however, found north of 
the tropics. Bome of them are always poisonous, and others only at 
certain times ; and in some cases, in<lividuub' of certain species may be 
and others may not be noxious. Some ^'a^ieties of fish arc the hoeU 
of parasites, some of which are injurious to man, but unless eaten in 
the raw state they are not likely to produce harm. 

There is a belief ttiat fish is particularly valuable as a brain food, od 
account of the supposed high percentage of phosphonis that it contains. 
The amount of phosphorus is, however, so far as is known, no hi^er 
in fish than in meat and, moreover, this element is no more essential 
to the brain and nervous system than any others which are present. 
If there were any tnith in this common Iwlief, we should expect 
naturally to find men of ctmimanding intellect among those whose 
diet consists mainly of fish, but, as is well known, such people are of « 
low order of intelligeiife, thou(;li not by reason of their diet. 

In spite of the large amount of nutriment contained, fish has not the 
same satisfying properties that belong to meats, but it is an exoeed- 
inglv vahiablo f(>od, and in many [miMs of nortliem countries is the 
prinoi[Nil animal foi>d. Tlie flavor of fish is Influenced greatly by the 
nature of the fi>od su|iply and by the content of fat. Generally speak- 
ing, salt-water fish from deeji water, where the curr«it is strong, are 
better than tha-je from shallow, warm, and quiet water, and both salt- 
water and fn-sli-water fish taken frum rocky and sandy iMttoms are 
preferred to those from muddy bottoms. 

Condition \> ilcjx'nilciit upon a variety of circumstances. Some fish 
are regarded most liighly during their sjKiwning season (shad and 
smelts), while others are lookc<l upiiu with disfavor at this period. 
Fish caught by the gills in gill nets die slowly, but decompose rapidly, 
and such are of inforiivr flavor and value. Kisli taken from the water 
' .irchives of Surgorj', April, ItiftS. 



FISH. 3S 

itire and killed at once remain firm and retain their flavor longer than 
tbwe allowed to die slowly. 

Digestibili^. — So far att is known, the digestibility of fish and meat 
is about equal, but, aa is true of meats, different varieties of fish are 
diffweatly digestible. Thus, those which contain the greatest per- 
wolages of fat, as salmon, eels, and mackerel, are the moat difficult of 
digestion. The processes of drying, smoking, suiting, and pickling 
le^ digestibility, and fish so treated are, in consequence, less suited 
to the needs of invalids and dyspeptics. The mollnsks are r^ardcd 
^raUy us most digestible, while the crustaceans are believed to tax 
the digestive powers much more than any other animal food. Many 
persons are unable to digest them in any form, and others who suffer 
BO inconvenience, so far aa digestion is concerned, are obliged to prac- 
tise self-4lenial, because of idiosyncrasy, which manifests itself in dis- 
tTK-ing eruptive disorders of the skin, dizziness, and other nervous 
symptiims. Lobster and crabs are much alike, but the former is less 
Ultely to disagree. The claws of tlie lobster are more tender and deli- 
Bite than the tail, which is firmer and much closur grained. Shrimps 
are rated generally as more difiiciilt of digestion than lobsters and 
cralw, but with many they are borne more easily. 

Tbe moUusks are more digestible in the raw state than when cooked. 
The comparatively tough [jart of the oyster, the adductor muscle, ia 
very trying to some persons, and for such it is best removed and 
rejected. 

Keeping Qualities. — Fish flesh differs very greatly from meats in 
teeping qualities. While the latter are improved up to a certain point 
by hanging, fish should be eaten while fairly freah, since decomposition 
<Mti in very quickly. Some varieties, as halibut, cod, haddock, and 
larbut, may be kept a week or more when properly cared for, while 
others Ix^n to deteriorate almost immediately. So long as the flesh 
is firm and stiff, all fish is edible, but when it is crushed readily by 
Koitle pressure between the fingers, it is unsound and should be re- 
jected. Mollusks and criLstaceans decompose very quickly, and the 
latter when boiled a short time after natural death have but little 
flavor. 

Oompositioii. — In proteids, fish rank nearly as high as meats, but 
ihej are very much poorer in fat, only a few varieties yielding over 10 
per cent. These include salmon, turbot, lamprey eels, eels, bntterfish, 
lake trout, and herring, and are followed by shad and Spanish mark- 
erei, with over 9 per cent. The great majority of species contjiin less 
Ihan .5 per cent., and many of the rnramoner kinds even less than 1 
per (rent. In fact, most fish flesh yields more mineral matter than fat. 
Shellfish are fairly rich in proteids and contain notable amounts of 
carlxihydrates, but they are very poor in fat. 

The chemical composition of the edible portions of many varieties of 
.American fish is given in the following table compiled from the report 
ff the U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1888 : 



36 



FOODS. 



Kind« of 6ab. 



('HiifomiB aalmon 

\'ji\ 

Sulnion 

SpuiiHli mackerel 

I.nko trout 

Wliilelidli 

Himortwh 

Shad 

Liuii|>rey eel 

Tiirl"jt ' 

Mnckurcl 

Herring 

I'oitiimiio 

Ak-wifc- 

Hiiinll- mouthed black bsn . 

lUlibul 

SlH'e|wliFai] 

Wliiiu |>ercli 

l'olU>ok 

( isci 

l[iiBkpltiiiig« 

StrijK'd IkD^ 

ltro"k irt'ut 

Itml Htlniiper 

Illiietish 

l.ar)te-nioiillied black buB . 
I^iimll-moiilhed red-hoiM . . 

Siurjwn 

SVnK 

Wtukfisb 

Itlncktwii 

Smelt 

KiiiKfl»l> 

S'li li«i»' 

(iniiL)ipr 

Yelliiw [icrrh 

riki> (leri'h, AVall-eTcd pike 

I'iokcrvl ■. . . . 

like iH'n-h, Or«¥ pike - . . 

HndiU** 

Tixiuxd 



Ke>l luiw ' - • 

nisk 

r,M 

Hake 

<'>umiHi» HiMinder . 
Wiiiirr IlkHiiider , . 



Infletb. 



Proteld*. 



Fat. 



perot. 
.17.46 
ld.H2 
20.77 
20-97 
18.22 
22.06 
17.81 
18.65 
14.93 
12.92 
18.77 
18.19 
18.S5 
19.17 
21.50 
18.35 
19.54 
19.03 
21.(15 
19.12 
19.63 
18.31 
18.97 
19.20 
10.02 
19.24 
17.90 
IT. 96 
18.82 
17.45 
18.47 
17 36 
18.66 
18.T5 
18.80 
18.49 
1S.42 
!8.m 

17.10 
17.0S 



t*tie«t »i1iiitu) 



lti.SS 
16.92 
Ifi-CO 
15.24 
l;l.S2 
14.01 

IS.,12 
17.24 



perct. 

17,87 
18.74 
12.09 
9.43 
11.38 
6.49 
11.03 
9.48 
1329 
14.41 
8.21 
8.02 
7.57 
4S2 
2.44 
5.18 
369 
4.07 
0.78 
3.48 
2.54 
2.83 
2.10 
1.03 
1.25 
0.96 
2.35 
1,90 
0.93 
2.39 
1. 35 
1.80 
0,95 
0,49 
0.60 
0.70 
0.47 

aso 
a76 

0.26 

o.:v>< 
5;t 
o,ir 
aso 

0,67 
0.69 
a44 



A.h. Totat. Wat.,.!^;'^™;;^ 



perct, 
1.06 
0.93 
1.38 
1.50 
1,26 
1.62 
1.14 
1,35 
0.66 
1,28 
1.40 
1.69 
1.00 
1,47 
1,24 
1.05 
1.22 
1.19 
1.55 
1.25 
1,57 
1.16 
1.21 
1.31 
1.27 
1.19 
1.19 
1.43 
1.43 
1.19 
1.08 
1.68 
1.18 
1.44 
1.15 
1-29 
1.37 
1,18 
1,13 
1.25 
a99 
1.23 
a90 
l.-.'4 
0.98 
l.-ii 

i.at 



perct. 
36,39 
36.49 
34-'4 
31,90 
3a86 
30.17 
29,98 
29.38 
28.88 
28,61 
28.38 
27.90 
27,22 
26.56 
25.18 
24.58 
24.46 
24.29 
23.98 
23.85 
23,74 
22.30 
22.28 
21.54 
21.54 
21.39 
21,44 
21.29 
21.18 
21,03 
20.90 
20.84 
20,79 
20.68 
20,55 
20.48 

i-cati 

20.32 
19.16 
18.61 
18,45 
18,44 
17,99 
17,54 
16,S9 
15,79 
15.66 



per CI. 

63.61 
64.51 
6.1,76 
68,10 
69.14 
69.83 
70.02 
70.62 
71.12 
71.39 
71.62 
72.10 
72.78 
74,44 
74.82 
75,42 
75..^5 
75,71 
76.02 
76.15 
76.26 
77,70 
77.72 
78.46 
78.46 
78.61 
78.56 
78.71 
78.82 
78,97 
79.10 
79.16 
79.21 
7932 
79.46 
79.62 
79,74 
79.68 
80,85 
81.39 
81.55 
81.56 
8-2.01 
82.46 
83.11 
84.21 
84.35 



Caloria, 
1.080 
1,085 
895 
790 
820 
686 
795 
745 
840 
850 
695 
675 
665 
566 
505 
560 
520 
525 
43.5 
505 
470 
460 
440 
400 
405 
400 
430 
415 
390 
425 
400 
400 
386 
370 
875 
375 
360 
370 
355 
330 
335 
335 
320 
310 
310 
285 
280 



S-tlO 1.14 23.?6 76.74 495 

2.»S 1.24 21.46 78.54 I 44S 



MEAT AND FJSJI AND PARASITIC DISEASE. 



37 



Flih. 



Doireiied codftsh (fish meal) 

McodliBii 

Ml nuckerel 

SauliBd haddock 

faioix4 halibut 

Smoked herring 

Cinned salmon 

L'uued nucherel 

Cumed lonuj 



Ediblu portion. 



Nuliicnu, 



perct, 

74.46 
21.42 

33.68 
20.57 
36.44 
20.06 
1B.91 
21.52 



] per ct, 

, l.tlO 

0.34 

25.12 

0.17 

15.03 

15.82 

15.70 

B.68 

4.05 



perct, 
5.41 
1.62 
2.59 
1.53 
2.06 
1.63 
1.33 
1.30 
1.69 



pcrct. 


percL 1 


84.75 


15.25 


46.42 


53.58 


fi6.99 


43.01 


27.44 


72.56 


50.62 


49.38 


G5.45 


34.55 


38.12 


61.88 


31.82 


68.18 


27.26 


72.74 



i 



If 
& _ 

CBlor. 
1,465 

410 
1,410 

445 
1,015 
1,345 
1,035 

735 

570 



I 



percl. 

2.88 
23.04 
10.40 

2.06 
12.96 
11.66 

1.04 

1.93 



Piita. 



Ojw™ 9.78 

tlr»l(r liquor 1.48 

l'BD(d ojBteni 7.41 

Lmgclains 14.55 

Luogcluiu (canned) 17.73 

R-und clams 11.-^9 

fbund cianu (cuined) 16.70 

Hiiswl* J2.51 

SeiHop. 14.75 

Lolwtef 14.49 

LoUwr[«nned) 18.13 

fjib 16.64 

Cnb (canned) 16.80 

i^riinpi (canned) 25.38 

Tcm|.Ln i 21,23 

(■r«n lurtle 19.84 



i 


It 
.a 


i 


3 


2.05 


5.89 


1.98 


19.70 


0.03 


0.75 


2.13 


4.39 


2.07 


3.95 


1.31 


14.74 


1.79 


2.94 


2.76 


22.04 


2.89 


1.-59 


3.16 


25.37 


0.74 


7.21 


2.22 


21.76 


1.27 


4.14 


2.33 


24.44 


1.67 


5.42 


1.73 


21.33 


0.17 


3.38 


1,38 


19.68 


1.84 




1.71 




1.07 




2.47 




1.96 




3,13 




1.55 




1.04 




1.00 


. - . 


2.68 




3.47 




1.02 




0.53 




1.20 





I 



80.30 
95.61 

85.26 
77.96 
74.63 
78.24 
75.56 
78.67 
80.32 



Meat and Fish and Parasitic Disease. 

Man b often the host of parasites through ingeitinn of infostcd meat 
ami lish. Of these, the oiiwt common i.s the tapevorm, of whioli at 
least ten species arc known, though only three have hcen demonstrated 
a* having any connection with food. These are Trenia saginata (T, 
molioeanelluta) due to meanly beef, Tsenia solinm to measly pork, and 
BithriiXKplialtis latus to infenteil stiii^eon, ()iko, jxjreh, and ssilmon. 
The latter is very rare in this coiiiitni-, though not uncommon iihmg 
the Baltic. Of the large number of worms which infest fish, this is the 
Dnly one known to l)e conveye<l to man. It is kilk'd very quickly if 
the fish is cooked properly. 

The lar\-al forms of T. BE^inata and T, solium exist in l>eef and 
p"rk respectively as Cysticercus bovis and C. celhilosH?, The latt<'r 
i* fmrnd rarely also in mutton. Meats inf(\ste<) with tliesc forms are 



38 



FOODS. 



known an " meafly " or " nunftlcd," and tW imimnU from whidi tli^i 
lurabi arc dcrivotl arc kiiuwn ni' tti*^' intcrmulmlo lio^tt^, man bciu^ 
the final host. Thi- life hiHtory of tin- lajieworni i.- nnicK mi>n' .-imiilei 
^Uti) UuiC of innny oUkt |>iinu«ib». Ilcgiitiiiii]; with th<.- udult tape, 
'worm in man, the cj-cle is as follow*:: From each individual st^icnt, 
which ix ]>fis!<i^s.<i-(I of ii comjiloti.' n-pnHltKtivit svhu-iii, an-ai niiiiibiT* < 
<if fjlljs are diirrliiir^od. The hittM* arp expcl]e<J from the intestine willi 
thi- tW-fA, and Sfinif of thoin vvi-ntually niiiv (.■nlcr thv digt'^livt- tHK-t iif 
uittlc or ■'wine ttiri)iif;b tho food ur wntvr. In ihc intestine, the ombiyos 
IxfODii; lilx-ralcd from the t^c^, and tWy tlieti iiiake tln-ir way in lafj^ff 
luniibrr^ t« tlif niiiM.-tdiir liwiK-i^, biiiin, liver, and othi-r jwrte, wIhtv 
tlii-y eimie Ut nut am! d<rvt'lu|i ad bladder worms. 'I'lic bitiddprs an- 
variable in »ixv, tlic ninalb-nt iK-ing about ^ inoli, iiiid (lie Inr)^-!-! aUiut 

inch at-ross, and, in the flesh, are erowdde*! (x-tween the muneular 
Ik^is. The living nninial lihow^ nothinj: in it.'> n|i{H4imnoc to in<iicnti- 
the preeeiiee of the |Kir!iiiite. fxcejitinji when the pysl can be seen in the 
nndi-r side of the tungni- or Ixiwi'i-n tin- tonirnc and the lower jaw. If 
now the nnininl U »lun;i;liten'd aud the meat iii eaten ruw or im))erfeetly 
oih)Iv<.h], the Cy^doercnH ir freed from iti> enveloping ni{M«iite and }>ro- 
dtils t'l develop into an adult tuiicworm, nnd the cycle b ooniplcto. 
The Cy.ttietTcns Imivi-h die- «illini two or lliri'e weeks after the 
nUnghter of !t>> ho(<t, jiiid. tlierefun:-, rieasled beef, kept fur ihnv wwk» 
in cold fttonigi-, liecomert inciiiialiK- of pi-odiK^ng harmful elFwits. It i« 
killed within '2'4 hoiini by piekliiig folutiona nf eomnion »alt, wlien 
brought into intimnte contnet. The CyMicercuH «'thdu?w ItveH mllwr 
h>nger in eolit sioiiige: pi-obiihly a month or more, Both of thew 
larvic are killetl l>y ex|Ki(-«re to a lemin-rnturc of HC^ F. for 5 
minute<>, iind il-< tiii;< i.-* lower than the tt-ni|H'iiilur(- in the interior of 
well-<'iK>ketl meat, it i« nouovMiiy only to mukc »iire that the meat in 
|)r(iinTly eooked to escape danger. Neither parat'ite ih def-tniyed by 
ordinary' smoking or suiting, but txttb iin- kilU-il by hot smoking. 

Till- sale of ni«iwled meat i« (wrmitted in nuiiiy eoiinln\> of Euni]ie, 
but it iinint Ik- ■'old n.-* Midi and only in .■<jK-eialty designated places. It 
findn u nady market at a low priev, and the pnrelnLUCiv arc wiiriied 
lliMl it lihonld W eiHikerl thoroughly. Aeetiixling to Yirehow, simv the 
iiilroduetioEi of »iyMleniiitie mesil inKiKs-tion, the pmimrtion oflApiworiu 
ill the luimun subject dUsecteil in Berlin luu liillen frani 1 in m to L 
in •_'*). 

A parasite of far greater iniporlanco i« the Triduna spiralis, wliieh 
is fomwl abnoKt exeln^ively in \n\r\i and only ocrasioually in ibc Hcsli 
of other nianimaU and of binis and frogis. Tricbinie an- small, thnixl- 
like wonns, mtieh longer than one would supiMi?*- on jKiM'ing examina- 
tion of fairly thiek niieroseopie pn.-paration.'i, since ihey are eoileii with 
sevet^ turoH within the minute cytits in which thc>' arc lodged. In 
Ilate I., Fig. 1, \a nhown one of llie jmrasiles in the free state. In the 
pig tile worm infects Ixitb the fiit and the voloiitjiry nui.'«eh*, but iliielly 
the latter, iiud eiiH-ei.illy the diaphrngm, ibc iiileroifia!*. and the mus- 
«loi of the jiiw. \\'heu eiuitiisidated tn tJit tlwh, llwir location may be 




MEAT AND FISH AND PARASITIC DISEASE. 39 

evident to the naked eye as small vhite speckB. Thio eections of 
muiiclcs, treated a few minutes in weak caustic potash solution (1 : 10), 
are .«oon made sufficiently clear to reveal the coiled worm under a lens 
of low power. If very much fat is present or if the capeule has 
become calcareous and thick, it may be necessary to employ ether or 
acetic acid before applying the potash. When tiie parasites are very 
numerous, the flesh ia both speckled and pale. 

Our first knowledge of the neriouB elfects which may result from 
eating infested pork dates back only to 1860, although the parasite had 
been discoverefl in the muscles of a human subject by James Paget in 
li<3;i and name<l by Richard Owen. It long was regarded as a liarm- 
less parasite and curiosity, and its effects were mistaken for rheuma- 
tLim, typhoid fever, and other diseases of common occurrence. The 
aw which finally revealed its capacity for harm was that of a young 
woman admitted to the hospital at Dresden suffering, it was supposed, 
fmm typhoid fever. In a short time, a train of symptoms quite unlike 
tW of that disease appeared, the most marked one being very acute 
pain involving the entire muscular system, and intensified on attempting 
to move. On account of the agony induced, extension of the arras 
ud legs was quite impossible. Pneumonia supervened, and in a few 
(iavfl the victim died. The autopsy revealed the parasite in vast numbers 
in the muscfes, and this led to further investigation, which showed 
ihat, four days before the first symptoms of illness appeared, she had 
eaten freshly killed pork. Some of this was secured in the form of ham 
and sausage, and examination demonstrated the presence of the parasite. 
The first extensive outbreak which caused the disease to be looked 
upou as one of great importance occurred in Pnissia in 1863, when 
iDHre than 20 persons died within a month after a dinner in which 103 
liad particii>ated, and at which smoked sausages made from an infested 
pig had been ser\-ed. The parasites were discovered in the muscles 
of those who died and in the sausages that remained. Since that 
time, it has been customary in most large slaughtering establishments 
to eiiaminc pork for evidence of tlie para-^ite, before i)assing it as fit for 
food. But examination is not alwaj-s a safe^iard, even in countries 
*here it is obser\'ed most carefully. In Germany, for instance, where 
all meats are supposed to be examined with scrupulous cjire, particu- 
larly those from the United States, the disease is very common. 

In 1 S83, on account of the alleged dangers which lurked in Ameri- 
«in meats, importation was interdicted for a time, but in the succeed- 
ing lo years there were in Prussia alone 3,00.3 caws and 207 deaths, 
not one of which could be traced to American meat cither salted, 
piotled, canned, or made into smoked sausages. Over 40 per cent. 
"f iho ca*es ivere tni<«<l to Eunipcan meat which had been pas.«e*I as 
friv from frichinie, and the rest to European meat which had been 
fiiarnl to contain the parasite, but had, nevertheless, been handled by 
llie trade. During 1899, the parasites were found by the microscopists 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 41,659' of the 2,^27,740 
itogn examined. 



40 ^ FOODS. ^^^^^^^^^^H 

It is probablf^, as i^tatn] hy Cliarle* W. Stllai,' who collected ■ 
tboiil 900 r\-ix>rlcd auv^ wliicli liiul DC-i-iinwJ in ilii:< country diiriii^ I 
the 3y years I8tiO-lH9-% that the disesijie is more commoo La the ■ 
Uiiiuil Slalc.i riiiin f;i-iiiTulIy i.- Mi[>|>iiM-d. Il is a<i"e[>U-iJ i>>miiKmIy 
that I ()r 2 jwr ceot. of di^«-ictiiig-r(wDi ^ul>joc■t^' tJhjw pvicktiw of 
the parasite, biit it woidd iip{H'ar from the investigatiiuiB of H. U. ■ 
Williiims'' timt i)»j- c»liiiiatc ij* iniicli \iw ktvf, for ain-fiil c\uniiiiutt(>n * 
of 'Mb eatlavers taken al nmdoni lOiowed old eneap!'ulatii>n and calciB- 
(^atinn in no lo-->» t.Imn 27 inNtiiticx^, tir •'i.-M |n-i' ix-dU The IjirlhpbiiVK M 
of the fiubjedii iiichided all of ihu amrX im|K>rtaot couniries of Europe V 
and North Anici-ii'ii, Imt thtr tiuiiiUT of tUM.-.* I'suniiiutl was ton Mnall 
lo aiiuiit of iKt'umic ojncluHiour^ a» to the influence of nutionalitr upon 
tlie fi-etjui-ney of the disea.-e. It is cvidi-rit llial ninny cases of tri<-hino.-<is 
VMujK- dd<-(-tioii, nnd thai, ui^ Willitini^ [)oiiit« out, ivtiuiate^ Imvi- been 
bafied on niiketl-eye diajfiiosi^, 

111 wpiU- of the danger of eating trichinuiis mejil, there arc ihw^- who 
are not deterred by fear from eating it. In Germany, for uii'tanoe, it 
has Iiii|i[>tHied a number of limi.-s tbiit bogs wbie.li biivc Ixt'i) I'lindt^mmtl 
and onlered bnritil by the sanitary authorities liave been dug up cur- 
reptitiim.-ly and iiiti^i.' 

TriebiinKiiw Ijcjiis eeilain resemblaneee to typhoid fever and to acute tu- 
berculosiH, but in addition is acrompiinied by cedenm and intense paiu. 
It arisen from «iting ihe iiife-led meat in a raw or nol well wmki-d 
ciMidition. Tiie trichina' are killwl by exposure to 155° F., if they are 
nol furaiisulattii ; ollicrwise by u teuiijemtiirc of 158" to lliO". Tliey 
are not affected by intenw oold, putrefactive processes, nor ordinaiy 
smoking, biii arc killed by lung piiUliiig. 

The firet symptoms ajiiwar in a few days after ingestion, and indi- 
eate irritation uf tlie idinienuiry eiuiai. The--"!- aiv followi^l by filirile" 
i^ymptums and intense muscular |jain^. Death may occur within a 
few weeks. In caec of recovery, tlie {Hinisites btsxime encysted, and 
then arc in«ip«blc of pniihu-iiig further injury to their host. Tlic 
manner in wbieli ihey juinhiee their efftvis is as follows: When the 
infested nieat reaches ihc >toniin'h, the iligi'.-^ive jiiiw.-' di.-^olve the 
capsules, aud the jtarar-ites thne are left in a free state. In the intes- 
tine, they find (^indiiions favnmbl« to growth, and in a few days' time 
they grow hi hir^ that they caD be tKca with the nakLil e^'c siud uppear 
like ^ne threads. 

The fcmiilc jinraMtes when fully niutiire begin to |>n^Hln»' young, 
each to the extent of upward of oOO. Those begin at once a migra- 
tion through the walU of the inu-»finc and find their way to oil yans 
of the bofly, and it is during this stage that the fever and lotenw pain 
are caused. 

Ill Plate I., Fig. 2, and Plate II., Fig. 1, are i-ecn thiu sections of 
muscle from a human subject, showing the worm coiled iij) and the 

' Phibdclphin MtJicnI JoumnU June I, 1(101. 
' Jmiranl ii( Me>Jii-al Ri^earr'h, Julv, IWX, y. M. 

' For an nciimiit uf vucli i cat* (■uiisiill &tiM.'liiill (iir Fleiscli- tiud Mil(.'b)ivj{ien«, 
H»7, VU., p. 104. 



I 
I 
I 

I 
I 





Tpichinee in Human Muscle, showing Thickened 
Capsule. X 76. 



FI9. 2. 



s. ». 




Trlchinee in Pig Muscle. X 78. 



K. 



..*, 



MEAT ASD FISH AND PARASITIC DISEASK 41 

thickened capsule formed about it. In Plate II., Fig. 2, it may be 
seen within the muscle of an infested pig. 

The sheep disease which is known as rot, which term, it must be 
said, is used to include a large number of abnormal conditions, but 
which, in its strict application, means a parasitic disease of the liver, is 
believed by many to be of sufficient importance to warrant the con- 
demnatioD of the flesh of the animal, but the scientific evidence on this 
potDt is to the effect that no possible harm can come to the consumer, 
(v^ though the liver itself be eaten. The parasite infests not ulone 
sheep, but cattle as well, and is known as the " fluke." Of the many 
irieties of flukes, there are but two known in the United States ; these 
»fe the common liver fluke (leberwurm, leber^el, schafegel, douve 
h^tique) and the large American fluke. The former infeste cattle 
>ihI sheep ; the latter, only cattle. 

The life history of the worm is exceedingly complicated, and is as 
folloffB; The adult or hermaphroditic worm fertilizes itself in the 
hiliary passages of the liver, and produces an exceedingly large num- 
ber of ^^8, which pass to the intestine of the host with the bile, and 
we expelled in the feces. Such of the ^;g9 as eventually reach water 
pve rise after a longer or shorter period, according to temperature, to 
H eiliated embryo, which on its escape from the ^g becomes a free 
iwimming ciliated miracidium, and enters the body of certain species 
of snails, where it comes to rest. Here the organism grows, and, after 
s time, certain germ cells in its posterior portion develop a still difler- 
eoiforni of life, the ridiae. These wander to the host's liver and in- 
crease in size, and in turn develop from their germ cells the next gen- 
erstion, which are called cercarise. These leave the body of the snail 
and swim about in the water, and some become attached to blades of 
gnb«, where they form enveloping cysts and undergo anatomical cliang&s. 
For their next stage it is necessarj- that they be receive*] into the stomach 
of some herbivorous animal by being swallowed with the grass to which 
thfv are attached. On reaching the stomach, the cysts are destroyed and 
'he panLsitcs migrate to the liver and become adult hermaphrodites, thus 
<*iii[>leting the cycle. Occasionally they wander to the lungs and other 
part- of the binly. In the liver, the jwrasites attach themselves to the 
wali* of the bile duct.s, which may become completely blocked, and they 
caiw the breaking-down of the surrounding tissues and general symptoms 
"liie to structural changes. The parasite cannot be transmittetl directly 
from animal to man, since it requires an intermediate host, and iu the 
!-tagc preceding its final development it lh not attached to material ci>ri- 
rtituiing human food. There are, to be sure, si}me iusmnces of the dis- 
(«■■« in man, though not by direct transmission from meat. The nin- 
dition cau.sed by flukes is known variously as rot, liver rot, fluke dis- 
ease and distomatosis. 



42 



FOODS. 



TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE BT MEAT AND FISH. 

Ijiviii^ pulti<>p:iii<- Imi-loria iii rli.'y^istil iiimi aitil li^li nviy gntii ncevi 
to llic stomach iii limil«(l nunibeiv an<) bc^-t nu 4(ii;c9i?e. If ihe^ are 
nnl (Wcroyed l>v ihe gaiiirifl jiiin-, tlii^ havi^ to coiiiiiiit witli niyrtiuU 
of or]gwiir>m^ noniml to thr iittwlines, iiml it ii' unly n-hcn tlivAfHHli- 
tioHs are snoh an tw favor i?ston>uve Riulliplit^iioii iliiit tlit-y are likrly 
to ]>r<Nlui<c- liiirnifiil oflVvts. In meat Uiai ii- «»)!<('<l llionmpltly, they 
an- killt^i hy the heat to which they are titihjected. 

It i^ well known) that liif Hlomai'li hii> ^ruit ]mitivtivi' (wwcr in 
ifat DHliinil fiinrtimifi, ^iiire vertuin violent organic- pctioons may be 
taken into thai origin wiihoiit injury, whilo if Ihc sflinc iirv^ intm- 
(ini'i-d into iIk; i-iix-niulion, the ri'Mihw are fiitai ; thu< the venom of poi- 
ennoUH serpents is digcwtctl ttiid intn)i- hiirmli'sji hy the stoniiw-h jiiiws. 
An inwliinw nf llic innnnnily [■onferrcfl hy cxiokiiijf or by the pnxrw 
of di^rcstion, or by both together, and of the fatal p»mll of the adtuia- 
xion of the harmful eii^in'Mt of lIic Mini'- niiiit to iIk- Hv.-^i>in tlirougli 
€Ut» anil al>ni«ion>f, ii- given hv I^nlitr,' Tiic cnw ii' as follown : 

A cow diwi i^iiddeiily of (inthmx imd wa.i dn-swi^d (or IW«1. llw 
incut wiD" «itfn by a hir^e iiiimlNrr of jieojilc, none of whom fnflV-rKl 
the sligliteBt in«>n\'enien<x' or iiijiiiy. A iiiinilH-r of «it», however, 
which ate wmK- of the wiu-te matters jmd lickctl np the i)IiMwl, liii-d witli 
rtmxp i^iiddenneH^ ' A woman who lx>nght the heiid and woiuiiled Iter- 
M-lf ill llic priKtv.^ (if cutting it iiji had a chnrhon at the plntH* of injiin* 
and died. Two men who hel|ied I'kin the (Ykw had clukrlion, but re- 
covered. A f»)f bclon^in^ to one nf i1k-m.> two dietl of notlirax, nnd 
another man, removing the nkin, cut himself and died. The nkin of 
ttic or!);inid iinimid wn8 Mild anil the piiriliiocr put it in a .ah<>d on hiA 
iarm. Some time later, one of Win wtwc died Muklenly. and llw man 
who drt^cied tlie e:»reaKi wonnded hiros'elf dnring the proeewj, acquired 
a chiirlHin, anil ilied. How much further iliiK scrie." of l'ataliti(?i mifH>l 
Imve extindetl rantiot lie known, >^inee the authoritieH took steps ia the 
matter atid pri'veiitrtl further fatuliti(»>. 

Miiny iiiKtiinciw iire known in winch llic flc-ih nf ([illlc dcjtd of in- 
fM-lioiiH diM?ui>o has lieen eaten with impunity. During the »\eg)' 
of IVri", for example, wiuti the foiHl fjiipjily wii* uxwdiiigly liuiiti-d 
in amount, no one pnid the .Hlijrhiesl attention to the eoiidilinu of meat 
in rim[M'ct li' di.iimsc, even jflondeivd liorscs litidiii;; a i-i'iidy niiirket, 
and, Hii tiir ar ix known, iio ill efTeetx reunited. 

Many yifln* ago, wliwi the r'nni'fj"-'t was veri' prM'alciil in itohemiil, 
tlio iliwcaM-d eatilr wen- kilhil nnd Imrieil hy onler of the jtovernmenl ; 
but the jM-orer eJa*** dug up ihe iitnaK'^i^ oml cooked and ale ihrm 
without ■"uflVring any evil (■oii!«e<jucUf(* whatwwvcr. 

During the prevulnioe of the Mime difca^ iu Kngland in the early 
filxtii^, the rnrnt fnim the dtMiised aniiiial." in nil KliLgc" of the dbteiu- a 
per wax M'lit iu enormonif (|iiaiititie^ to market, and Hild and vutvo I 
without evil effects. A similar immunity has ot^eti Ivc-en noticed afltf 
> VUttWK A'iXj^tae, \m&, No. 5, ]i. 41(1. 




TBAXSMISSrON OF DISEASE BY MEAT AND FISH. 43 

die consumption of the carcasses of animals dying from acute pleu.ro- 
ptmoaia. In ordinarj- cases of this disease, which is peculiar to beef 
dttle, the effects are localized in the lungs. Sometimes, in very pro- 
■HHinced cases, the flesh is altered in appearance, becoming dark and 
discolored, and it is also moist and flabby. It is believed that the meat 
is edible, if it possesses a normal appearance. The meat in rinderpest 
nndergoes no marked change in appearance, excepting in advanced 
rasK, when it is dark in color and flabby and of disagreeable odiir. 

Id ordinary cases of foot and vwuth disease, it appears that the car- 
rasB is edible, but in exceptional cases, when the animal has suffered for 
a long time, the flesh may be so deteriorated as to be undesirable. As 
a nile, although the disease is very infectious, its course is mild and 
blnferes only slightly, if at all, with the condition of the meat, which 
g«ierally cannot be distinguished from that of healthy animals. 

Although many instances are kno^¥^l that show that the meat of 
iBimals suSering with anthrax may be eaten without injurj', it is the 
nnaiiimous opinion of those who have given the matter attention, that, 
i» matter how good the meat may appear, it should be condemned and 
fetmyed. If the meat is well cooked, accidents are rare, but many 
cases of fatal injury, involving a large number of victims, have been 
traced to the use of such meat, presumably not thoroughly cooked. 
In spite of the protection conferred by cooking, there is such an cle- 
■Deot of danger, even in the handling of the meat, that lis use should 
be discouraged and forbidden. In Scotland, it is a common practice 
with &rm laborers and other poor to eat the meat of sheep which 
bave died of acute inflammatory diseases, even of anthrax. The car- 
os.^ of an animal dying of disease is the perquisite of the herdsman 
and almost invariabTy is eaten after being salted. No precaution is 
token, except to cut away the darker portions of the meat which 
^w stagnation of the blood. Occasionally, serious consequences, 
due either to imperfect cooking or to insufficient siting, result from its 
coiLxitmption. 

It is held generally that the flesh of animals that have died from 
Hc/inomycMM, puerperal fever, " strangle)!," hog cholera, and nhe^i scab 
i» unfit for human food. 

Tuberculosis. — The cattle disease most commonly known iu this 
"'Unlry, if not elsewhere, is iuhercuhsix, and concerning the advi.^iubility 
cif aiing the flesh of its victims', there is much difference of opinion, 
oereand abroad. The illscase is more common in cows, es[>eciflllY those 
kept in confinement, than in steers and oxen. It is almost an imknowu 
di-ease in the great henls roaming the we«teni plains. In Berlin, iu 
lS!l2-9:i, 1.5,1 per cent, of all rattle, l,r>-7 jx^r cent, of swine, 0,11 per 
"'Dl. of calves, and 0,004 per cent, of sheep .■^hinghtcred showed some 
evidence '>f the existence of the disea«o. In Copenhagen, in the yc;irs 
11*90-93, the figures were somewhat higher than those of Berlin, ex- 
eppting in the ease of sheep. They were as follows : IT. 7 jwr cent. i>f 
rattle, 1.5..3 per cent, of swine, 0,2 jwr cent, of ealves, and onlv one 
rfieepout of 337,014. At the abattoirs of Leipzig, in 1897, nearly 



liiilf* iif tlic nuvs and about 20 jwr cent, of the other cattle were found 
t» t>e tiilK^rt-'iilniiH ; 2.78 jK'r CMit. of swiiie, 0.2 [h-J- «-j»I. ul' wiIvi'k, tuiil 
8 i*lntci> out of 49..55(l. 

Out of over Si'KH) beeves ofAmeru^n origin liuidi*), ^ la ugliu-n.il, 
iLiiil exiitiiiniil lit Muinliiir)^, t ui-iv fonnii to Ik- tiilicrvuloU)^ while of 
tile xjiuie uuuiIkt of native unmuil^, 040, or ItJO tinier as maoy, were 
tbuiiil to Ih' uillietcd with tlu- dbxai^c. At thiit ticiiv the (iumiiiti pirtm 
iiiui bwti currying on one of it* periodical agitations a^iQf^t the impor- 
tation of Americaii bwf cattle on account of the dangers tii which 
native brwdw were iheieby Mibjcrtol. 

In tireiit Dritain, .10 pc-r oeiil, nf the eiiwfl are <:-:*tiniated h_v Maiv 
Faydcaa to \n'. tulKTculiitiH, In lidfrium, of 20,>*iJ0 aiiimali^ tested 
with tuljewulin in 181'lJ, 4K,S>< per cent, reactwl. In IVnmnrk, of 
fi7,2fi.'l ihit" U'stiil, .'i2.S0 |n r iscnt. iiiu-li-d. In Mojtioii, nlwut H lliipd 
of thu bwvet- phiiijrlitoi'ed :uo [itIktcuIous, 

In this oomiln,-, wliih- tlii^ jH'itvutap- of affVi-liil uniniaU is low, it U 
bvlit'Vtil to be on the increase, both with rattle and *winc. lu the 
State of New York, it is mid liy veterinarians that, in some districts in 
whii'Ii thf herds an- nniinlv "f the hiinlv pnide.» of the Ayrshire, Hol- 
stein, and Short-horn faniilit^, about I per cent, of the cows, and in 
otliers whore .JiTsi'j-rt and (JncniMcys an- mort- conniion, alxiiit 2 (o 3 
per cent, are tiibercidous. In MsissjichuBetts, those in a position to be 
best informed state that, ainoiijj: cows, the discaise i.'* niiioh more frvigiient 
than in New Yorh, hut that it i« niri'lv Hi be found in Hilvt'?^ j^tt-crs, 
and oxen. In Pennsylvania, thn State veterinarian I)elieves that not 
over 2 per cent, of all cattle are tuWreidous. At the hirj^ abultoiri) of 
this conntiy, alumt 1 in 2,(H)0 cattle is found to be tuberculous. Dur- 
ing tlw two y<«r. eiidiil.liinc SO. ISSSI, S,fl.'!l,!)27 ^itllcwcre ini<|H'ct«I 
by the Fedciiil ioillniritie«i, and '!,<'>1h, or 1 in I,2o!), were condemned 
on account of tnheivnWis. Durinjr IHOO, of 4,8fil,lGfi insiKvtixl, 
5,27it, or 1 in 021, weix- oondemntd, Of 23,336,884 hog* ins|«cct«i, 
6,440, or 1 in 4,2!H) wore ^nufticienlly affected to warrant condemnation 
of at Iwi^t a [Mirt. of the enniiKM. 

The orgjins involved most fre(|ucntly in tubei-cidosfe of anii^ialn are 
lh« liver, hiiup, kidneys, briiin, and nddor. The niuschs aic iillli-it-d 
vvry- nircly. although the bacilli have been found hi the cxprowetl Juice. 

At what stage of the disease meat tHvomea niiiit for food, is a quei*- 
tion over which there is much c-ontroversy. l-'xlreinists on the one 
side believe in condemning the entire carcass on the slightest cvi<ience 
of di.-H^u^' in any jiart theri-of, Mliilc rho.«i- on ihc other Mde maintain 
that the entire animal may be ukJ ns food without iiijtirA'. In Bn^ 
land, the practice i.-* to condenm any HU-eiL-ts in which the disease 
bii* nnnle such extensive pnigrcjw tlint the (lesli hji-< beeonic dete- 
riorated. TIte Roval Commisjiion on Tuhei-culosls ' concluded that 
nii«l from InlH-n-uKius animals may \«'- consuniitl with impunity, if 
sufficient discrimination and nire tiiv exercised in slaughtering and 
dressing. Every i>art containing tubercles should be iianoved and 
'The ^'<!lcrillar7 Joiimii] uid AruuUs ut (.vrnpomlivc ratlioIoBj, Jan«, lUSi. 



1 




TBANSM^SION OF DISEASE BY MEAT AND FISH. 45 

destroyed, and the whole carcass itself in advanced or general 
toberculoeis. 

The French law excludes carcasses with generalized tuberculosis and 
Ikee in which local lesions have involved the greater part of an organ. 
'Rie same is true in Austria. In Pnissia, the meat is held to be unfit 
for food if the animal has b^un to show emaciatioD, but is passed as 
fit for humnQ consumption if the disease occurs in only one organ, and 
b general, if the animal is well nourished. In Belgium, the law of 
September ^30, 1895, permits the sale of meat of tuberculous animals 
ifler sterilization. 

Meat from tuberculous cattle is infective to other animals in very 
I'ariable degrees. As a rule, the more advanced the disease, the more 
likely is the meat to be infective. Experiment has demonstrated that 
infection depends to a not inconsiderable est«nt upon contamination of 
ll» meat, in the process of dressing, by the hands, knives, or cloths, 
»liich tiave been in contact with tuberculous matter. 

Although lesions in the muscular tissue itself are not at all common, 
positive results have repeatedly been obbiined in exi>eriments in which 
the expressed juice of the metit has been injected into susceptible 
inimalji. Thus, Kostner obtained 9 positive results in 1 1 injections of 
flie juice of the meat of 7 tuberculous animals, and Steinheil transmitted 
the disease to guinea-pigs by means of juice from meat apparently 
Bound. Arloing inoculated the muscle juice of 1 tul>erculous cows into 
gainea-pigs and demonstrated that that from 2 of the animals was infec- 
ti^'e. Nocard produced the disease with the muscle juice of but 1 of 
2t tnherculoua cows with which he experimented. All of these cows 
had been condemned at the abattoir on account of extensive lesions. 
Woodhead, Galtier, Humbert, and others have met with varying degrees 
of success in similar experiments. 

That tuberculosis can be transmitted to animals by feeding them on 
tuberculous material has been abundantly proved, but the lesions pro- 
duced almast never involve the muscular apparatus, and many of the 
aibjects escape infection altc^ther. It was reported, for example, by 
Thomassen, at the Tuberculosis Congress at Paris, that of 10 young 
pi^, each of which was made to eat 4.5 kilos of meat from animals 
with advanced general tuberculosis, but 2 were aEFected, and their por- 
tiima had contained a quantity of splintere<I bone, Raveuel ' lias held 
i"t a long time that food tubercrilosis may appear first in the lungs and 
cenical gbnds, and cites the case of 2 cows which, fed on tuberculous 
naterial, developed extensive disease of the lungs and lesions nowhere 
else. As stated by Dr. D. E. Salmon,* Woodhciid, St. Clair Thom|>- 
^D, and Lord Lister have f^hown "thai infei^tioii through the mcdinni 
of the food may not necessarily be iicconi[Kinie<l by disease of the in- 
testines. The organs fir^t attacked after tmling on tuliCRular miiloHiil 
may !>e the mesenteric glands nn<l liver, or even the brouchial and 
mediastinal glands and the lungs." 

> Philadelphia Medical Journal, August 14, 1901, p. 28-1. 

' BulletiD I<o. 33, Bureau o( Animal Industry, WaHbingtoii, 1901. 



46 



FOODS. 



As is well known, the hnflWrn^ "f hiimnn tiihcrciilo«is U filial to nuinv 
»f the lower iininuil>, bul, ii* waf fmiiitfil nut by Pn>fw-y"ir TlK-iikild 
Smitli several veatv. before Kiwh advain^ttl tlie ^tat*'im:nl a.-» uripiml 
with liinisfll' iit lln- TiilK-rr-iiliwic Oiiinn-st al [»i)([uu in IftOl, it faik 
to find ill the iMivinc liiuly the tx>U(Iitioii)^ neces<<irv In ili^ mtillijilitalina. 
Till- re nn-, it i^ Inic, inntiiiu^v which nlniw lliiit ii iimv jxhvw*! in pn»* 
iliK'irij; exteiif'ivc Iiviuiu in the bovine Bubject, but there are, on tbe ' 
other hand, nnmeroiih ex]K-riuii^utfl nvonKil which hiivc yicUlrtl nt^- 
tivc itwilifi. ll IK Kiid tliiil, Ix-fore the di'^i'vcry of the sjitcific nrgiin- 
ism of the tlise:i.se, Bollinger snw(»Hlwt in prtHliicin^ tnlwreiilosin in a 
nitl' with hiiiniin litlK-ri'iiloii^ prixliicl^. The exjiorimciitt' of Sheriduii 
Dek'piuf ' Were ei|HMll_v t-uceeTstiil, To one of two calves, he gave 50 
c.c. of mixiil .-initimi with iti> fixid. In 'ZH duv> it dit.'d. No evident^ 
of tiibeix-ulosi'" wa* toiiud in iiiiy oi-gan esm>l the gland" I'onucctni 
with the alimeiitarv canal, and thew yicldwl viriilciil l>acilli. The 
other fiilf wHi* inocuhiteil in the |jintoiieal cjivilv, and US diivs atler- 
ward gyve a lulK'reulin reaetimi. St-clion .--howed marked tiiberculo-is 
of the jicritoneiiin, r-xtt'iiding In the plcnra and {H-m-anhnni. With tltc 
exwptioii of u few lymph nodes eonnei;ted with the pctitoiioum, no 
Other oi^ns were affwlcd. Sflhnoii ciles suwtswfnl cxjMTimentu liy 
Chanvwin and Martin. The former fed emnUions made fmni tuber* 
enloiii' human liinpi to two heifei^ and a bull, ull under one year old, 
Mich rweivinji but two doscji. All tlirce beeiina' extriwiv<-lv infecUnl. 
Martin fed >^piitum to U calveis '2 of which remained healthy ; the 
vtherM showed tiitien;idar nodnh-." in the iiiiistincs. 

In view of the?* •iiict-es.'iful ex[H>rimentc an<l of the nianv negative 
rttHiilk<. it would be, u> Sidnum !>tale-s not cnlin-ly eorrci'l lo bmv tliat 
hitman tubcreuWis \a not eonimniiieabte to rattle, but tliat it is oum- 
miinii-nteil only with diftieiitiy. 

Whether the Iwvine baeilliiK, by rtiison of it* bibber puthogvnic 
[lower, may ptu^n to the human rubjeot U, aeeordiiig to Smith,' a qiiee- 
tion eonecniinK whieh we have, «■« yet, no defiiut<^' knowli'dge. He has 
demonHtnite<l that the bovine and human bacilli pa'setit fairly pn>- 
notinoed differcncft* In >ev<Tid rewiK-et.-, but eoncedm thai, from cbiiical 
evidence at hand, it ap|>eai>^ powible tbiU bovine Inlwn iilofis may be 
transmitted to children wIkii very laiye nunilx-iv of bacilli are taken 
into the «y*teni in milk of e^>w» with tubercular Uihli-r.". Kavcnel* 
believer tliat, from the evidence at hand, the bovine Imeillui^ hju' n high 
degn-e of )Nith<ifri'iiic power for mnn, es|M'i'ially in the earlier years of 
life. He ha." r«v>r<lf<l ' .'i uuwt- of local infection fn)m iiontids in 
the tingi'r. aeipiinil in p<Tfornun)i autopsies on tulwreulous auimaln. 
Dr. L. I'feider'^ recortl* the (^M>e of a veterinarian who wtmndoil him- 
wlf in the left thumb while |>erforming an autopsy on a tubcrcnloua 
vow. The vrotind heiiUil wiihonl pus tin-mation. In the course of (> 

> Itriiith Mnllnil J>.<imii1, Ot. ■Id. 19(11. 

' Ji)iinuil uf KvprniiK-ritijI Unliciiio. Vut. 3, Kus. 4 mid 9. 

' Uiiim. Aiisu-i IT. IWH. 

' riiilnil.-]iiliiA M.-iViml JoiirnnJ. July 21, 1900. 

•zciiwiirin fiir Ji<(!ipcw. in. (]»H*i, (.. aw. 




TRANSMISStON OP DISEASE ST MEAT AND FISB. 47 

noDths a aodule appeared in the scar, aud later, evidence of involve- 
Knt of the lungs. A year and a half uftor the accident, he died of 
^thieis, and the joint was found to be extensively tubercular. 

CoDceming the possibility of transniiasiou of tuberculosis by eating 
tbemeat of diseased animals, there is practically no evidence of value, 
IhiI whatever danger there is, if any at all, ia disposed of by thorough 
(ooking, since thereby the bacillus ia quickly killed. Since raw meat 
\i frequently used as food, particularly in some diseased conditions, it 
is Ijesl, in order to be on the safe side, to see that meat so used shall 
be free from infective properties. 

Calves horn of tuberculous cows are generally free from the dis- 
eue, and when not so, the mother has, in almost all cases, tubercular 
mdoraetritLS. MacFaytlean reported a case of congenital tuberculosis 
before the Pathological Society of London, in May, 1899, in which the 
ledons were of the spleen, liver, and kidneys, with slight involvement 
of the lungs and almost universal invasion of the lymphatic glands. 
Of 3 other cases which had come under his observation since 1897, 
in one the cow had tuberculosis of the uterus, in another the disease 
wa* limited to the lungs, and in the third no inforraatiou as to the 
WDiiition of the mother was obtainable. In the case of a cow with 
tubercular lesions iu the lungs, liver, spleen, and udder, reported by 
Schroeder,' small tubercles were found in the portal, mediastinal, and 
bMDcbial glands and in the spleen of the fcetus. Kavenel ' records that 
a cow with advanced tuberculosis gave birth at seven months to u dead 
c^f which showed no marked evidence of the disease, except that in 
ibe liver there were two white nodules alwut -^ inch in diameter, 
b which virulent bacilli were demonstrated. Ijater, when the cow 
m aatopsied, the uterus was found to be free from tubercular 
changes, and the disease was found to be limited to the lungs and 
nesenteric glands. 

FLsh are regarded commonly as incapable of becoming infected with 
tuberculosis, but one instance has been recorded in which the contrary 
wa proved to be the case. Drs. Dubar, Bataillon, and Terre commti- 
nicated to the French Academy of Medicine the details of this case, 
which are as follows : The sputa and discharges of a woman suffering 
from advanced tuberculosis of the lung and of the intestines were 
r^ularly thrown into a pond, in which were large numbers of carp. 
After a time, many of the fish were found to be dead, and, on exam- 
ination, their livers and other organs were found to be full of tubercle 
bacilli. Healthy fish, fed experimentally on this and similar materiiil, 
became tuberculous within a few weeks, but the infected fish were 
proved to be quite devoid of power to infect warm-blooded animals, 
»ih1, therefore, it appears that there aui be little danger from the ciiii- 
•omption of tuberculous fish. A similar experiment conducted Ijy 
Honoano and Moi^nroth' gave negative results. They fed tubcr- 

' ZeilKbrift fur Fleiwh- und Milrh-hTRiene, IflOO, p. 79. 

' ProceMlinss of the Pathological Sucieiy of Philadelpbia, 18!)9. 

■ Hrgieuiacbe Rumtochsu, 1809, p. 857. 



-18 



FOODS. 



«Tiiloii!< sputum tn g(i1<lfi.4ti, which aUt it eftg«r1y and Rir wwks dimiiuitol 
living ttibcri'l? bai^ilU in their feces, but they thenuelves ranaiiKd pcr- 

f.'i-llv llt'IlllllV. 

TIr- (laiij^T from other anioiiil diseases will be considerod uDder moil 
)>oL-«)ning. 

Typhoid Fever aod Cholera. — Vot»ii* of nil kiud uiay Iw mad« th« 
iH-iiit'rH 111" intti'tiini to man, lliinij;h thenwelves iu jpiod cuudiiiou. I^r- 
liriilurly is till" iiol ii-wilili- willi rt';rJini to ov-Utm, whicli have tnuny 
times oonveywl thi' i-pwilic Mr^iiir-tiis of typhoid fever and cholera. 

Ill IS80, Sir ('liiirli'.-> ('anu^niii ' hi-()ii);liL In thi' tttli-iilinii of i[iv pro- 
fi'jwioti. that oysters, tmn^plaiitLtl from the (.tiiist of the Countj- of Wex- 
ford to thf nurthcra ."horc of Ihibliii Hny, had for wonn> y<«rft \yfttt 
tniic'li Riibjwt 10 diwiiisc Jinil Imii diiil in lnrp' niimben', Sjiwimcns 
wliit'h were examiiuHl were timnd to etjutaiii sewace niattei-s, nod invet?i 
ti^itiuu «bi)wt-d riiiit llif W-iU •'wi-re litcnilly baihtd in scwJigv." H« 
oft'ored the Biiiijfertion tliat raw oysters, taken from the shore close to 
wwiT oiilli-ts, wiTc, pcrhapi', riJ" likely to in'I as tin- v^■hil■lo of Ivpliiad 
fever aikl other diseases tis eont:in)iiiate<l water or milk, and mlvised 
thai "ovnter IhiU .ihoiilil not be hiid down al any j>oint on or eh we 
1') the mouth of a sewer." But tlie warning iipiieiir* to hiive exeitcd _ 
no more tliaii a langiii<l interei<t until 1 8!i:i, when the lat« Sir \i. I 
Tliorne-Tliiinie, in a ri'|Mirt Ui the I-ocsil (lovenniieiit Board, Mutetl 
his iH'licf ibat the spf>radi(' eases of eholera whieh had orcunied at 
vnrioiM inlniid pbuitt in Kii^fland in tlial vear were due to ov»ter^ nnd 
other shellfish fitmi sewajje-eoiitaniiiiated water at Grimsby, where there _ 
had hccn n nniull itntbri'iik of the dii^easo. fl 

111 the f<illowing year oet-mred the well-known oiilbrealc of tjphoid 
fever at Wcclevnii University, wbieh was .■•o ably and conehisively 
trat^^l hy Professor Conn ' of that institution to polluted oysters. On 
O'tolxr 20, 18fl4. iwveral of ibe nliidents were reported as slightlv 
ill, with a moderate depw of fever. Tlic nniiiber of oiscJi grew 
from <lay to (biy, aixl sliorlly iiichided several of undoubted typhoid 
fever. By November Iwt, ibere "cn- 2(1 etu^^s of tJic dismw, whieh 
number was -.hortly further inereased to 23. All of the victims werei 
men ; there wh> no illiK-<-< nmoiig the TjS women sliidenfK. InveMi- 
^tioD completely absolveil the water supply, the petieral and [lar- 
ticidar tiwul !>upptie.t of the various buawlin;,' places, and the hwal 
conditions of the dorniitorie* and outride loci};inp< "f all Mi^pieion of 
blame. It apjM-nrrtl that nearly all of the victims were memlwrs of 
tlirec of the seven oolli^' fnitrrniticj'. The eonibiiied m('mlH-iv>hi[> of 
the three was about one hundred. On October l'2th, etf:ht days before 
the dcvelojiiiii-nt of tlie fir^t -ymplom^v. all seven fraternities had had 
their initiation ceremonies and had celebrated in the usual way with ii 
(•upper. Inve-'<lit!ation of the ori^nn of the comptments of the sup]iers 
showal tliat there wsi-s but one di«h fnmi a common "source, and that 
was oysters. The thr«' afflicted societies and one other had obtained 

' BrliiA Mrrtiml Joiirnnl. ScptrniWr 18, 1S80, |i. 4TI. 



I 
I 

I 



■ llnOiti Jlrrtiml Jmirnnl, ftcptrnilKT IM 

•M<Jie«l ItttonI, Dfic I.\ ifot, jk 743. 



TBAySMISSIOy OF JJlSEASE BY MEAT AND FISH 



49 



^H lkirwi)t«n frnro a litml cWler; of tlit- rcniaiiiiiit: tlircc, two lind biMi 
^H uovrtefv, »n<) tho Uiinl liiul liiiil soinv f'nxu :■ dtakT b Harltbtx]. Of 
^^L||Mtf Mippliei] by the local dealer, one )iatl <^tt-it the ny:<t<-n< (■■xiliitl, 

^^HH9r'''*^^"''*^''^'''P ^^'"^ ""' <"^">'1<-'''- Till!" till' Iruiilik- w}i» »itU-(i 
^H(H<ni to liif raw oyi-t<?rs from tho li>cal tk'sili'-r. But there- was one 
^H victim who n'.v^ ii iioii-ruwii-ty tiiHii, mid, di'iii'ly, \w ctiKc <iiiiM n'll \k 
^B Mwd u» the mitialion aipper. Iiivc«tipitmn of his dietetic liistm-y 
^V eoMwIu-cl the piiill of tlie looal oyster supply even more s^-eiirely, for 
^M 't Dv ^honm tlmt he hiul »iU-n mw oy)<tvr» from the tstne lot iit tho 
^1 .4i>p'iil' tltt- dealer. It wa.» Wniod, t'Ki, that '> men from Yale liad 
^1 iillin'lnl ihc exen-ii«_^ of ttie ^.ii-ii'lic-< in whieli (lie oulbr«ik oceiirTViI, 
H ami iiuiuiry developed the inlbmiation that 2 of tlie 5 wei-e seizi-d with 
^M iT])hi)iil fe\-er some weekn nlU-r ilicir n-runi to Xew Hiivt-n. Kiirrln-c 
^K iiive^ii^iiou revealed the fnet th:it the incriminated oyi-terR hud Ixvn 
^M bruii^it fn>ni :i h(il tii liniifr Ulitiiil Soiind, nnd, on OcIoIht lOlli, (wo 
^m ihn before use, Imd been store«l in a )xtl at liie mouth of the Qiiin- 
W ni|Hac River, a ^hort diAluiice (rJO() feet) from the outlet of a pri\'ate 
I drain fn)ni u dwcllin)?. in which 2 ]>crif(init liiy ill with <y|>hoii) fever. 
I Shortly al>er liie puhlii^alion of this ease, Sir WilliMm Ilroiidhent' 

I piMidied lh« fuels of a nnmlier of eawK "f fever, se«ii by him in 
L^ OUHlllatioii, which apix-ared to be connected witli tlie iugeti^tion of raw 
^B *^fta», altliouf^h no niMolntc proof wny a<ldiieiHl. The»e inehide<l rhc 
^V Mkwin^ : (1) A yomig woman who, durin); cnn\iilcficeiice from child- 
V birtb in a sanitarily |M-r1ii't hous*-, hi whieh no other innialc was sieU 
f^ ia any way, had eaten raw oysters. Ten days aftenvard, she eanie 
down willi typhoid feviT of an nnnnnally severe t)'|>*'> fron> whieli i^itic 
(lid not mxivcr. All tlie water and milk which »he Lad taken had 
been boiled. (2) Two ymin^ men, inmates of the siime lioiiw, in 
which there wiw no other siiekncwi, B>)th the hon^e and the place of 
buaiiieaa where they wei-e employed were in fp^ioil .<initan' condition. 

tTI«y were Mswtl^ mimnlUiniHiuKly, with typhoid fever uf on unnsnully 
^ere form, for which there was no npi>arent cjmse, eseept that, ten 
Jays liefore tlie apjiearaiH* of symptoms, tiny ale iin oysU-r snpper 
fcoKctlier, Both cai^es terminated fatally. (.'!) A yoim;; woman, who, 
ten to fourteen days before, had on two oei^sions I'nten a half-tlu/en 
^^fy»1er» with n e*infln of the «»nie age. She had a miM attack of the di»- 
^Bkw, as did also her cousin, wlto, in the meantime, had gone to Italy, 
^Biberv she, too, was seized. (4) A man iiikI wife, who weri' seized 
^P^lh the di»Miw at the s:ime time in a house which was Ntnitarily per- 
fect. No possible eanw was u])i);ircnt other ihitn th;it, '2 we>'ks Iwfoi-e, 
^_|iic}- had imhilRcd in oysierv. (o) A yomig man, who hud V-cn i^tek 
Hfcr A weeks with inlluenza and bronohial eatari'b. (Te had partaken 
^nmvly 'if ovuter*, nod lisul dt-veloficd tvphoid fever. No other person 
in the boui^hold, whieh was a targe one, had any ^icknes-. (I>) A 
der^rman un<l hi^ daughter, liviii;; in ii nirul <ii;>iriei when' typhoid 
fever was unknown. The sanitary condition of the premii^cs wac [kt- 
fed, and no other n)eml)er of the household wax nick. Inquiry 
I Britiib Mrdkal Joiirna], Jan. 13, 189&, p. 61. 




FOODS. 



shovrod that, about 2 weeks b<?lure, thcv Itad Iwicci luul oyNteFS frooi 
London, iind that ihoy alone hail itiieii iheni. 

Shortly aflvr tlip rffwrt of Bnwilhinit'* wisps, N. J. J(ijin»oQ-I>avi« ' 
related <.'ortaiD tn<7ts uhich he had iiutical while hi practice at Napli':^ 
in 1870. (lustni-iiitt-.stiiiiil clltonlci':' wen- i.-vim-i -billy iiivvali-iii nmim^ 
fitinngvrK, vanning iu intpnisity from evidence uf euujile irritiiiion to tlw 
niiwt !<ove-r(! fomip of tyjihoid lever. \\"licncv<'r he and iiii< wifi* ftt« m 
oyKtcfs, they wifrertHl fiiiin iiilk', diarrlitca, and tene<:niu<T. Ga"in>- I 
intestinal ftyn»])Hinw in hi." [KitientB very (tiniinoiily followtil ititini: raw 
oysli'i-!*. Tlnwc niM.* iticUidiil i-lininii:- f^ij^tni-intvii'tinal iliMurtiaiicw, 
very stubhoni in chann-tfr. aud typhoid tcver, often of a very ssevere ■ 
tyjM'. He notiet^l, Um, lliat thoufih no sipknww wn* ctiiined by etitiiig 
oysters at the spvcnil pliuci^ ;iIon^' the Italian coasl fnfin which tlie 
Napli-fl Mjpply WH^ obtainwl, when tln'V wen- bn)iit;lit to Najiles and 
kept for wiiks mid Miriicliiiies tnontli!' in the harbor iu a bed Ic** than 
(iO feet removed from the outlet of one of the main seweis, their 
use wiin by no mums iiniuteiideit bv riiik. At tliii^ plnir, individual 
dciilei-s Hlorc<l their oyster?; in biijiketf, whieh were ])ulled up through 
tlit- tiltliv watur us ih-i'iimhh di'inaiKli.<d. .Sum- i)f the ny^ti-rs were 
euuiiiiKtI. They yielded e\idenLe of jiewage iu the wntcr Ix-tween 
their wlie-lls, 

Arthur New«holmtv Mf<lieal Officer of Brighton, Kiightnd, nv 
piirttti that, during l(tl)4, 8;{ iiifees were returned to him a« typtioid 
fever. ]n h"i iiiMarn'irn, the ori^iti:il diiifrmtHi* was found to In- inir>r- 
reet, ancl an ifpial uuiulKr were found to be imported eaws. lie in- 
vestiftiilwl the pnibable eauiH^a of tlic remaining ■%Z atfvg, and decidMl 
tlint no U-fis than 1 '< were due to oysters, and li to other eoutaminated 
8helhi»h (eliimx, eoekles, and miiwM.-l.-t), In olher w'oril>, -W |M-r i-ent. of 
the gemiiiie cawt* of ty]>hiiid fever wei-e due to these article.* of food. 
In a later i-ommuniiaition,' after a tlioiiiiifrh i-\ainiiiatioti of the canted 
oceurriug during a ]H-riod of four ycttre, he n-j>ort(-<l the ]Kn'entiip-fi of 
eaiww prribablv due to oysters and miisseJs as follows : In 1894, 38.2 ; 
183-1,33.1); 1896.31.8; I8il7, 30.7. 

Cliantemesw ' relates the following case : There had 1»«'U no ease 
of typhoid fever in the villiigi- of I'Heranlt Saint Andr6 de San- 
fconis for alwut a year, when, on February I'ltli, a *ho|ikw|M>r retvivwl 
'a eonsignment of oysters trom Cette. The entiiv lot was consumed by 
1) perMHi.-", ail of xvliom were nmde fiek. In the 'i dwellings in 
whieh the vietinL- lived, no other inmates were sick in any way. Eight 
of the ntiiTilH-i- wciv made oiilv nliglillv ill, the symptoms, whieh in- 
cluded abdominal |>ain, vomiting, tharrhtpa, borlior\-gmu)<, unorcxia, 
and general malaise, lasting but 2 or -i days. The 4 youngest, who 
«t« bnt a few, wen- vei^ sick for a much longer time (15 to 2't diiys), 
but recovered. The stools wen- very offensive, weii- jMissed with |Hiiu, 
aud were dysenli-rie in np|K«iraHi'i-; llu-n- was lynip;inite» with teiider- 

' Brili*li Muliml Jounml, Mnrcli 0, 1886, p. .Wfl. 

' n.i.fmi, .IrliiB S, ISHS, |.. rjS.V 
m • I'uMk- llrfilrli. Seplt-rntvr. lK!tS. 

■ * Bulletin de l'Aiii<l«>nilc dc Mi^crinc, Ii!!N!, 3.V^ p. 668. 



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TBASSXtSSION OF DISEASE BY MEAT AND FISH. 51 

nese and gurgling. All 4 were greatly prostrated. The remaiDing 2, 
& wotnuu of twenty and a man of twenty-one, developed very severe 
cases of typhoid fever. The woman diLtl. 

To satisfy himself as to the probability of oyster infection, Chante- 

moise secured s{tecimens from Mcverul sonreas (Marenne, Ostend, 

Portugal, etc.) and made bacteriological e\amination:^. They yielded 

an abundance of bacteria, and many were found to contain B. colt (■om- 

minu. He placed some of them in water intentionally infected with 

typhoid stools and cultures, iiud after 24 hours, removed them and kej)t 

tbem another like period before .subjecting them to bacteriological ttvt. 

Tb^- yielded the typhoid organisms and B. coli caiitmiiiiiti in great 

numbers, 

Mosny,' to whom the French authorities referred the whole subject 

of miillusk poisoning for investigation, hasreporte<l that 5 members of a 

fiunily of 7, living in a village in a suburb of Paris, in which tliere 

had l)een no ca.sc of typhoid fever in 4 yoans, were made sick after 

eating oysters sent to them from C'ette. Four were seized in the 

wening of the following day with gastro-intestinal disturbance, which 

lasted 24 honr^. On the eighteenth day, a youth of 17 years do\'el- 

<*p«l unmistakable symptoms of tj'phoid fever, of whicli, 9 <lays later, 

he died. In March, 1897, Chatin' rejiortod the case of a family, of 

which several members were stricken with typhoid fever after eating 

oyrters from a bed which was contaminated by sewage. 

In 1889, De Giaxa* made a series of investigations of the influence 
*>f sea water on patbi^nic bacteria, and found the following conditions 
to be favorable to growth and multiplication of micro-organisms in 
harbor water : Shallowness, stagnation and high temperature of siir- 
fece water, abundance of vc^tation, and admixture of sewi^ rich in 
organic matter. Certain path<^nic forms were found to succumb very 
quickly to the influence of the ordinary specief of water bacteria and 
others to be &r less HUsceptible. Some were foimd to thrive well in 
sterilized sea water and to retain virulence for many days. 

It was shown hy Foote,* after the outbreak at Wesleyan University, 
tittt typhoid cultures, introduced within the sheila of oysters from the 
M from which the incriminated oysters were derived, were virulent at 
ihe Hid of 48 hours, which was the period which elapsed between the 
K^hering an<l consumption of those which aiuscd the outbreak. Fur- 
tbermore, it was demonstrated that, if the specimens were kept at ru° 
F., the organisms were active as long as a month later. 

Joseph Polak,* of Warsaw, examined oysters fn»m Ostcnd, Hol- 
Iwd, and Odessa, and concluded that, during transportation, the life 
pfiresaes have an undoubted inimical influents on biictoria, diminishing, 
Md in certain cases destroying them completely. His conclusions were 
ilistinctly opposed to those of others who had determined that the ty- 

I Revue d'Hygiine Jan,, Feb., and March, 1900. 

' La Semaine mMirale, 1S07, p. 9. 

' Zeitrchrift fiir Hygiene, VI., p. 162. 

• Medical News, March 23, 1S9,5. 

> Sanitar? Record, April 30, 1897, Supplement, p. 47, 



S2 



FfiODS. 



li 



phoul fevfr oivniii:<iii lives longer in thv tijwu«* nnJ jiiw* of tlw oysler 
Uuti Id fivM naUT il^i-lf. 

Klfiii df^tw'iiil W. nu/( fommunui in oy!»lcr!< fi»m lyjdioitl-inft-cuJ 
hctis, nud I'ound that oysters, k^it lur a tiin« in scu Mater inten- 
tionaUy iiiftinM with B. ti/phait>ui, yk-lil tho oi^ui^m aftw 4 it» IS 
iljxyi^ t'lioK-ni ItiifK-rui wtre il«»<>iirtrat«i in an iwtivv statp after 
4 to !>' (iavf.. \Vo'mI MitijwtMl oystci-s U* diolera-infwn:^ s«i n-utur, 
unci I'oiitiil iIk- Uidmii at ihi' wuJ wf IH, l»it imt a(Vr 2M, ilaye. 

Aorortling to Boycc, tlie typlioid orgiuiitun will not grow iii the tiasuett 
of Ok tty»u--T, aiid, in fnt-t, [HTii^ht^ ni)iidly llien-in, if the oyxtvre lire 
removeil to pun? wu water. Bnt, a(ii->irding to Klein and Fonic, the 
orjpiiiinni liiH^, nuiltl|>li<'.", and i.- vinilinii for u lonjr time, if the oysiws 
storwl in ijolliitwj whut. Kli'in found it %'iruk'nt iiftw .1 iveiJcs, 
Fooie reportwl tJiat, dtiring the first 2 weeks of tnimetsion iii 
loid-infii-Icd watiT, it niiiltijilits in thp tixHiKM of the oy»lcT u)d 
.i.-n dimiiiinhcti, but can iitill be found iitYvr 'M dnVH. 
FiY>in !i K4'rii?< tit' iL'.x|ii-r'iTii(-nln iniilcrliiki-n to <li-l«-rniini: the qiif^tion 
of \iultility of the typhoid oipiniMU in Bca water and wittun the oyster, 
Borduiii-UffWdiim and /t^ioni ' roncluilcd that it will live owr 3 
weeks in sen uiiter and from 3 to 4 vltiyf in oystere, without 
le^^niiig of vinileiiw. Oyatfrs from Sjiezia, Venice, and elsenhere. 
wvrc examined to dcleriniiii.' the pn?ti'ni-e of lh<- tvphoid or^miKni in 
the water cjiilained Iwtween the sJiells or in tlic tisj^ues. The remits 
ycere nq^tive on thin {xiint, hut the colon Imdllus was isolated frnm 
ovstcrs from 3 different sources. Oysters Immersed in sterilized sea 
w'aicr, whii'h Inter was infrrted witli oidlun'> of the tj-phoid orpiiiiMii, 
yieldwl virtdent Iwieilli fi-om the water between their shells uj) to the 
ninth day <*f examinnlion, bnt never from the lisAnes themselves. ' 

Other ohservent have found the baoteriu of eholent and ty])hoicl fever, 
B. coll eonni'imui, B. frdteim vulr/arin, and other organisms, in oysters 
contaminated by wwage, and nil unite in the cipinion tliiit the pri^H-iicx' 
of B. <Wi wmniimw r'liould arouse suspicion and induce impmvements 
in the monagcmcnl and supervision of oyster tiedt. 

In llie investiipition '>f ontbreaks of typhoid fever cuppniwdly due to 
oVsteR! bneterioI"fn<al proof of siK-cific infection of those eaten or of 
oibers from Ihe same lot always hii" been inul always will be wanting, 
a]icc louK Wfore the aplH^ir:inre of the first symptoms of the disease, 
the material i* no lonp-r available foi- invesii^ilion. But, in view of 
the fiwl iliiit patho{.t-nic bneterift have been found in the water between 
tiie shelI.-> of ovsters from |>oIlnt«I biil« , that they have been known 
to Uvr for day's in the IJKsues and reliiiiKil wiitcr; nml thai, in tlic 
invwti(iat«l, tl"^ ^^^ have biTU found to 1m? exposed to tlie inllii- 
at sewMW, we may, Uiei-efore. properly conclude llml a causal rela- 

m » TtffT po^ible. 

-j^ ^Hcr of infection arises wholly IVrtni the presi'ne*' of sewage 

^ -ater where tlu' oyster- are planted or stored. The reinwly lies 

^^KB^^fTtne the beds t" cleaner .situations or in storing the con- 
delb Btttli.' Sooi«U linliiuui d'igicOR, ISUO, p MO. 



^ 




J.J 



i 



potsoNraa by meat axd fish. 



oS 



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v: 



tf 



I 



^taminalcd »ystcr« iu ck'uii ava wiitcrr until ttic biu-U-riu vithrr hiivp |ier- 
[ixhcil If have been waisbul away. MHiat constitute** a Hullicieiit l<^n^li 
[of lime to in?^iiiv |>iirifi«itii>n, in h iimll^-r dP wuik- ilivif^rciiiunl. Miinv 
^bi-lii-ve livHt a WH'k ii^ onou^h ; uthei^, tlint llj iliiy^ should be :illi>wvd. 
(>)-*tcr» F^oiilil imi lie i-tunil wintn.' .--ttwa^e matters van iviicli ilicni 
through li>Qg (IL-itances by ciirrciHi^ along tin- sliori?, nor where prevailiug 
vrincU mn exert a tuirmtiil influence to t\w iaixut eucL 

Poisoning by Meat and Fish. 

Animal tooAf* are t)i<- f'ltnjuent aiu^. of most diHtresiung disordeni 
wbicb no* raivly liavo a liitjil tprmiiiation. Skiic oI" tlie<e aix- dut- to 
|K>i.-Hinoa>4 pr(i(X'rtio.4 iiiheiir-iit in ibc living auinifd, mnue to bactrrial 
|Bti<ou» fomKil in niuiU sbowing no (•viu(-ni'<- iif uiiwIinli-wMtw-ncM, 
and rwme to decouijiustcion pi-odiictit devplo|H'(I duriu|r stunigt- or pntro- 
fiu.-tioii. 

1. Poisoning Due to Substances Normally Present in the Living 

Organism. — A« lui.' Int-n sUitwi, ivrtain sjhf^iiw of tisli aiii always imi- 
M-noii-i luid othcni only at timct^, luid in some av^^^ only iniliviilnal 
[Qfiiibers are t^ mn^titutwi. <"i']-tiiin !'|H?i>ii-_-* are .-o well knowu U> he 
poiwuoiw in ]»crfwlly fr**li condition timt Ibcy iievor mix; witoii by tlio 
tives of the |>Ia'«s wherp thoy are found, ex<x;pt for purpose™ of sni- 
i<i(li^ S>nii.* Iiitvt- iHiiiuinoiis f^linidi' iimiici-kil ivilli llii-ir Ihin, miuw Iihvc 
poi»>nous ovaries, and oihertt are [loiHiuuiii^ tln'oii^liont. 8onie are 
pobonmu only iu the niw ■•tjilc, mid otiier* wbctliiLT <!ooknI or not. 
The symptoms produced varj- widely, ^ometiinft- indieittin^ gasttv*- 
«"nl«'rilt«, MnM-tinK-j< iiivolvonKnit of tbir wntrHl »<.T\'onis M'otcin. 

Tlie niui-"!-el i» rejpinled not uiieommonlv as an intrinsieallv ]Kil-onoUfl 
HbcllHib, but ihe weiglil of i-vidi-rnH' iiiitli'uti'Hi tbiiT inns«i-l-|Hiiiuiiiiii|; iif 
due to ^vnditioui< of tli'VOfe i>r iiifoctiou arising from residence in juil- 
lutcd water. lis poUonons pn>|M>nJts bitvi* long Vit-i-u nis^riizcil, luid 
huvi; bi-cu tin* "iibjcct of u unmbcr of dissertations by early writers; 
thus Bclirens, Df it^eeiionibus a fomtxtin mirln/i", Hannover, I7:io. and 
iliH-hriii);, Mi/litliiriim ijHuruiufuiit rrnrnum rl ii'> '■" imliiii jmjiiilfiK rnfi' 
tioTf* EjiiMolit, Xurembeijr, 1744. In l-'ram*, where great rjuantities 
if nius^-1^ are taten, ca.-'eN nf |H>i.'>iiTiinf; ibi.'ri-fnriri an- niii-, owing 
diiiibtli-jvi Ui the fti-t tbiit those taken fn»m jmlluied harbor^ are Icept 
for a week or more in eli'aii water i-lvr-wlici'c-. 

2. Poisoning Due to Bacterial Products in Meats and Fish. — 
Wli.ll U known eoraraonly tw tnnit-|Mii<oiiitit;, t^rib-fm'i'iiiin^, and 
aau.-a):i'-|HiL-«>ii)n^ !■« dm- to the prodnclj; of a niimlKT of niieniH>i^^inimm« 
luiving no ponncctioo with tlie unual di.-«>iise.H of man, Tbeso p^wlucf*, 
wlikdi include loxinH and ptoniains, cau^e an extn-meK wide viiridv of 
*iytnpt<>in>, wbicb, a's mny l>e ob-ervetl on esamination of the collection 
of reporte<I outbreaks piven Ik-Iuw. inilicjite the [Missiblf doran^-moat 
nf fun4-ti(tn of pRii-ticjilly every |iart of the system. There are two 
icniupti of sjTuptoniii, li<iwever, whii'h are fjiirly eiut^tant, (-ilher one of 
wbiGO may prMlominau- over all the rest. These are (I) the maniii-s- 




u 



FOODS. 



tatioDH of profoiiiul (Iktiirbuncv of the gai<4ro-iiitcvttii»l cnual, mikI (2) 
tliiisr iii(liciitiii(r iimrc or W-« iiitfjisc jinimtiiug of iho ociinxil Dt-rvinii> 
sjsteni. Prtmiimnt anionjj tlit^- lutt<T mv iiiijuiintl vImoii (ililiiti-d 
|>u|iils ptaiU, aiiiphtMlipIopia, cic), ami glowo-pluiniigcal ]iaraU'Mi*; 
unJ when tlnwv niv pR.si'iH, tin- cjwc w wiiii tfi Ix- oiio "f " l>itliili*iii." 
Thic tcmi, wliioh ciiniL' into existence bv reii!K>ii of the fart that inanv 
of till" «irlicr oliwrvcti vuM.'-t of liKHl-iHiiMiniii^r wcir iran-cl to !^iiiNip.« 
(bolithui, a f^iusa^f), in, in the lijjht of owr prti^i'iit kiiow'kilgi?, unfiirtu- 
iiiiti- anil ini.->]i':iiliri^, for llu- niiiditioii inav hi- (iiiiM-d not nnlv by 
satuagc, hni by any furiii of inLtit am) HAi whit^^li may hiipfM'D to be 
conianiinattxl hy llic tniiTo-or^iui.'nin wliii-li pi^xliic-i' ilic {Hirnliar loxtn 
(or tiixinv} by wliirh tlit- m:inifrsiiiti»nri arc i';ni>-r(1. Am) it U not true, 
an ia sMpposnl by »<>mf. that botulism i> oiinswl by ttif jni)tcid baclcrul 
jHiisons aloiii- (imnmoiily known as toxins), but by ixrlain of ihc luisic 
crystalline ifii«]m?tj> of dnompoi^ition, known sis ptotuains, as, tot 
exnmpk-. mytilotuxin, a ptonmin JMiliiti'il by SalkowKki an<l Bm^T fWrni 
ooniaminatpd niUK-elK, 

Xo) ini(N>ininonl\', ptoniitiiis aiv rc);Hr(t<Hl >ih niix^Mirilv gtoisOIKNU' 
siilwtanci?*. This, howfvcr, is lar from bi-iii^ the trnlb. They are 
pnM)iiot.-< of <K-eom|MiMtion brought aliout by mii'po-or^iii(«ni-'< wliteli 
brtiik «|> the complex orginnv ninlters into less «miples roinfxjundfi, 
whifli it! iLini :iii? sj>lif up into pimliicis of dimini.-lun^ omiiilctity, 
niitil (be final pnHlnets are «iUer, hyilnifren, carlHinie adil, nulphur- 
ptUtl hydrojs'n, annnonia, tiitiiiireii, and salts. During this pn)0«ss 
of decomposition, at different stjiju'fi, the ptoinains. wliieh arc organic 
bases, are fbnnwi. Sonic tire poisonous, Imt the jrii«t majority of 
those thus far ifoI;iteiI are wholly inert. All contiiin nilnL>(^'n, hnl 
not all runhiin oxygon, thim iv^embling llie vc^i-table alkaloids. The 
\liriety of plnmain" fimneil ileijend* mum the kinils of miero-oiviinijt[ni» 
at M-ork, the nature of the snbstaneo inidctyoin); deeomposilion, ant! the 
cnn<lilion> of lcni)H'minre, iie^vss of air, iim) other alleiidiint rircutn- 
sttinee*. One sjieiies of baeleria may proflnee no ptnniains from one 
kind of material, iiiiil poisoimns or inert oni\- fiiini another. At one 
Hlflfrv of dctxMiiposilifni no ptomaine may be foniiwl, at nnotlier i^cvvnil 
may he present, and later thi'vM- may have disappeared completely, 
for (hey an- hut interniifliate prodnets, 

Rrieger luis isolated a ninnlier of varielie- of ptoniains from docom- 
|)ot-ing niciits and ti<h, inehiiliiifr iicnrine, elioHnr, and one whieh apprnrs 
lo be identieal with mnscnrine (nil three of these are uiit;i)fciinn'<l in tlwir 
)H>i«onous aetion l)y alnipine), and n<'nri<)iiie, putreseine, eadaverioe, 
another wliir-li pivujiiees effects similar lo those of enrarc. and others*. 
Van^han discovered the vm- important ptoniain, tyrotoxieon, m mUk 
and elieft^'. 

Many ()f the {loisonons e<iiu))oiindK fonnetl during pntrefeetion relaio 
their active diameter lonfi atVr the orgimisnis ihroUfth wIiokc agency 
they have iK-en protlncetl have |(erishtd. This was noted as early a» 
1X.V) by I'annm, who fianal that the [miwim of i-ertain piilrid meat 
tvtjiinetl it» welivity even al>er it had been bofled II hours, and bi* 







I 



pouioyfixa Br mkat and Fisn. 55 

•*aU(>n lias n?]tail(flly Ixth i-ontiriiuil by otlicrn. N'utunillj', no 
smouot of ciwlkin^ will suffice to render mch metit bannleite. 

Tlic lAysiolojiital niHiriii iif ihi'-n? jniU<in.t !.■* widi-ly ilitT'iTi'iit. Some 
cause intcQ-v ga-tiivinto-tiniil irriUitloii, wjiDf act diri-ctly on tlie litarl, 
nxnt' itii Um* oLiHral iuT\'im.i >ysl4'ni, and wnne mi [wirliiuliii- ct'iitcis, 
^\•r^■ JiSVrmil fffcftft arc priHliictnl in ilinV'ti'iil [K'i|i1c. I'wiiip [>crli;ipi? to 
vapj-ing decrees of suwwptibiliiy and also to uncqiml distribution of the 
isfin tliPxijH) tbc miija* of mnit. 

Tbe (!Xtt.-nt to wliieh the jnitretactive process has advanced is by no 
>t^[b> iif Kurh tni]M)rt:ini'<' in the iU'U'ninii;ilU)n of ihi- (jllcstiim of jmw- 
'«ible ill eBcde, as the nature of the ciijiuf.td iKK'tcria and of Ibfir 
pnxiactK, for tiunt nmy be pxlremeiy putrid and jet not be poi-wtnouH, 
and, oa the olher hand, may be apiHiivutly noniinl and yet di.iidly in 
ita efl"«'(.>«. Many sava^^ j>eojihs pnfi-r putrid fihh and nuiit, and the 
more rotten it if, the grt^itcr thi-ir enjoyment in if* consiini|itiiin. In 
lens dq^rte, the «inio is true of many of the most enlightened pL'ople, 
who pivfpr f^imi; wht-n dcwoni posit ion i» fairly well udvnnM^l. On th« 
other hami, tbe ^evi-rt^t outbi-eak^s of HxmI -poison I nj; have followed the 
t« till); of mint a|i|i!in-nllv ixit undcrgiiiiit: <li-i'<)ni|Ki.~ilioti. Indit^l, the 
majority i.)f persons will reject imiit ivhich has ihc slipht«>t tii>lc or 
odor indkatiu^ Ix^innin^ putreiaciion, Muec- even tliU niake.H it repug- 
nant to the mib-ei^ In luauy i-ates, the poiiwiioua ])rin<:ipl(«t iip|)uir to 
be develojx^d after the inest has been eaten, through changes occurring 
within iIk- inlti'tiiKv, 

Tbe bucu-ria which h;ivt- thus liir JKitn sliown to hnvp Ihcii iln* i'jiii«! 

of oiitl)n?:ik> of nu-.it- and ti!{h-]>oi zoning include e*.Ttjtin s|Mjri'-bcaring 

uacrulje^ injlatcd by Van Krniengem (ft. holiil!nu»), and Klein (H. 

aikritidin tijioroyrnnt), a number of dcriviitivcw of B. coH isnljiled bv 

Gntrtner (if. '■"/("/''/I'/w), Itasenau (li. bm-iM morbif{i:un»), KaeiiMshe (/{. 

BmlacieHJii» and H. Momtrlrurniiii'), (.iiifl'ky and I'nai; \fi. Friclr- 

hfrgauiJt), Abel, Giintber, and others, besides Ji. [iroteus ruljari". It. 

fniou Jliuift»c^n*, It. fn-uteoK iiunihU'm, B. pM-ictditK tirfUh (Kcbor), 

B. ligiir'tiJiitaii fujii-'iM (.Siniarclli). a micrococcus (A'aughan), and others 

munied. The fii'st-nienlioiiwl (li. /lolu/inur) pnidnt'cs .-in cxtnionfi- 

Buily vinik-nt toxin, which hii» Ikvu the Bubjeel of careful ui\-esli- 

pttui. It was i-uilale<l fivim eultunw of t\w l>ri('illii>, .iniiplic*! by the 

4uoii,-<erer, by Itrii^'rani! Kiiupncr,' who provci! it to l»c ivlated rli>sely 

to the toxini of diphtheria uml t<-tanu.%, fmni which it ilifl'er^ in 

wtniporisnt reniMit ih.il. it run atfcct tbe sy«lcni through the nuii'oiUD 

■nnnbnintTi. N.-xt. Kenipwr* invt^tigaltHl tlie t*uhji'ct of immunity to 

tbe toxin, eraplovHng bouillon i-nlluri's killc<I by the appHmticui of toJuoi, 

raltnre fillrativ {'nv from iMicteria, anil the concentrated and puritied 

pn.-uii, the sttvnjftli of whirl) wa.-. tli-ii-rmincd atTiuiiti-ly with t:uiiM-«-pig». 

The first eA|i<Timi-nt;» in immiinizinp piiinea-pigs and nibbils pmvc*! 

Hat with them immunity,- cannot U- attained even when Wginning with 

tw smallest (MMriihlf dose, >inec in every ca*e, after a shorter or longer 

' IViitwhp mnllcInM-lii- W.wliPiiwI.rifl. 1N»T No. S3. 

* Zeitwbrin fQr Rvgiciie luul liitci-tirnisknitiklicilcn, XXVI., p^ 481. 



FOODS. 



iutui'viil, iIk' luiiiual |H.>rL(1ii>d. \Vitli ^uiitjs, it van fuiiud that iniuiiinhT 
call be confcrred l>y re^wuHi'd incii:-a.-ii(g Mil>oiituiKiius injection, and ttiai 
tli« wu'iiiu of tin- irniiiiitiixi^l luiiiiiiil ikijwh.-iww ii vtay liij^li |iix)UvlivF 
jMiwer, as is i-hown by tlie fact tliat ]»rrrteftiuii if^ secured bv iiijci-tioti 
jH-rt'omiitl :I0 lioui-N Ix'tun- thfiiitnidtn-ti'iii nf the |MiiM>ii. Il wii? riuinJ 
nliHj titut tlic uutitoxiu would fave ^uiu«i-pig« when adntinistcred 24 
huiiix after iuiH'U Union with a driM^ which woulil hi> fatiit onliimrily in 
4S, and i;vcn whvv ikvidt.il cliniiitl »igu« of poisuuing were already 
present. 

I^tcj-, KcmiHicr and Sohcptlrwitky ' Vn-pm a rwwairh on tlic poMiblc 
atlinity of ueive-suljetaiipe for the to.\iii, wliicli, aw shown by clinical 
eympUmii) mid iKitJioIu^iciil cxiuiiiiiiitioii, rxliibiu it ilii-idi-d affinity for 
ccrtjiin |Hirts of the central ncrvoue system. The tw^t |x)i*«ii was »o 
staodanlized that l).(KKHK)."i cc. n-jtn-w-nlwi twice the dos* nwcwsarj' 
to liill wliitc miiv of I 'j uninmics weight in from 2 to 3 duyi!^ The 
bruins of recently kill«i guinea-pi^ were rubbed with phypiolt^cal 
Mtlt Hohition iti thit nilio of Xii )>:niniiiii'^ to 10 cc, and tlicir tunlit 
were tntilcd in a similar manner. Both emnhiions were prsctieally 
ueutral in reaction. Pieces of the liver, kiiinoy, .iph-en, nins«-ki«, and 
niiiriTiw wci't! tix-iili-d i.i the Kiinic way, to he iiwil for witnpiiiison. 

In the firat sericii of ex|KTiments, 1 cc, of the brain or cord enmlsioii, 
niixi^d with thnf to fonr tirnc^ the tiilul (loM- of ihi- toxin, mil* injiTtol 
under the skin of a number of mice, and, as controhi, other mice were 
injwtM with tlio Minic anionni of toxin alone, mid ■iiill other;' with iIik 
toxin mixed with cmuL-ions of other orpins. 1'he rci^nltf shon'cd that 
the hniin and eoixl exert a d[-<-idcd pii-venlivc nnd eumtivc inHuiitoe, 
and tliat the other organs do not. \Vith ndxctl injection it. was always 
[lONiililc with I ce. of the ejuuNion to (•onntcraet 'A times the fatal 
dose, while with 4 times tin- dose al>ont half ihe iinininl* diwl. With 
sejnnitc, but simultanoons, injections, only nliout half of the aninial.'i 
sun-ivcd twice the fulul dose, the o(hfr» liyinff alniut a.* ijniekly an tlaj 
COOtir)l>% As a cumtive agent in ca^w whei-c the poison had been 
exhibited 6 and 12 I)onri< previously, llic emulsion did not ^vc such 
fiivorable results, for those Injitiil after 12 hounf dii.'d a» eoou us the 
Oont[»ls, and Ihe nlhers livi'd hnl a day long<T. 

Wlisitever the pnilcctinjj i^iilwtmiw may 1h', il was pnive<f lliiit it i.* 
in eoniliinution with nerv'c-siihstance and iusohible in water ; its influ- 
ence in altered niuterially by high leJiipenitiires, but not by ki-t-piug 
8e^■eral dajT* in ice. 

Milk, butler, yolk of (^, and other nniunil Cits were tiied in the 
tuune way, hut no ru'ult» were obtiiitictl, cx(*plitig with linlter, with 
which two guinea-pigs were protected. Even this failed with other 
aniniHli*. A thin oil cniiiUioii, mixiil willi 2 and even 4 times lh« 
fatal dose, gave positive ivsults. Ix-cithin and choleeitcrin. Mihstanccs 
uormalty pri^st-nl in nerve-sulnianee, proved to have autiloxie power, 
which wa* unini|«iirwi by iKiiling or hiiiling; but large amounlj' were 
aeoesaary. Oilier fiubslances, as cerebrin, niiclein, and bile, ]iroved to 
' Zeiucluifl far Hygiene uuii IiifHiion^ktankLciirn, XVU^ jt, 31& 



I 

I 

I 



I 
I 
I 



POISOyiSO BY MEAT AND FISH. 57 

be inert, but antipyrin in larger anioimtfl than O.IO gramme (0.15 to 
11,20) sufficed to neutralize 0,00003 cc. of the toxin. Given m doses 
of 0.10 gramme, antipyrin had no effect, the animak dying at the 
fiune time as the controls, but when the animal:^ were trciited with 
sntipyrin as a preliminary meiisurt; the above dose was efficient, 

Onwt and Coarse of Symptonu. — The first i^ymptoms in coses of 
pnisoning by fish and meats may occur within an hour or two after eat- 
ing or may be delayed n number of dayx. In one outbreak cited (see 
Puisoning by Herrings, page 61), in which 5 persons were seized, the 
initial symptoms appeared in 2, 3, -5, 7, and 9 days respectively ; 
ordinarily they appearwithin a few hours — 3, 6, 12. When nurabersof 
pereona are affected by the same food, the onset is by no means uni- 
form. In the Ellezelles case (see page 69), in which 20 persons were 
seJied, the time in which tlie symptoms first were manifested ranged 
ftom 3 to 36 hours, but as a rule, it is the appearance within the same 
(i»yof simihu- symptoms in a number of i»ersoos which calls attention 
to the food supply as a common cause of the trouble. Poisoning by 
ptomajns is manifested generally within a few liours. 

In cases of rapid on.set, the pmgress cither to recovery or a fatal 
termination la commonly short, but may be sometimes a matter of 
nionth.%, and in these exceptional cases eventual recovery is probable. 
Tile shortest case on record is that of mussel-poisoning at Wilhelms- 
liaveD (see page 60), in which 1 victim died in 2, another in 3, and 
3 others in 5 hours after eating. 

A peculiar tendency to relapses often is observed. The patient begins 
to improve, when suddenly the original symptoms reappear with equal, 
greater, or diminished intensity. Improvement mav be succeeded again 
by a relapse, and the alternation may obt;tin fi)r many months. The 
toiins secreted by the original invading bacteria are antagonized by 
antitoxins produced by the system and improvement occurs ; tlieu dur- 
inj; this interval the spore-bearers find opportunity to develop a new 
«?Mp of Imcteria, which, again pnxiucing toxins, cause a recurrence of 
the original symptoms. 

Kttnre of Symptoms. — \n has been stated, the effects produced vary 
Very- greatly, but the symptoms of abdominal disturbance and of jMii- 
soning of the central nervous system are the most constant aw well as 
n»si predominant. Fever may or may not be present ; usually it is 
not, but in some ontbreaks temperatures excelling 104° F, liave been 
WoinJcd. In .-ome cases, the temperature is subnormal. Dislurbauco 
«f the circuLttion is more common than fever, the pulse Iwing small 
•nii rapid, and sometimes dicrotic. In a few irisfciuces, marked cmbar- 
■SAiraent of respinitinn has Imjcu noted. In most of the recorded cum's, 
Du mention is made of involvement of the kiilneys, but in sonic in- 
dices evidence of acute nephritis has been obscrvetl. Dysuria, 
•ouria, and paralysis of the hlaiUler are not uncommon. In most cases, 
Mtreme muscular weakness is a prominent symptoni, and not infrc- 
qaentiy muscular pains and cramps. While diarrhnea, hmg continu<'d, 
^ a mast common occurrence, in many cases most obstinate M>nsti|>aliou, 



FOODS. 



(Ktmntimiix following diitrrlum niid ■■xinu-liiii'^ prr^iccnt from tb« first, ia 
noted. Ill irotap cascii nlxlomiiiitl i^vinpinm^i atv bv no means proniinmi, 
and in ntliers lliey aii' jinii-liciilK' rli*' milv (>iiit« "liwncii. TIh* »jiiij>- 
twnis of invulvt'Tm-m of llic luTVoiis syt^tt-m iiiotn<le thii-e mention^ 
above, ami dwivvsine.^H or inNininiu, licatWln', dUxinew, df-liriiiiii, dimtn- 
l.tlitil <vi-(ircliii)itiuii of muvviuvnt, utLmbncKs, i-mtii|w, cunvuleions, snd 
piinilyses. 

Post- mortem Appearances. — Tlie )vi)<l-iTiorIi'ni npiJiuruiicef obteni*«l 
iu cai-(* of poitKiniiig ari.' veiy iiKtoiistimt. both aa In trxtc-nt nntl kind, 
and an- by lui iiii'iiii;- pnijiortioiwif l<i tlu- wvcrity iif lln- ^vnipli.mis. 
Evvii wiioii u uuml>cr of individimU succumb to the ^nie inHuencK^, the 
apjieanint*.-! may sliow but littlt- in eoninnni. Tliii!*, in tln> Wclb«'k 
nt«c (piif.T fi'i). oMt' showtil nothing more than a few bright red patches 
iu ihe !-tomach ; a Heeond, i-ongeMiiin of tin- fpi.-lrr-iiitotiiinl iiiucoui' 
nicjabitiuc ; uihI a lliird, wvrri' |Kiivnchynia1oii)^ inlliiuiuiatiim with dlt- 
tention and ])liigs'"H "* the arterioles and lapillarie." of the Maljiijthbia 
cor|)iiscU'n bv I'liilmli of ImcU-rin. Tlic miwt (.'xt<'[i>ive (■hnn|;fc> observed 
lire tliow ixvitrriTii; in jHiiwininj; l>y muttselii and oysler», in whii-h eases 
the extvenieiy rapid on.-i-t iind the \fi-v »hor1 coiu'sc lo a falul l<-niiSnii- 
tioii »ii}o;iwt the action ot' porwinous ptoinaii]!-. Indeed, animal experi- 
mentation ba.-« di>nion^tratKl tliat certain of these componntJn iHxiflaet 
thfw; very cliunKe*. whicli iiichidc ptfil tiilanicnu-ut of the spleen, pnnp- 
titbrm eichynio^f. and heniorrhajiric infalVIion^ and liitty df^uera- 
fion of thi." heart, liver, and Uidncv,'*. In ni.^o of itical-jHiiMinin^, tlic 
ap(Hflr:uii'i'> nottil range I'roni a few red patches iu the iotehtines tn 
severe gB^tro-fntcritis with dc»rtnict!ve rJinngts in all the priurijial 
visit 'r-.i. 

Character of Meats which Cvise Poisoning. — In jreiMi-al, ontlircakx of 
pfnwiiiinf; an- i-anmnl bv the meat of animal" j'ianghtcnil while suffer- 
ing from disctiMw other tbin tbo^' which are Ix^l known to the public 
be(^ii>« of ibo great <lei<iniction wrought when nipnp in t-pitleiuic form ; 
but they itiay ali^o Itc InicfHl to the flt^h of perfecily healthy aidnial.'* 
which has become contaminatcil, Ixith in iht- niw and rvxikcd wtattv, by 
poiM)n-|inKli icing liai'ti-ria. 

The mot-t dan^cmus form* of incat-]>oi.«)nin); ait* iIuim- due to ilie 
pya>niia9, neptieivndas, and pneiinio-enterttis and the greatest intenaty 
of lu'tion is pruduwil bv pri'pn^itlons niiidc from the enlrnilfl. 

In a miijnrilyof the re|("irtcd oiitbrtiiks, the meat lias Iwiii <<un8iilii(<(l 
either raw or isrily iniinrfietly (■txiktHJ. or al'ier being kept a day or two 
afU'r being cookeil. The meats most conniionly the cmii.m- tin- pork and 
itK preparaliouH, and vpaL llotli yield a eonniderable amount of gelatin, 
a»<l lhi.« faf't haji lietii NUf!'jc*leil ii* havinjr an imjMii'tant iH^iriiig, sintw 
ihi* material is a niedinni which ofiers fa\oriible op|xirt unities for llw 
growth of bacteria. 

Mi»t of the re]>orl«l outbirnks have occurred in the connlTie* of 
Euro[ie, where Ihe meat .inpply, in wmmMpience of being vciy restricted, 
is niili7.<il III it.-< fnllot extent. Vi<i<vra which with iik are n-jet-lfd a» 
TvfiifV, and the flesh and visct-ni of animals slaughteretl in eonseqiieuoe 



! 




POISOmSQ BY MEAT AND FISH. S» 

of mickneee, with the consent and approval of official veterinarians, ore 
yAA and eaten. Another reason for the frequency of the outbreaks is 
1 very common preference for scraped or minced raw meats and for 
nosages of domestic manufacture made under most unsanitary con- 
ditions. 

VecJ. — According to Vallin, in a communication to the Academy 
of Medicine in 1S!):>, a large niunlxtr of outbreaks of poisoning in 
G«nnany, Switzerland, and elsewhere are due to the consumption of 
veal from animals either sick or too immature. Darde and Drouineau ' 
relate that they have seen nearly the whole strength of a military 
company, 135 out of 147, poisone<l by eating roa.'^t veal. The symp- 
toms appear generally in from 6 to 24 hours, and include vomiting, 
purging, and great prostration. Dilatation of the pupil is common, 
bat not constant. Occasionally, skin eruptions apjxnr. 

By Vallin,* and by others as well, it is deemed probable that veal- 
poiwning is due largely to the exiwtonee of septic pysemiu and septic 
jmeumo-enteritLS in calves, and Van Ermcngem has suggested that a 
number of septic diseases of these animals are grouped commonly under 
the head of diarrhcea. He fed the fresh meat of one of these calves 
to mice and guinea-pigs, which died within a few dsiys with enteritis, 
from the bone marrow he isolated an oi^nism which appears to be I'e- 
laled closely to Gaertoer's B. enteritldis, and which on inoculation into 
aainals produces a fatal enteritis. 

Bfrf. — Beef-poisoning has. been noticed with considerable frequency, 
following the use of meat from animals slaughtered while sick, and it 
his been pointed out by several observers that ccrtiiin septic diseases of 
tattle are especially prone to render meat poisonous. These include the 
Septic form of calf paralysis, hemorrhagic enteritis of calves, septic 
netritis of cows, various intestinal disorders, the septico-pyromic dis- 
eases, and a number of others. Gaertner's B. aiterUidU was discovered 
lij' him originally in the flesh of a cow that had been slaughtereil on 
aoiount of a se\'ere diarrhcea, and in the spleen of a person who died in 
consequence of eating it. He showed tlrnt not only the bacillus, but 
also its Ivoiled bouillon cultures, are highly toxic. 

Many deaths have been recorded as a consequence of eating the cooked 
meat of cows slaughtered on account of puerperal fever, and it wa.-; from 
I'uch an animal that Basenau isolated B. hov'm vtorhijirann. This citw 
»lii)wed such lesions of the viscera that the director of the Amsterdam 
^tioir forbade the use of the metit. 

Bxaenau ' has examined the flesh of beeves which had succnmhed to 
> variety of dL<<ea.ses, and he has isolated a number of species of l>ar- 
■eria bearing a close resemblance to B. horijt mor/iijie'nis, all of which 
w fatal to mice. Some of them produce ]H)isoiious mutters wliirh 
'i'fetand boiling without impairment of their properties, Onlinarj' 
>ii.>(p«tion being useless for determining whether such nu'at is infecteil, 

' Archival de MMecEnp et He Pharmarie militairea, 1895. 
• Bevue ti'Hyptne, 1895 XVII,, p. 47:i. 
' ArchiT fiir Hygiene, XXXII., p. 219. 



FOODS. 

he reeutnmeiHiK that bacteriological aD<l feediii); experlinentB shotild lie 
iiii'titiiUK] i<itri^tlit>r williiii '2-t hiatm nfl<-r .■'hi iifrli taring. It' no cx>I(iniu« 
urc 'il>»ervc.l at the end of 24 Unim iiinl uw iMH-U-riii arc »i«rij iu the tw- 
wues, the meat may l»e ri-piii)«I jis sate to ait. If c<)h>uie-- are yielded, 
ihi- Mirr|itmiw nr [vjf^-tiun "I* the meal niiint (le|K'iid iijhmi the n^^mihs i>f 
the feeding ex]K>i'iTiieiit>>. If the mice fed on the raw meat die and those 
fed on the eooketl iiitvit i«iirvive, it may lie 4iiiiehiile<l dial the ittcsl ig 
lutv, if thorou}rtily evoked. If both die, the iiicsit t^liuuld unhcKilalingly 
be cou<!emiied. 

UtiiHiiijr. — Siiiwiifjc litu! long bwn rceopiiwd as a very ronuiion 
caiiw? of poiflouinji, and has a much larger record of accidents ihan any 
iither muit nr nii-Jit (U)m|ioiiii(h Thi* i.* due iii liirf^t^ j»irt tu a very 
eoninioii practice of making iii^e of all maiiuer of uninviting fragmenbt 
and tiiTi:a|iH of niHit, ott'nl, ;ind the fl(-7<h of sick and ill>«ii)diiionwI 
iinimiils in |irepiiring wiiiKige meat, ami ]H?rhaj)i« to a prcatci' esteiit to 
the ejttrenu'ly iiiL-wnitary niet.lnHln of niajinfaetiire which obtain iu llittie 
dirtn'ct* wliero thi* iiimi of jKiiKoniMU i" most prevalent. In nwmy 
iiistanecf, the Bvmptonw cautsed arc due to tlie presence of ptomaine, and 
in many to the coiitiiined baeleriii and (heir toxhiH. 

In nio«t ii]8t{Uiee>, it is imjKn^iblc to fix tlie blame upon any in- 
dividual ci>iii4litiiwit, nor a^ido fn>m its seientiHo interest is this of 
fixfiul im]Kirhiii<'c. The symjitoms present B£ wi<Ie vuriatious in cluir- 
acter as are ob-terved in any other form of food-|»oisoning 

Tile [trrimss of .Hiiiiikin^, to which c<-rliiin variclic'' of .iniiMif^fi> iifC 
dubjecteti, while not dotructive to tlie bacteria of putrefaction, is idten 
BUcCTvwftil in marking any luiplui^nt wnoll or (a»tc due to change. 

Cases Dlnstrative of Poisoninff by Fish and Meat. 

PoisoniniT ^y Mussels, (.'.vkp; I. — .\i Willie! m.>liavcn, in 18R.5, 
several longshoremeu and their tiiniilies, 19 [HTWinf in all, were stricken 
wth very .-wtvere nymptom^ shoniy after eating a meal of muii§e-lTi. 
The syinptoniB were in peiiend the nsmie in all, repinllcw* of the amount 
eaten, and included nausea hikI vomiting without alxlomiiial jviin or 
purging, trembling, iiinKtrietion of the ihrmii, iliuIiK^M', and dimini.'<liM 
eoSpduiafion of movement similar to that due to alciibolic Intoxicution. 
There was no fever. S|K^'eli wa.s diflieiilt and thick, and in a short 
time the Itys were unable to siipjKirt the Ixxiy. The puplU v ere dihittnl 
Mini niinw[MHisive to reuctioii li'>ts The extivniitiea wore cold and 
numb. Four deaths oceurretl, one within two hours, one in llmt- and 
a-hnir, and the olhers within five hoiira from the time of inge&tiau. Tbe 
Huto])sy in the only caw examined rcvealeil enteritis, enonntais enlarjie- 
ment 'if the spleen, minier'His lui'inorrhagie infarctions, ati'l fatty lU-gen- 
emtiiiii of the bean, liver, and kiilneys. 

in this vafe, the sud<len onset and rapidly fatal termination indicate 
a true )>oi.-<onin^ mther than an iiuiLnion of the system by bacteria, snd, 
indeed, the poison was provtil by Hiilkoni'ki and Bri<^r to be a ptonmin, 
to whieh thev gave the name mMilotoxin. 




CJSBS 



VIVE OF roisoxiNo nr fish axd meat. 61 



» 



I 



Cask n. — Dr. JnmeA S. Conilx",' of R4linbur|;h, rejjoptMl, in 182)*, 
an outbreak which invii]v«l ii l»r^' numlKr of pensoiiH of the lower 
cliw* niitjnit^ in aj(e from '2 In "<> yi'srs. The (in«t law si^-ii wiw ii 
man of 60, wh<i (.■■ituiiliiiiKii of ihii-<t, h«it iu tiif nioiilli, ififficuliy in 
?waUo«niig, ii-n^ion alioul the jtuvti and throat. The puli^o wiw Aniitll 
and weak, the rwi»initiiin imnnitl, tlie .turi'iKN; wm>I. The himiU weiv 
numb and ibe legs unable to MUpport the body. Recover}- Ibllowed 
piirspitivr irmiin<-iir. lit- bad >iup}Ki| ihe evening hefiin? with h frii'n<l, 
wh" dieii during; the uiRhl, Thi-y !md «iten innwcl.s boiled with «iU, 
but had n<*t»i'i7d no )xi^nUarily of taste. The next ease seen wa.-* that 
of a RUiii of 30 who, on tlie pwvion.t eveiiitij;, hiid picked n few innHscU, 
otM over five or six, and liad esiten them raw. No effects were noticefl 
unlit incirniit^. exwptiiiiT .'■li^ht biirnin); of the lipi^ and totit;iie. On 
alteniptin^; to );el up he found thai he could not sluud, although be, 
like iJk- firsi, ei>nld ninve bi^ k-^ uliout in bed. 

Although hundreds of easc^, witli many tkiitbi^ were »wid lo liavc 
oecnrred, in eon-wnnenoe of which the niagii^irates issued a wamuig 
agminiA the u-* of muwcls I^r. ConilK- (onnd but thirty e^isiw with two 
deaths. In all, the .^yniptiim.'* presented a striking uniformity, (hough 
thrv v»ric«i much in nevcrilv. Minit of llie vietini.i had eaten ibe 
mussels boiW with §alt antl pepper, and none had noticed any unusual 
taMe. In goni^nd the symjitornM apiKitred in an hour or two. 

Tbe man %vbo died bad vomited a few hours after eating. He lay 
down, had ni*.%M(jnjd genenil In-mbling. was rational to the last, and 
died as if by increasing weakness. On section a few dark-red patches 
wen' fiinitd in iIk- ileum. The :<lomncli wuh empty and pniwuled :io 
abnormal appearance. The other fatid caw; was that of a woman who 
died in three hours after eating, Tbe lUitopny reveided a full ^tniiiai-h 
<i)ntiiining miix.M^'tM and [xitalncis, and beynnd a few red [witehcf^ in the 
intestine tbe viscera were quite normal. 

In his rqwirt, I>r. Omilic n-lcrn»l to a ease n-intcd by Oaptniii Van- 
couver,' a number of whose men ate a breakfast of roiistcd mussels. 
Soon, severol were seized wiih numbness aVioui the face and extremities, 
fblkjwni by invfdveniciit of the whole iKidy. One man. who ibcil in 
five and a half bourn after eating, was unable to swallow, aud though 
he oould niw in the boat while .'iek. be wa* unable lo !*tand on k-Jiving il. 

Poisoning by Herrings. — A aise involving five persons, re|>or(c*l 
by R, David,' i- renuirkable for the variety of man i festal ions, tbe icnj^th 
i>r lime that elapsed l>rfore the apjipaiTiiicc of the sytiiptoiiiit, and, tn 
two of them, the severity and durati^in of the illness, Tiie afflicted 
persons, adult mtanlwr* of one family, ate on Man-h 1!), 1SS8, wonie 
mw rwi bprrings, which gave off odor indicative of comnieiicinn putre- 
itCtian. Each ale (he wime amount, a whole fish, but whether each 
II»h wiu« eqiiaily advanoeti in dccimijvw^ition omnot. of t-ourse, be derer- 
mined, and the differing degrees of severity of effects may be explained 

■ Fdinborxh Medial ■nil i^uTaira] .TnunMl, 1828, XXIX. -p. »&. 

* Voj-aee lit D'numrrv, VoL iV.. [■ 4-'i, 

• Dcntwhc aMdiciniMOic WofljMuelirift, 1899. Sa 8. 



62 



FOODS. 



by uii<H]iinl itijswplihility. The failicr nnd innlhcr agwl, rt-^iM-ttivflj, 
(J5 and 67 y«it>, wiiffeix-)! (past ; tlin' win, aged ^1, vriis altVcted luore 
seriously ; tbe two datighleis prepienttd iinuHimlly severe ami conipli- 

CJlll'li .iVTIl (ill nils. 

Tlie fir-t frti^cts were nuinifpstml by the son, who, on the sroond day, 
wiL-" -■JM'izi'd willi III*. i)f' ttpjH'liu-, di-Hnjiixtiitilf criictatioiii^, vomiting, 
(lijiirlitBii, <iryiif*s of llic thiiNii, and gviit'ral wcafciios!*. Oil tlic fol- 
lowing ikiy, ho wjih better, but etxni \n'<-umc worw. Diiirrli<r» wjw 
folliiweil by fibNiimil^ (uiii>ti(Nition, which linully yieldwl to cnrliartin^ 
Five davB later, he had lUmiicss of r<ij:lit. wliicli nn^ liilliiwed after n 
wifk by (loubli- vinimi luul ilillirnlT tli'^-liitition. Tlie >^vniptoins gradu- 
ally iibatcil, and on Miiy 'JTtli tliere «a.- dinlinot ini(irovi-ment i>f iii^bt. 
On June 2d jrlji-ise.-* wen? hai-dly nii-difl. 

The mother (irst >iIiowiil «yni|>toni!^ on the RMx day, when iiaufiea, 
conKti]ution, and drynunn of the ihnint :i]i]ii-jir(il. Scvcnd diivs lailcr 
nhe iiiid doiiliie viit^ion iiml iliRienll deghttition. 

The fathurV i^iKie bt^n on llie ninth day and presented simihir .lymp- 
toni.-*, whieh di.HapiKvirctl in six w(vl*«. 

One of the djuijchiers wa" neiKe<l on the thirti dav with had taste in 
the mouth, i^insliiuillon, iind drvne.v of llic tliivnit, fiillow«.-<l in six duvi< 
by diiuntw^ of ncai- vifiion, then by double vision, panUysi>i of awxim- 
nxKlalion, and dilliinll ^-wal lowint;. As wil-« ihe t-att' with the niherK, 
the teni|>enitiire. eircniation , and nriiie remained nomiul. On May 2d, 
thei-e wan <'<>nii>lete inability to swallow and it was necessary ti^i intro- 
dnce fiMHl by ni«in* of U Klomiii'li-tulie, There vm* I'lighl \>Uv\» 
of the right eye, then of both; the vohi- was nas-jl ; the gait was 
iiflWrtwl and the pulse bi-eame veri' "inidl, thongli nnl wry nipid. On 
May 9th, bladder symptoms, whieh liad been gradually up[>«<ruig, enl- 
niinated in piinilvsis of that org«n, mid after ihe IGth, ii variety lyf 
bladder and alMloniinal ^vni|)tonis ai'jH'ared. In tlie firtit ]jjirt of 
July, she telt iintipielely well, but a niontli later she suftennl a slight 
relap!¥, with i'eu]ipearanee of er>nsti)>iition, difhenlt deglutition, aad 
disturlianee of vision, whieh jMTsisteil with varying intensity into Se|>- 
teinlxT. Complete recovery did not uecnr until Oetolier, iilmoi't wvcfl 
mouths after the initial symptoms. 

The other daughter firM showed symptoms ufter the lajise of a 
week. These wt'ii? in the maiu like those of her sister, hut were tnure 
seveiv and extensive. She iKgnii In impmvo in May, and then ensued 
ulteni.-ile improvcmnit and loss of ground. Wtter one ilay and worse 
the next. On the 15th, there was ]inin in the lell hyi>ochondrinm ; on 
the I7lh, an enipljon like that of x^iriet fever over ihi- whole body, 
with Eilhnminnria. hut no ca^ts. On the U'th, sewre [win in the loft 
hypm^houdrinm, li^w in the right, and tendenuws hi the i^ion of the 
kidneys, with epi«IaxiB. disap(waranec' of the ni-ih, -flight desf|uiini!itton, 
and imprfivwl vision. At tin' iiid of Mav, the albuminuria and [win 
ia the region of the kidneys had nearly dl-iTipiieurrd, and deghitition 
wg» perfect. On June 2d, heart i-oraplications ap])oareil, whieb 
|iersist(il iuto N'ovcmlK-r, when liyjH-rtrophy wiis est iib I is bed. Id 




ViSES ILLUSTRATIVE OF POISONING BY FISH AND MEAT. 63 

August, after a general improvement, there was a relai>se like that 
wluch occurred in the case of her sifter. Improvement was well 
FslablL'hed in October, and in November she had almotit wholly 
recovered. 

Unrortiinatvly, it was impossible to make a bacteriological and clicm- 
b1 eiamination of the fish, because no material was obtainable. 

Poisoniilg by Salmon. — Professor Viiughun' reports the following 
case: " K., a very vigoroas num of 34 years, ate freely of tsinned 
dmon. Others at the table with him romarkcd that the taste of the 
ralmnn was peculiar, and refniincd from eating it. Twelve hours lator, 
K. b^n to sutTer from nuu.sea, vomiting, and a griping jHiin in the 
abdomen. Eighteen hours after he had eaten the fish, the writer saw 
iiim. He w:is vomiting small quantitits of mucus, colored with bile, 
al fre<[nent intervals. Tlie bowels had not niovetl and the griping 
|ain omtinued. He was covered with a scarlatinous rash from head to 
foot. His pulse was 140, tem|>erature 10'2° F., and respiration .shal- 
low and irregular." After appropriate treatment he begsm to improve. 
"The next tlay the rash disap[)eared, bnt the tem|M!rature remained 
ahtive the normal for four or five days, aud it was not until a week 
liter that the man was able to lesive his lioiise." Vaughan e.\amine«t 
the .lalmon and found a micrococcus present in great nimibcrs. This 
wiganisni, grown for twenty days in a sterilized ^g, produced a most 
fotent polwn. The white became thin, watery, and nmrkedly alkaline, 
aD(i ten dropci sufficed to kill white nits. 

Poisoning by Oysters. — Case I, — The following case, which ended 

fitally, is reported by Brosch.' An officer ate a number of oysters 

%0K-anI midnight, and within 6 hours was seized with headache, pain 

£a the side, nausea, dimness of sight, difficult deglutition, retention of 

*jrine, and salivation. Toward noon, right faciid paralyses, dihttjition 

•3f the right pupil, and thickness of speech appeared, followed shortly 

fcy cyanosis, ptosis of the right eyelid, great muscular relaxation, and 

(nralysia of respiration. Autopsy revealetl punctiform eechymoses in 

"^irwious parts, enlargement of the spleen, and fatty d^eneration of the 

liver and kidneys. 

Case II. — Another fetal case is recorded by Ca.sey :* " H. P., about 

^2 years of age, ate 8 oysters for supper, remarking at the time that 

»«e of them was bad. Others of the same lot appeared to be quite 

fiwh and were eaten by other persoas with impunity. Symptoms of 

i (MHWoing bt^n about 12—14 hours later, witli pikin in the iMick, arntn 

■ followed by violent pains in the stomach, frequent vomiting, and intense 

^ thirst. The bowels did not act. These symptoms continued until the 

■ Allowing morning, when the pnl.'<e, which had been small and quick, 

' ^ Wme almost imperceptible, the fingers shrunken, the nails blue. The 

''■^ioe was at that time dark and swollen, and swallowing difiicult. 

ntm were occasional spasms of the arms. A little later, the jaw 

' Ptonuint, Leucomainii, ToiinH, nni\ AniitoitioK, 1896, p. 56. 
' Wiener klinische WochenBchrifl, 1S!I6, Xo. 13. 
■ Brituh Hedic^ Jounul, Marcli .'S, \mi, p. 463. 



bci<nm4- act, himI itoon, nfUT n liucMen rtmjgflo fur breath, lie iltnl, 41 
hours after eating the ovflt^r*. At th<- i>iM-ninrt(-ni cxuiiiiiuiti'iii, iIm- 
Iwiirt wiw RkidiI til \k- v«tj' »mft iiml ixliixdl oiwl (vnluimt) DiihI liltnd. 
Tlie ki'lncvB and Hplcen werp also vcrj' soft und ctmgeelcd ; U» iitutnndi 
empty simI <I:irkl_v <>ntig«tt«tl ; tlie jK^lnuc-iiiii wit8 Uiiclcly i^iMlded nHtli 
ftt-ckn <>r IvrniJi." 

Poisoning by Veal. — Ikiver ' report** Hw following ra»- of scjctiij}!^ 
|Kii.->itiiii;; liy viiil. The ]K-r«>ii(i Nllt'>(.-tMl were menihers of <iiir 
hiiiiKclioltl, awl r;iiig4>d widely in point of agt>, tlu* ymmfuwi liciiig 
cliildrt-n of '-i niid t> y<«ir<. Tho -vniptnini' appeared in tlie nigbl, 
hIhhii 6 h>nm iiftcr the f'Nxl wnt^ taken, and \iejcan witli votnitin); luid 
violent oilic. In the morning, nil had int<-its<' piMrii- imlaliitity, coated 
tonf^e, |uiin on ]iiTWfitrv, e:>]nviaUy in tlie r^^ht iliae foPMi, ninddin);, 
alight tympanites and »«nty urine. The cook had nmrkuUy dilatul 
))n|itl.'<, a .■^■ii.otion of ciiffiwition, eonrtriction and dnnws of the 
throat, and iriteiiPK! MitTiision of the faw, 'Hie i-Iiild oJ' B luic) <(ilatfd 
pujiiU and (IL-liirhaiiii- of vision. »n<l linally pain and .vtitTnew^ of the 
inn»cl*w of llic neek. Tlif yonnger of the tw'o eliildn-n and llw* iaoUkt 
were affeet«l Iitw thun the (ith(T!«, and ina(k- a more ni[»ii reo«n-«rr. 
The etinnilK-nnaid had at liivt » certain degree of aggmvalinn of syni|k- 
lonii-, with a tendeney to i*yneop<' nnd great iiiUM-uUr wudcmr?', which 
latter e(riet« wen- marked mIm* in the csiie of the o-ok, win- i-nntiniied 
for some time to Im? troubled by dilatation of the pnjiilK and rliflnrbtxl 
visiiiii. At the on'I of innc <liiyn. then- wa* no evJdeiue of danger, and 
the two miwt severely atTected were well on the way to tcoovery. 

I Unfortunately, no liaeteriohigicfil examination wa# made cither of the 
nicnt or the diwlinr^^-s, bnt the nature of tlie (ivniptoQU) leavet« no room 
for doubt as to their eauw. 

V'AHF, II. — Dr". Wilkinwn,* AMhton, and Durham have recorded an 
extensive outbreak of poiwining due to imix-rfectly cooked vi^mI jiies, 
All the e!i.-(w, over llfly in ntindier, pr»'j'i-nt<Hl veiy similar Ei>-in[>- 
lom«, the chief of whieb were wvcre and nntviutndlulile vomiting nnd 
diarrhfea, aeeoin|Kmie<l ni (irNt by shivering, and tblluweil by coUajMe. 
Ill Mtnie there were violent alxlominnl ]Hiinft, and in »everal the abik^ 
men was Hwolleii and tender. Many had fievere ]iains in the liaek. The 
fiymptomf* Ik^ui in from 5 to 14 honrf aller witing, and, a-H a rule, 
wi-i-e wvere from the start. The niotii>nB wen' first gnuw-green, tliea 
dark gr»fn, and highly offen-'ive. Tiic ^verity ol' tlie diarrbom tn- 
crntiwtl on the swwtid day ; one patient wa* puiyed 40 or more titnee 
in a Hingle day. In very few cniwts the dtjectji uonlJUDed u IJttJe 
blow!. 

In the worst caeefi, the ixitienlri bei-aine rM>nii-eomato«', nvllw*, aod 
deliHoun in the course of a tew hours. Oecasionally, theiv wen- dii»- 
turlmiieiM of viwou, whi<th tasted until the tem|H>mtur«>, which ninged 
fnmi 1110° in themilde»it to 10^.')=' K. in tlio w^'vercet case)', became iror- 
mal. The puUe wa,^ very rapid, weak, and dicrotie. Many of the pa- 

■ I-vnn mAli.-iil. Mnv U, tHW. 

< PiibUc Iluillb, January, IHW, and BrlUdi Medicnl Joiimul, Dvc«iutH>r IT, ISflg, 



CASES ILLUSTRATIVE OF POISONISG BT FISH AND MEAT. 65 

noibfwepe markedly cyanotic and had more or l&ss difficulty in brenth- 
ing. Some bad cramps, and nearly all bad muscular pain and stiffness. 
In VHv many cases, herpes appeared alxmt tbe lips on the third to 
the iiith day, and some hjid a rash followed by dewquamation. Coii- 
viltw^ce ill tbe severe cases wsls prolonged ; some were still weak 
after three and a half montlis. Four cases terminated tiitally, and in 
two of these, autopsies were secured. The brain surface showed slight 
congestion ; tbe fmall intestines showed congested i>atches, which be- 
came brger and more numerous lower down, and did not correspond 
with Fever's jntches. Tbe whole lower third was highly ef>ngest<xl, 
»nd contained yellow diarrb(cic fluid. Othenvise tbe organs of the 
body were in a fairly healthy condition. 

Investigation of the cau.se of tbe outbreak yielded the following 
6rt8: On July 26tb, an apparently beuUhy calf was slaugbterwi, 
lod two days later tbe fore quarter and breast were , delivered to a 
baker, who made the meat into the pies wbicb were shown to liave been 
the cause of the outbreak. Other portions of tbe animal were sold to 
othere, who made pies which caused no trouble. A portion of a knuckle 
end, which was in the possession of tbe butf^ber when the investigation 
wa.* bc^n, was to all appearances perfectly good. 

The baker to whom the trouble was traced made, on tbe day he 
received tbe meat, 160 veal pies and 108 pork pies. The pastrj' was 
the same for tbe entire lot, and both kinds wore treated to the same 
lot of jelly, which was made by boiling tbe veal bones with two pigf*'- 
ftet in 4 quarts of water. Inasmuch as tbe pork pies caused no 
disturbance of any kind, no responsibility could be attached to tbe 
paltry or to the jelly. The veal pies were baked in not less than 3 
nor more than 5 batches, hence the batches would have included about 
32, 42, or 5.5 pies. The time occupied in baking each batch was said 
to have been about 20 minutes. The number of persons affected was 
over 50 and as in some cases single pies were shared by 2, 3, and 4 
persons, it is obvious that less than 50 pies caused all the trouble. 
Since no other parts of the animal caused any sickness, there can be 
BO doubt that the contamination of tbe meat occurred after the sale and 
delivery. 

A<!cording to the findings of Br. Durham, based on a study of tbe 
Mood of a number of tbe patients as to the behavior of tbe w^rum 
when tested for clumping properties with various micro-organisms, 
with controk of senun from normal persons, tbe outbreak was due to 
B. enffrUidit. This limitation of tbe inquiry was necessitated by tbe 
btt. that it was impossible to secure either one of tbe pies, or part 
of one, or any of the first vomitings. Tbe conclusion arrived at, 
strengthened by tbe fact that all 4 fatal cases were from pies which 
were 2 or more days old when eaten, which jwriod allowwl enormous 
mnlti plication, makes most prol>able the further conclusion that one 
whole batch was cooked so insufficiently as to preclude tiK- killing of 
th« organisms, which, according to Basenau, cannot survive exposuR' 
6>r 1 minute to a temperature of 70° C. 



66 



FOODS. 



Poisoning by Pork. — C'ark T. — Mvmiitli Youii); ' rct3»rtl» a 91 
of ]ii>rk-|H>ir'i>iitnK in wliicli h jht»iiii>i were afiwtt-il. Tbo otTLiuIiiiM 
meat wa.H tlirepHjimrii-r^ <>t' u jm^iiikI ol" " |ii;i'" rliivk," wliicli wi«" 
Mitt'ti lit Imlf-iKct iMiir ill \\w ulWmoun, lietx^ecn whinh linit- niii) tliL> 
oiiBL't iif Bymptiiiii^ iiothiiijk' else wax cnteii. On tlw" fiiHnwiiifj ntorniii^, 
Mr. A. wiiw ■^■\f.n\ T<iiil(lt'iilv wilti vomitin;;, |mrj^iii|i. hik) i^wre 
tilnliiiiiiniil (min, iiiul cliortly nflerwunl Iiec«me very feveri.-.li .iik] weuk, 
aixl htitfcrecl fnini revert- frniitiil liciulticlie. Hix wife bad M-\'<-reH 
iilxloiiiinal iKiiii, niid towuni nu<m wuf f'trungly piirgeil. .Sht' i<titrcrf(l I 
niiu>-cu, rettlieil, Init cimld mit vomit, liitil levvr unit [Hi't-rr liendiu-lie, 
an<i wan iniK-li rncni- {irtiMiiititl uiiil tiKtk mtirf time to ivi-ovcr tliaii 
ht-r IniKbiiiiil. Shi- wiis itniible to ingei^t fmA fur :i fliivis. TIic daughter J 
was taken ftifik at tin- Siiim- time tun! with the witne symptimis tlHXigh ■ 
I«w 80vi.'n;ly. HtT cliicf symptum was an (iver|>i)W«'riiig- torHieinn' to 
sleep, A fourth j>ers«iii, who iitc Ixit little iik r(ini|Hire<i with theani.iiinis 
iiij^wtiMl iiy tile otiii'ii', wiiK pnr^eil -iligliily, Imt Piifleriii^; iiolhin^ more. 
The ivmuiuin;; nienilRT shnwt-d no efUvls until »iiirin(f the w\.ijn(l iiiglit. 
On the following nioriiiri^^ i-he was teverish, liati wven- hea'liiehe niid 
iibiliitniiuil piiiii, and ittehed unflu<'<'£*»fully. I*in^iig did nwt occur 
until the nlhrnom. .\.- wili the fxw with ihr dsuiKliter, the ijicirt 
]>n>tiiiiieiit M'Miploni iifter the on^'t wa?* tt>)nunilen('e. Hiysivi-w f"l- 
lowed ill every ease. Investi^ition !'!iiiwe<l tlnU the eliceki' luid b«« 
KMiked 2 <layK Wfore, and had heen placed toother to eool mid "scL" 
It wa» estimattnl thiit heiw«-n ■')() nnd fiO pcri^ns IiikI jiiin-huHdof 
tJiem, hut all liiit a email |im|Kir)ion were unknown to the wller, uiiJ 
so lilt syrteiimtie iinjiiin^ imuKI lie made. Only 4 e«iuld Im- ti.lliiH(|fl 
up, nnd 2 of thew ivpiirteil no tniiililc ; a third was made sevcrrl]' 
sick and Io.st 2 days' work, and the fourth, after eating, dniuk « 
niiieh Im'it that he was matU- fii'k and kwt il iiH by vuniilint;, aiHl yrt 
wat aRW-teil like Hie others, but not ho aetively. It wibi iiii|MWible to 
proi'ure any of tin- iiienl or voniitol iiinttcr or dejections ll.r liiirlerii>- 
lo^iail e\umina(iuti. 

Cank 11. — At the Seventh Inti-itiational Medieal CVnigrt*!*, held in, 
t^ondon, in lf*f<l, Bedliinl ' rtwd W-lon' the mvtion on State M 
cine an aceoimt of a very serious outbreak, now geiierallv known 
till" " Welliii'k nise." Thi.-< involveil 72 |>ei>ons, wlio iit1i-n<le<l t\ m\ 
of timber a»<I miiehinery on the estate of the Duke of Purtbind at \Wl 
Invk, which lantinl from Tnt^^day, June l-l, ISKO, thr«ugh the week. 
lttfi"whi»entj' were scrvwi by the keeper o^ a public hotisc, utd umon 
the ailieles funiished were wven liamfl, to which the entire liimbl 
wiw tnii-«il. While many complaiutfi weri- nwule that the bam was n< 
wiftieieiitly C(Kiked, tliut the 6it was yellowish or j^retaiish, that it wai 
too salt, that it ■' ta-iltxl i[U*-er," »n<l that it had no inie flavor of han 
nuuiy niwie no ■'oniplniut, and no one said tluit it wan tainted. Of the 7 
persons seized, 4 di«I. 'lite hUtory of .'t of the-^e foUowp : 

1. W. \\., aged (>■!, uu- bum on WeUnewlay and Friday, 

• PnUfo H«ftU), JuM, 3890. 

* Siipp1«tanu Ui lOtb Anniul Kcport of Ihc \joa\ 0«VMnm«nt Board. 1881, p. 3ft 



CASES ILLVSTBATIVB OF POISOSISG BY FISH AXD MEAT. 67 



'imt Mfiznl on tViilNy night, wln-n !)(■ i'(iiii]>laiii(>il nf fi^'linj; mid. On 
Snliinkiy mornin];] W ate but liitle anil vai<l hi' iuIki) iill over. In tbe 
eoniNt- of ihr iLiv, ht- -iitforrtl t'iMrii voiiiUiuji: ami (liarrliosi, with wvcre 

'piiu ami eraiHi»ti in tlic k'ps. Tlif ivjirimti"n» wci-v i'M'<itliiit;I_v hIVcti- 
jdvu iuhI wi-re jias.-*<i iiivoliiutarily. The puUe was IS^*; tetnjx'niture 
not taken. On MomLiy, he iK-^tn In iy>IIii[iH-, and on Friday, he diiil. 
Tlic |Hi.-i-ruiirl4^iu oxaininatiun iwcaled littk- that n'a» noteworthy, lint 
nucitMcopic- (^'xaminiili'in of ih*- kidney--^ hIkiwiiI [imviu-hyniaEou- iiiHam- 
m&tiaa, and dinienliou un<l ]>liigj;iii;;; of the iillen-nt uncriiik'H uiid »ipil- 
Urio" of (lie Malpi^liijiii i-iirjHi.-nJw l>y emboli of Iwieilli, 

2. Mrs, L-, aged lilJ, ate iwnic wmiw of thi- lijuti i>n Wedtuw- 
dny, and wan wiwil on KricLiy with fainlnef«i, diarrhtea, vomitinf;, and 
alxi'-minal pain. On the followin-; <inv "lie ti-ll inio ii Male of eij||(i|iM', 
and oil (lie (iillou'ing Tiif^-xUiv hIk- <lietl. The iniieous nieinbraiie of the 
•tiTniaeh atwl intB-tiiitvt WBf hifjltly (<ong(?<t(il ; othcrwiw the •utopi*y 
|m-*aled ntitUii^^ abnormal. 

3. Mr. S., ii-n^l ;t7, ai« f<)ur wuidwinht-x on ThurMlay. In the 

tvraio^ he vomited, and (ti;nTli<e!i lic^ni. In the mominp of the 

lollowiii}! itay, he (iimpliiiiii'il uf bnniing puin in thi- lower part of the 

■Uomcn. The vomiting ami piii^in^ ttonlinncd. Tlioii^h eold iind 

ulaaoiy to tJie loneh, he complainwl that he was "all on fii-e," He had 

amp in llic IcfW wni wsw very rot!c-v». Hi.-! mirKl iviu* rimr to llic 

Wl Tbe ■tw'liarifffi were, at firbt, watery and oflensive, and later were 

hA. (ntvii in eolor. He whh very lliir.-'ty and rlrank fn-ely of wikT. 

Hi- died on the folk>wiiig Friday, Only a partial autopsy was made. 

Thl- r«vmUil hright-rcil jiatchc^ on the mneo^ii of the ntonmeh. 

'IliB period of ineubalion it'aA a^-enralely deCeriiiine4l in 51 eafie)*; in 
I it was 12 Iwmt^ or lexs, in ;M it was between 3ll and 48, anil in -1 
it racceded 48 tiour*. In many cises tlie onset wu* sudden, and in 
*b<» it was preceded by greater or l«ss indi-'iiMxitiou. The mont ocm- 
*iit f>ymp(om wa« dinrrhira. " In about a thirl of the euws the fiM 
Mnitesvmptom wtus a »en^ of ehilliness, usually with rijiors or twml>- 
lilg ill one aw iKi-(tiii|utiiie<l by dyispnri'ii ; in a lew easit^ it wuh fifiil- 
wifiW witb &intnes$, !T*.imetime« aecomjjaJiieil by a eold sweat and 
toncring ; in otliers the lirnt rtyniptom \f»!t hmdnche tir ]uitn .somewlierp 
• Ifcr Inink of the biKty, f. g., in the chest, l>aek, between the tiltoulders, 
w in the abdomen, to whioh part the jmin, where\'er il iiii^ht hii\'e eoni- 
i>ea««l, >l^ll^^1plenlly exlen<led. 

" In one ease the first symptom noticed was a difficulty in swallow- 
i^ In two \tu>*!» it wa» iiitvuKV thin-t- iliit, liowovwr tJu- altnck may 
We OHnmenced, it Wfu- ibiually not Ion;; liefore pain in the abdomen, 
ifairbua, and voniiiing came on, diarrho'.-i being of more certain ix-enr- 
iWKv tlum vmniliiifi. Tlie iwiiii in n^'vcr.il cawK c(ininniieed in the ehot 
"■T hrtween the shoulders, and extemled Jirst to the upjKT and tlien to 
4ie lower ]wrt of tlw ulidoiiM'n. It wu^ ii.'<unlly very »e\'cre iiKlMnJ, 
'|«irkly produoiiip; prostration or faiiUne»s witli eold sweats. It wat 
i-uiMi»ty d4»i-rilH<«l as ' eranipy,' ' burning,' ' trtiring," et<'. 
" The diarriHBul diiwhttrgei were in »ome cumw quite unrest niinuble, 



68 



FOODS. 



and (where ii (Jcwription uf llit-ni (k>uI<1 Ik- (iJjtniiKil) were aiiti to have i 
Ih'1'11 cxi-iiitinfily i)fli'nfiv»?, and usually of a dark «>li>r. MiiM'nlar' 
^vl'llliTl■'.'o tv:i> mi c'lrly aiul vcrv ivinitrkiililc nviiijiloii) in iiuirlv iil] 
(vifit-ft, 1111(1 ill iimiiy it »':i8 so gn^at that the |Ki[iutit o>ulil uiily t^and hy 
licilitiii}^ on ut .siiUK'ihiii^. II(;iidaolic, Miine(imt« i«verc, wju> ii rt>iiiiiKiii 
aud curly Hymptom ; tu most vuhk» thctv was thinct, oflon intpufic bm! 
must JiBtrc-xiiiig. The ti>nj:iu\ whcii tibscn-pd, was dcfMrrilic-d lu-^uaUy as 
Ihiclily oNitiil with u hmwii vrlvi-ty fur, hut red ut tlit- ti]i iind wlp-*. 

" III the early slagt, the wkin was often eoltl to the touch, but afier- 
ward miiin' (ever vvl in, llie tviniK-mtiile arii'iiii; in ^mw imm' U> 101*, 
103", and 104° F. In a few eevere eases where the skin was aettialk 
ojhl, tiic |Mttient niin)iliiin(*il of hi*iit, liiMMctl i>u timiwin}; off tlu- Ik^> 
flothea, and wil^ very rcwtles*. The \niUc in the hei|;ht of the i!lne» 
Ixsinni^ (|iiii'k, etiiiiilinfr in Mmu- fast---* KM) tii )2S. 

*' The above were the >yniptj>mH most fn-tiucntly noted. Othrr 
^ynI[ltrtnls (H^-nrred, hoMover, Mime in a few case^ and some in oily 
cwlilary «i«es. Tliesc I nnvi proeeed tn eiiitini-nile. Kxix^wive )'wnl^ 
injj, erjnijis in the le^, or in l>oth leps and arnui ; eonviilfiive fle\Min of 
till- hiindN ; :icliiii^ piiin in tlie ^ihnnldctN, jointj^, or i-xtii'tiiili^s ; a Hti!* 
of Htifiue't^ of the jointti ; prickling or tingling or uuiiihnei^ of the liandts 
hinting far into conviili-.^ottiiec in some caw»» ; a sense of gvnend cotn- 
[irf'ssion iif the i^kin, tlrtjwsincs.", hulluctiintiuii!-, ini|)erfe<iioii of vUioii, 
and intolerance of linlit. 

" In three cu^e-'' (one thai of ii niediciil niiin) there was olwrvcd 
yellowness of the skin, either gener:il or confined to the faw? and eyes. 
In one caiw, at n late stjige of the illness, tlicw wim s<iaie ]mln»onat^' 
congestion, and an attack of what was regarded af gout. In the &tal 
onMw dcjil.li wnN piw<tle<l by ciilla|i.it- tiki- that of rholera, eoldntss uf 
tlie «iirface, ])inehed feature* ami hlueriess of the fnigei% and t«c», and 
around the snnki-n eyo. The debility of eonval<«cence was in nearly _ 
all eases ]irotnietetl t'> i*evenil ivwki?. I 

" The mildest cases wei-e ehanieterizod usually by little remarkable 
bevond the fullowiiig sviniitoinn, vie, alxrkiniinal Julius, vomiting, diar- 
h(ea, thirst, heatliictie, and muscular weakne^ any one or two of which M 
might he abneiit." ■ 

Invi»tig!ttion of the hiitn^ showeil abwuw ()f tnehinn and the pns*- 
«nco of a bacillus, wliieh on inociikition iato animals wao found in most , 
CUMTS to produce a ])neiuiKiniii. 

The pi-riod of incubation indicates that lu these eases there w»a a I 
tnie baetcrial initiation. 

Cake 111. — Another epidemic investigated hy Ballard' uivolvedi 
a far greater number of ]K'rrtt)UK aii<l had an unusnid atlcudaiit 
mortjility. nearly 500 jienH^itis out ot a population of about lOU.OOO 
(MiildK'-''brfnigh) dying during the year of a peculiar form of pleuro-] 
[HI en mi HI ia. 

The cause of this remarkable epidemic was proved to be the oaa-i 
suniptlon nf whiil wiu> known ax "American baeou," a fotnl pnidnet 
> Sii]>f>kaicnl to IHlh Anniul lt4:|inri nT the IamsI Gnveminoiit Itoon), ISSil, jx 108^ 



1 



I 
I 



CASES tLLVSTRATlVE OF POrSOSIS'O BT FISB AXD MEAT. 69 



^ 



Kirvl I'ntin iiiifwirtftl »«h pork »t n iiiitDhcr ■>(' Kk^iI tT^UibllslinictiU 
idufteit uoder mo^t iiii«inilur\' (sjutUiions, Twenty Nuiiplort of 
ittm, ximi* iibtiiiiii-*! iit hIhi^k* iiikI smnc iit llii' himics of vicl!m:>, 
ere examined, an'l fourteen were found lo bo dislinclly putsonuu-s ti> 
iiiuil< Till' leAif)!!.- ili.icnvenil in l)ii- <l<-ii<) iiniiuiiU wcri' nf llic Hinni- 
ture and estent ol' tho'^ in the (ir^ni!- of lln- [vi'KoUfi who lutd died. 
bt»^> in<-hidnl <h^triiRti\'e c^luin^?i in all thi* |trinci]inl vir-icni, aiitl 
morr psinkidnrly in the Innps. Dr. Klein dift-overttl in the hin<r a 
fhort iiaeillun which hud nevt-r befon- \iecn dc^^cribed. Inocnltilion 
expcrinienl!? on unimuU pnHlncHl result's ideutictd with tluiw folliiwiiijj 
Ctcdin)^ esperimenL'i with the so-e;ilI«i bawn. 

Cahr IV. — A reniarltjilile oiitbn-jdf dnc to luw liie-kli-d luiin Im.* 

Wn reeord«I by Van Krnienjteni ' aiwl rarefidly inv«iti)pittil by hini- 

(irff und iitliiMs. More ihiiii Iweiilv im-tnlH'iN "f a niu-Hiiiil sneicty ut 

ElW^lles, in Bcl}puni, were !M?ized with serious illness after eating the 

greater part of ii niw pieklod bam ; lliiw diwl within a week, and leu 

hx iu a ertti<^ul (.-ondition. Other (mrt** of the miinuil fiviii the r«ujie 

{■cfclin^; tub win- iiiten in ti raw sljitt- witlimit ill eflwt?', and pieei-s of 

lie imrtHiihir ham had Ikvu eonpumeil a wliort time lR-f«ire, aisn without 

ill effee^. Only tlioiie persnnn who ate of ihe ham were seized with the 

vwy fitviitiiir tmin "f >ympt"m» ivmilwl. Most of ibom wi-iv .-"eizod 

in fium iO to 24 iiouns 'i ui leiv^ tlian that time, and a few us late iui 

-W hiHir^ after wiiiiiji. 

The fir>t !>ytnptonvi were gastrio paiti, naui*a, und vomiting of un- 
lEgMed food and j^^latlnoni' bliK-ki^-li malu-iv. In.-^uid iif diarrlm'w, 
wnkili OCR- would espeet, there w.m oliBtinate conrtipatinn in all but 
'2 cues, and the firrt. dejoeliiiri-i, wiili or without isitlmrlic.i, wnv bliirk 
•od vi.-x-id. In i-very ease, in fnmi -'{It to iH houni. there were pi-o- 
feniiil distnH)unM>^ of viwou — iiniplKHliplopia, inarkivl dtlaiiilion of th« 
pupils, with aliM-jii:!' of rtnerion to Hffht, |ito»i» of Iwth lids, aind u 
fmiliur lixecl i»tare. There was Iturnin); ibioil with a .■'tninglind senwa- 
t»Mi in the tlirrKiI. S^vallowin;.'. even of liijniilN, w:i.s <lilli('ii1t nv !ni|ios- 
4lilc,iind evcrj' altempt \xi\a aei'oniiwnied by ■■hokinp. 

In some inhfmoos, tlu> ^iliva wim .-uj>pre.s»i-d inid the mn(<iiut< mem- 
OBiic dn- and gliL-wy. Tlie voice wjijt wejik, and with Sfine theii- wiw 
litJ npbotii:!. Ovturia aiifl aniiriu wi're etinimon. There waf but 
liule di-4tur4)cmoe of rp!«pinilicin and ein-iiliilSou ; the [iiilsc inver ixaieheil 
iT(T iin, r<t<|i!nil!<iii wiis <)uiet, lempcititurc nornial. t'onj^eioujinefis and 
KiirmI ■sensibility remaini.-d uniinpiiin-<i thnnifrhoul, ex<i-pt in llw fiila! 
ii«i, iu whieh alone, i^-ventl 1iout» Ijefore ileatli, theme oecurn-d colIaiJi*e, 
ippinzi, small irregular pnW, lijrht iltlirinni, and ennia. 

There wiis olMtinat<> iris'tmriia in iiuiiiy, (Inrin;; tin- lirM jioriod. Th« 
nnvmiiii^ ainl trunk mutielcd ^Imwtd neither e-miplcte [mndysi* nor 
aiwj»hy, hut there was jirtni jn-nerwl muscular wi-aknt-.-*^, and .-lijfht 
UKA'ementi) enuM-d extreme fUtifrne, Aiier two or three wwk*, the eye 
ntnptotibi hiTpm to improve. The dilated pupiU enntraeled, the eloiidi- 
Mm disappeai-ed, and the lmlf-[>iindyxe<) eyelids rcpiini-d their power. 
■ZdtH'Krift nir Ityfivno iiml Iiif«eiiun»kiaiik1icll'>n, XXVI., p. I. 



70 



POODS. 



Diplopia (iiKippwinsl only wbc« bulh eyee w<?re fixed laterally. Par-1 



al 



ndatioii lii^ttil a Ii>iik time after tlip tl 



uriill 



jH-aranw 
n-tiirii iiiiiil iitUr "is 



oi aM'iiiiinii 
ihr iitluT :^-iii|i(i>iiis, mill nuniijil vUimi tiiti not 
t<> pt^ht montliri. M 

Aii[i»|wy in two «irt» »)ii>witl iiu i-luinu^Cvrixtif- oti»i)^» in iIk- orpins, ' 
(luly cxIcDi^ive liy]H>r»-n]iH of th« kiducv!'. liver, aixl tncniogcs and 
sofii-nintr anil iiniiMmt friaMliry oi' tin- nioriiai-li wall.-, in on^", (In- li\^^ 
cliowifl niitrknl il<'fii.iii.'ttninii, ami tXw Imiiii [>Hm-titVirm iK-nwirrliup-^ | 
Neither the liver nor kitluovi^ showed anything iinUMUil on bacteriolojri- 
cal cXiimiimtion, bur the ^jiUvn yiclik'<i iin anai-rohic bHvilliui, wlikli _ 
j>r<iVL-(l liitvr to be eapiible of uiusiug botuli»ini. ■ 

The pig from whii-li the ham eiiim' «iu' killiil simp months [in"* 
vion»ly, ami what vinn not catcii at oiiec was jiickled lit the u^^iul way. 
r>iinDj( the time ihat eJaiwed heiwei'n ihe piikliiij: and the snjijier, 
llie Ki^iiter ]Mir( of the animal liml ln-cu eonsniiutl without oiiisiDg any 
(tieknesfi, but the h:ini whieh was iiesirly intaet was the last to be caleii, 
biy on the Itottoiri of the tub, ami utiv' the oiilv |x<rt thai wu^ ii»mer>«I 
completely in the weak brine. AVhat w.is left of it jjave no odor of 
putridity, but had a disiitiet odor like timi of i.-imid bniter. Thnt the 
ham bad a Iwd lu.vle, wa« jijrreed by nearly all who ute of it. It appcsral 
uoniial to the eye, but ivux pale, like any meat that has l»een noakcd 
wane lime in water. Tlieiv was no evidtuce of d«'orn|)o«ition, and 
no ptoniatnf4 were deteeted. 

Bai-lfriiilofri'.'il exnmiiuition pmvwt in ditleifut [Kirt." the prw>oiiW of 
a hirheilo unknown sjmi-e-ljeurinjr baeilUis in jrreat abundance, the 
mme organism a* that i«iiate<l ftrnn the spleen oi' one of the vietiniK. 
It priHlm^il an extraoi-dinarily virulent toxin, whieh w«s isolated by 
Brie(p>r i'rom eitltureji supplied bv ibe diseoverer, bv whom the ortran- 
isni wan nanieil HnijUIng Miillnuf, The toxin is rendered inert by a 
lwn]KTatnn- :t\' (>0° to 70° C, ihcmii ajiireeing with other bacterial 
toxins thiis for isolated. 

.\rtemp(.-* to ili.-.eiiver the oiTjani.-m in the feees of various animals 
(lud in tilth of various kiniU, anil In siKH-imen^ fi-oiu wbeiv ihe jiig was 
rai.-ed were iiepitivc in ri'suUs, 

I-'wil in g-ex penmen 1«, eiimhirt^fl on various kind- of animals with the 
meat it>ielf and with aqueous triturations of it .ithle<! to oiber Ibod-, prfK 
diK'ni, jw a ruK'. fatal resiill.-' w ith the s;nne Iniin of symptoms as above 
nientiotieil. .Snlientaiieous injections of ihe watery exlrael pUMlueed the 
same renidtn aj* ft*tlinp-<-xperimentj*. The aqueous extniel kept in ihe m 
<krk in a srtdnl tube ri'ljiinul its pnijKTtiej' imimjwired for 10 months, ■ 
and small pieees of the meat kept in eotton-stopjwred tiibi-s without 
B[>eeial pn-t-jintions rHained tlieir viriileuoe even lonjter. The poisun 
Waists the vffoets of putrefaelion, ami provc'd M Ir- (hiuuIIv poisonous 
after 4 days* stnndiu); in a mi.vlun- wit)i feces, deeomposin^; bliMid and 
urine, and lillmtioii thnm^h ]H>n<ehi!n. A fnwh tiltrale, to whieh were 
mUed B. pyoifigiomn, li. proteuM Ikpiefijt^ieiiK. It. fluomivnn' ;<u/Wrf«i, 
and /?. i-o/i. w:\^ foinid at die end of » week to be as active as ever. 

Poisonuig b; Beef. — C'ai^k h — In Deoi-uiber, 1841, motv llinn 40 



I 



I 



CdOB tLLVSTRATSVE OF POISOXtXO BY FISH A2iD HEAT. 71 




of potsuniog occurred in New Yori: City from siting sniokt?<I 

herC As a rule the ttynipKHns h<^[] i«vcml h'Wis at)<ar earing, wilh 

nun nnd clij)c<iiDrurt in tho cpt^U'triiun, vxtfiiiliii^ t'l I)h- K-k-Ic timl Wjna. 

Vomitiiij!; ami purying were followed by great thii'st tiinl biiriiirii; juiiii 

at thv [>it of llic i<l(.ti)iiiHi, nliii'h Ixi'iiini' m> irritiibli' tliitt il timid tulcntte 

iieiiher food nor drugs. Ivxirenie proi-tRitioii followed, the functionH 

t>r the iKTt'oti.t a»d iniL-wHiliir M'f k'jn Iteiiij; grr-ally HfTivt^v). One viotim 

•licil. and with llie others coiivaIc«ccn«> wiw cxtreiutly slow. Auiopey 

i-viiikil mitliiug bcyiiiid intlan mint inn of the ileum. 

C'ai«E II. — [u May, 1888, at Frunkciilmii^sen, 08 pcrsims were niiide 

by cHling iIh- meat of a vow killed while ill with diarrhea and 

aa edible by a vctorinaiy. The Kyinptonis werv, in |3;vn«nil, 

iiL-wu, viMiiitini;, diarrhtm, fever, drowsinew, Jiznincfw, and great <le- 

IfrewioQ. Thtiw who ute the tuwit in llif mw stjiti' wcK* M'i/.cd witliout 

leeption, and the pevoriiy of the seiziire was dire<rtly proiwrtioiiate 

'^ the ninwml witon. One vicliTu who itle a |H)imil and u half died 

intbin 'iii houn», whil<? those who ate Icu^t liulTered luut. Those who 

««■ tlw; ci>i>k('<l iiHiit liiif*! diffi-n-iiily. Not all were attaeked, nor did 

ihe severity of the symptonii- Imsir auy relation to the ntmiiint tjikcti. 

Tbii*, soini! \»lio at*' frii-ly .nntli-n-d Imt Hllie, whilo very severe eflivia 

*vn; caused by slight amounts of the moil, and even by siTinll ]>or- 

tiou of the broth. Tliirty-«ix who ate the eooked moat esca[>i^l 

iltOgcUicr. Fn>in a p«trtion nf the meat, and fn»m the "pl«ii of the 

roQ who died, Gaertner' iMtlated It. nitn-itidis, whieh, since then, 
bwu shown to have l>een the cause of numerous other outbreaks. 
CvsK III. — -In June, 18H», IS" i»er*ons, ineludiiig !>0 ehildreji, in 
and dlxMit Cottn, in Saxony,^ were made ill by eating the meat of a 
c»w fclaughtered on June I7th, iK-eaune of an inllammatory eonditinii 
'if the miller. On the lllh, *hr liml suddenly st"p(>fd giving milk 
aoil had refut^ed food and drink. The meal a|)|)eai'ed to he nomiid in 
(itrv wfay and wa.« .■•ohl on the <lay at\er .tlungJitiT. The first cnsos 
■pjMnml during the night of the day of sale. The majority of the 
virtiiu.t haii i-aten the niinei-d mi'al in the ntw «fnle, nihi-n* oidy nOer 
il Inul Ik-cii cooketl, and wmie hail eaten only broth. The buteher who 
»W Ibe meat lasted as mueh as woiih) enver a knifi^-bliide, aiul Mitl'ci'cii 
60m diiirHiaii. htwinehe, ami nbdomiiial [inln for three days. His as- 
wtaot did the same, anil fared even worse. In one ease, the ftvmploms 
k^ wilh il diill ; in itixitlier, with dilfieiill deghilitioii, doiiliU- viximi, 
tsd anxiety; in the n^l, with nausea, vomiting, diarrhtea. headaehe, 
■bdominni |»in, di/riixpM, gnmt lus.'x'tiidi', r(>.''tles.4neri»<, U-thiirgy, ami 
, oiiquetichablc thirst. In many caj«s, the eyes were glassy, and the 
l.npik much dilaleil. The tongue was eommnnly <lrv and roi»led. The 
dnldn-.n afiW;te<l were extiTiordiiuirily wejik, and some had fever as high 
a» 1IX,7° F. A baeillu.- i^olated from the meat by Johne was found 
by (tnertiicr tn differ in *ome res|H>et* fnim B. ndrrUuHM. 

' <'orrap(ini)«ii-Blattcr ilw nll(.ifnieiticn iintUfbni V'«i«iiu von Thiirin^-n, 1S88^ 
Ko. 9. 

' XXL JahrrslN'rioht utlwr dot MiiilieiiiHlutiwn im Knninivivh SRi-hMn, p. IU4. 



C.\«K r\' — Polsoniug by canned comeJ beef at SbcffiiJtl, reported 
by W, N. I'lirkcr.' On (VuiIkt 1 1, 1SJ(!», a i>ix-|)i»iiH] tin "f txiniuJ 
beef nits o|>etiG(l, aii'l iibimt two-tJiirtls wvre sold, chiefly in qiiar- 
tor \m\mth. lii'vontl t)ii' fuel lluit tlti; ni<«t si?<-nK-<l U-t» miIhI ilna 
iti^iial ;iud tlic jelly r.itlicr oily, nolluu^; niiiii--iial wn» notK-cd. It had 
no odor, itH taste wa.- nurmal, tiimigli ijuite «alt, and hut one riisiotni-r 
fwiiud i(> fljivnr <liNigr<tiil(k-. So (lir a» w kiiuwn, luiiic wlio iitc Cf>cn|>wl ; 
24 persons* ranjiin};; in age fif)ni 2 to 89 years were aflet-ted. TIk- fiJ- 
lowiii^ -s('rve--> to nii i'.\:iiiij)Ii-, tluiii^h viich miMC pri'j^oiiU'd one or inurr 
:<yni]itonis pt^-ulliir to itself. 

A woman of 3'i ate 2 onnctv of tliv nKsit nl I2..10, ami in 2 
hoiiiv vin» Nt^'ized witli faintne«s, dix^iei^, and drouitiacee, fbllowvd 
by naiDica, and gnat nmtienlar weakni-ss, e^jxirially of tlie Iqp*. For- 
M«t«'nt voniilinjf with fni|uciit rc-lchnijr wxin oecnrrcil, iiwutnpanMd 
by intent frontiil headache, ami Ibllawnl by eolic which was not re- 
lieved by purging;. One lifiur aller i^'lJinre, chc wiii' tjikcii to tlic ba^ 
pital, where n-ht; lay uu u eunch in a state of eolla]x>« with )ier ki>ces 
dniwn up. Her tiux^ wa.-< |Kile, willi livid ]Nit(-licK iinmnd the eyt?!, aud 
biHlicd in jHTfipinitioM. The skin wjis cold and clammy, the pul* 
Amall aud mpid, the i-espiration ttlinllow, the t4'ni]K'nitim- Ktdtiioniuil, 
and the pnpil> dilated. Her I'tomach was wuslit<<l out, and in a sSort 
time the pain and retiiiing i^^ased, the cliaraettT of tlif pnUe impn>ved, 
drowsinvM W7i» iliniitiish*il. and only the li«ninclic and |nir]^ii^ 
remained. Within an hour, the condition of collapse and other 
syniptotiLS reupjxurwl, bnt with le« wverily. The ^loniadi wiu^ ii<^iii 
wa-'hed oiii, and thU time the good efTi-ets were |)erniiinont. On 
the tiillowiu)^ niorniiii;^, all tliat wii» e<3nii>l;tini><t of was i^Iighl frontal 
headache. 

The approxiniiile latent jx'riiid varieil li)-t»ii-ii one and three niiil ■ 
half honn>, but in only '2 caifcs wiii- it mon- than two and :i half lionis. 
Frf)nt;d laitdaehe wan pres4-iit in alt hut 4, vomiting in all hut 1, [uiin 
in only 1^, marketl collapse in 12, profiin? di»rliar^>s !u all but 6. 
The initial nymptomfi woi'e the wame in all; that U, drow.-incAi or 
giddiues*, or both, 

Onlv one <:ano n?«ult«Hl fatallv, that of a bov 7 veftn* old, who ate 
2 ouiiea*. Hi.* svuiptiitnii wer« e!*|HH!inlly wvcre j eollnpw; wa* vm' 
marked and he rctiuinHl constant stimulation, About 10 hours 
a(U-T the on.iet, he hiwi a .'vries of etouie conintitions of ilie flexor 
muscles of the neck, armi', and lip*. The nioveincnts were violent, 
rapid, and almost rhylhmind, comnieneing fir^t in the m-ik aud nmnt, 
but soon uflV-cting the I<^. The even were lixcil and st.Trinp, and the 
pupils widely dilated. After lasting an hour and a half, the convul- 
sion.'* een.-'e)!. They ttwitpeanil in half an hour, atTcHiug fiiiit tlie 
right anil and rijrlit si<le of the face, but soon lieeame general. 
The eollapso gradually dei>pene<l, and the boy died 10 hours after 
seizure. AutogD'y ishowei) nothing moiv than a general hypenemia 
of the Rtom&cb and intestines, with a lew hemorrliagio erosioiH in the 
■ Britinh Mi-aitul Jounul, XoivniW 11, 1899. 



i 



CiSES ILLUSTRATIVE OF POISONING BY FISB AND MEAT. 73 

pscric mucous membrane. A microscopic examination of the 
kidney showed cloudy swelling of the cortex, with a few aaittered 
beramrliages. 

All the other victims convalesce*! rapidly and were discharijed from 
tie hospital within 48 hours. Stimiilaiit-, chiefly in the form of strych- 
niiwaiul brandy, were administere^l freely. The meat wa'* examined 
hiKteriologically about 1 1 hours after the tin was said to have l)een 
opened. In the out<?r parts of the meat, many species of organisms 
wre found. The only organism present both in cultures from the 
centre of the meat and in those from the surface was the bacillus of 
Giertner. 

Cash: V. — An outbreak at Mansfield, in which 65 persons became 
ill oAer eating the flesh of a cow slaughtered in consequence of tnm- 
natic pericarditis, has been reported by Wesenberg.' Only those 
who ate of the minced meat in a raw state or of the partly cooked 
liver were afl*ected j those who ate of the well-cooked meat eseape<l 
vilhout exception. The symptoms were vomiting and diarrhcca, 
violent headache and abdominal pain, general muscular weakness, 
diainess and lassitude. The discbarges were sometimes greenish, 
wmetimes brownish, and always extremely offensive. Witli few excep- 
liaas, the symptoms abated in from .3 to 5 days, and all reovered 
dcept one, and that a doubtful case of a child who was not known 
irith certainty to have partaken, and whose symptoms might have 
Wn due to other causes. 

The unconsumed meat when received for examination was already 

iiiriy well advanced in decomposition anil jKirtly maggoty. All except 

one piece, which was faintly acid to litmus papers, was alkaline in 

taction. Cultures on agar and in bouillon were made from a piece 

taten from a part which was apimrently not yet in process of dijcom- 

Itci'ition. Inoculation of the bouillon cultures and of small bits of the 

meat into white mice produced fata! results, in some oases within from 

Is to 28 hours and in others within ;( days. A guin«i-pig which 

*weived a subcutaneous injection of the bouillon culture of the 

^stished meat died in 48 hours, having shown niarke*! lassitude and 

prtjfiL'ie diarrhtea. In all cases, section showe<l enlargement of the 

»pleen, which was bluish-red in color, strong injection of the small 

■ nteatine, and marked redness of the medullary substance of the 

■liJneys. Cover-glass preparations from the sjileen sliowcil fairly long 

*od broad bacilli, and the same xvere develojK'd on agar from the meat 

"toelf. 

FoiaoDing by Hone Meat. — Galfky and Paak- iuvestig.itc<l an 
"•itbreak in the district of I^owenberg, which wa-* known to involve at 
*«aa 30 and prol)ably more individuals. The ollending niatcriiils 
*efe horse meat, hon^ liver, and horse sansjigc. The patients com- 
plained very soon after eating, in one ease within a half hour, of 
*M9«a, headache, abdominal pain, borlH)rj'gmus, diarrhoia, dizziness, 

' Zeitttchrirt fUr Hjjriene und Iiirecii<>n.skrutikhi.-ilen, XXVfll,, |>. 4^4. 
* Arbeiten tu> dem kauerlichen GetuiidheiUnmle, VI., p. 159. 



I 



tivml>Iiii);, anil gr«it tliirst. The ttmiHi-atiirc roe* lo lO-l" F, One 
caw t«-nninat<?<l futally. Rni'tcrioIn^icHl fxaininatiou rt-vuiktl u baoiU 
III!, wliich ilitFercd in some respects from tliat of Gaertner. 

Poisoning by Sausages. — Cask I. — Triix.-' n-iM.riMl iu Noviw- 
Ih-i', l'>7!f, iin outhi'ciik uhu'li iiicludocl (>4 out of tiU |M?r>~oiLs who had 
cuUrii of a singlo Imtc-h nf «m«jiKi'», The niiiwt wiw charaoUTixwi \w 
voinititig, puling, anc] ii\y.atiet«, wlik-h «itne nii aAcr inter^'aU of 
varying Icri^h. 'I'tu-n- "ii." fxrrcnic wnikiii-.w, unil nuiiiy tiad >M'%Trp 
cRiTiipfi ill thf legs and [wins in llic alHlomeo. In the majority <>f 
«iMv« t.lit- V'liiiiliiig and purging! Ih.-IhI fn>m 3fi to 4R hours. The 
diM^hurgos were vpry offensive, and looked Hke dirty wasb-nratw. 
Theiv was mnrked «Tpbral disturbance, and n (wnsilion of anridiiy 
in tin- thniat was pomrnnn. One of llic victims ditil, brit (Iw autopsy 
revcaletl nothing iinusiml beyond a miinhiT of rvd [taiehes in tlie 
inU'Stinv. The remaining >Hiu6ageit were found to have a luinted awl 
putrid odor, 

Oasf: II. — The " IJnim('t*linni*en cn«c." The livor of n hralthr 
pig wat" made iulo sausa^p*, wliieh were then smoked for a )iumt>er of 
days and hniig up. On [lie eijflith ihiy, tliiy werft t-atea by a family 
ttiid a unmber of iiivit*-)! guoats, one of whom, objecting to their |iciiilisr 
taste, refrained from mtingaml <!S<«p«td the trouble thai came to all the 
r<stt. llie ."■vitiplonif, which apiR'iireil within a I'liort lime, were the 
same iu kind in all, but diffoml in severity. They inchidetl alMlominal 
pain, vomiting, di//ine.v'^. drviie.t)i of the niniilh aixl tlirmil, and difli- 
eult deglutition. Thp piijiils became dilated, ami vision was much im- 
paired and linally lost. The muscular and ner\"ou» i»y8tem*i were vny 
much HlfcelMl; the pulse was rapid and wrak; respiistion l>ecame em- 
bairasswl. swTillowing and jt|«-!ikiitg im|ioN^iblc. Dwilh cn.-<iu-<i in 3 
eases, piti-^-dM by great lividi^ of the face and spasms of llw 
extremities. 

C.\8K III. — Van Ennongem' relates an instance in which the rcmnio- 
injr san|»agvj' of n lot wliicli IukI cjiumiI iUnc-w in wveral perwMis were 
apparently so wholesome and lookwl so inviting that the cx|M-rt iind 
his as.iistnnt.1 l<i wh<mi they wen- sent ate them and themselves l>ecain« 
ill. The expert died on the sixth day, and antopjiy showed gastro- 
enteritis, acute miphriti.'r, and fatty df^neration of the liver. Gaert- 
iier'.« li. aiUrifitlui wa'- fi>nnd l>")tli in the organs and in the Kauoagee. 
The latter were made of horse meat. 

Cask IV. — (.'arl Onnlher* npoil.- that, in wveral |j1ii«-s in Poscn, « 
large ntuiiber of persons were made sick after eating poik >iau.-;ig«'!* iind 
blood, all of which had hettn MippliKl by one butcher. The most im- 
portant symptoms were ubdoniitial pain, vomiting, pnrg^iiig, gn-at 
M'eaknewi, and la.-^iluile. One nian of 47 ye.irs die<l after haixlly a 
day's .Hickncs,*, Gfjntlier exaniineil jMirtions uf the di.'^-cased and also 
nniples of meat and blood found in the house, and saui^ge and meat 



' Mcdiral "nmw nnil < inn-Ur. Xor. 29, 1879. 
' Ri-viK- .l'Ilvvi."w, IK'IO. [I. TiU. 
*Anhiv fiir lltK''^>H>, XXVUI., p. 14«. 



J 



CASES ILLUSTRATIVE OF POISOAINO BY FISH A2ID MEAT. 76 

from the shop of the butcher. From the victim's spleen and liver he 
isobtcd B, enUriUdut, but while a number of species were found in the 
fiMd», thia bacterium was not detected, perhaps having perished 
throi^ the influence of the other species present. 

Case V. — This interesting case of poisoning by sausage composed 
of pork and beef is related by Silberschmidt,' and serves as an 
illaarution of the methods commonly employed in the manufacture ol' 
■usages. Nearly fifty people were }x>isoned by eating a kind of sau- 
Mge known in Switzerland an "Landjager." It is made of beef, often, 
ilso, horse meat with pig fat. The materials are chopped rather 
musely, spiced, put into casings, pressed flat for a day, smoked two 
ity?, dried in the air Heverul days more and then eaten in the ra^v 
«tol*. The saiiwiges in this instance were made of cow l)eef from ani- 
mals that ha<l been certified as sound by a veterinarian, and pork that 
lad lx«n bought about two weeks previously and kept with preserva- 
the (lali, and had apjienred fresh and unchanged when used. In 
tile morning of the first day that the sausagtts were on sale, a man and 
His nifc ate one of them together, and both were made so sick toward 
fveoing and during the night that a physician was called. In the 
ifiemoon of the same day, 19 fishermen ate of them, and on the fol- 
lowing day it was reported that ail of them had been nuide sick. In 
the evening, another man ate one, and it pleased him so much tlut he 
took one home to his wife and children. Ou the next day, he hud 
iMominal pains, headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, thirst, and a chill. 
In the afternoon, his wife and two children who had eaten were sinii- 
luly seized. A boatman who ate two whole sausages suffered no 
ineonvenience beyond a little pain on the following day. Another, 
»bo was sick eighteen days and then returned to his wofk, was seized 
^n ten days later with the same train of symptoms. One man, 
^wl eighteen years, entered the hospittil in the morning of the second 
*iav, and died during the night, two days and a half after ingestion 
«f the rtnusage. At the time of^ entrance, the abdomen was sensitive 
■ad he was passing grayl-*h watery stools ; in the af^cmtwn, he was 
^lirittiis, and his pulse was very small, irregidar, and rapid. Pur- 
«i|r the night he coILipsed and died. Section after twelve hours 
showed a spleen of normal size, swollen mesenteric glands, and hyper- 
»mia of the stomach and intestines. The follicles wert; much swollen, 
anii in the ileum were several areas from 4 to (} cm. in length by 1 cm. 
'u tircadth, where the mucous membriine wa« di.soolorf<l and eroded. 
OtbtT organs were normal. Six others of those affected were dischai^^ 
^m the hospital after fn)m seven to fifteen days' treatment. In an 
xljoining town, where sjiiisages of the samt- lot were sold, there were 1 fi 
•"llier ca.-«es, all with the same symptoms. Taking ijll the CH.-ies to- 
plher, the symptoms of pn>miuenee wore as follows: Verv M'ven-, 
janially cnunpy, nixlomiiml jwiins; very profuse iliarrluva, the stiMils 
nunibering from eight to twelve ptrr day, and in color variinfr iK.twii'u 
pay, greenish, and yellow ; usually vomiting, the rejected nuitters being 
' Zeittichrift fur Hygiene und InftH'liDiiskrnnklieitun, XXX., |i. 'MH. 



wiitt'ry uiiil lirowiii.tl) ; siinkt-n cvo.i, lii)£li IVvcr, pxtit lai>siluik-. U-ikIpt* 
tlPl^« nvt-T iilKlLinicii, cRiiiijw ill the Kilvtvi, great lliiKt, aud, oi-caBioitalk, 
nictmriRni. In niuot (>(" tlii> i<a'ii'!<, the HVtnjitoms (i[i|>uintl »ii tWdav 
jifUr i.'Utiiig. Tlic ihiRiti'iii nf tin- iUiipm raugeil between one and 
lliirly iliiy.-, ilu- givauT niiniln-r ii-citvoring in lw<f wt-uki*, hihI iK-vuiiiiiit* 
III tiir work in tliii'c. 

As is ciiinnionly the case in the* outbreaks, the ulltrnl^nn of tlip 
Nlitliiiritir.-> wa--> not dniwii li> tlie nmtliT in eillicr (own until HJtoe ^lavs 
hiiil ela|iM.'i:l. Clieiiiitvil analyses of iiiuised NiiiKigf!* wen- mink- ai U-tli 
[)Iaei-.-. One aiialy.-*! rf|KirC(tl m^itivc lv.Hlllt^ ; tlie otlier iflx'Meil the 
[in«eiKi' of |itoniiiiiiis, I>ilI diii nut t'lirtLcr jKirtieulariKe. R'urteritJtigica] 
investigiition revealwl tltc lu-eK^neu til' » vuricty vf or)!tiiii.'<DU^. u» wiw 
to Iinvi^' Ih-< n uiitivi|iHttil, luic) itinong tliein. especially marked, Protetu 
viilijuiin. 

Poifloning by Kid Meat. — Hcnsucn ' luw rcimrted the ease of a 
whole taiiiily titriekeo after esiiing ihi- meal of » kid wliidi wa> killed 
wIk'H bill, a few days old. A twelve year old girl wj,i^ mzed in eleven 
hours witli » diill, followed by fever, diz/ineRs, voniitinji, and violpnt 
diarrho'ii. The teni|H'i-HUin' n»«i' to H);{.(i° F. She w!i» eonliitcd to 
her btil fl»r five dayw. The father, forty-nine years old, wai* seizwl 
with the same symptoiim in twelve to tlnrtu-n luiurx, iiiiil hiul aUi 
tiiadaehe, |iiiiii in (he joints thin^t, and inability to walk. Tlie tuiiffue 
was dry, the jiulse riipid and ."niaU, aii<l iIjc |iii|iilii reaeteil hlowly. He 
wu» wi'k eif^ht djiy«. The iiiollnr. wlio ate but lillle, wiu' ^lintl jiud- 
denly in the night Mitli vomiting, and Midi gn'jit dixxintrroH that bIm- »■« 
uuable to walk withont holdiii);on to the furniltire, A boy, under two 
yeiiii* of iiffe. wa> wi/ed in the m'lrfit with vomiting and violent diar- 
rliwii. whieh soon lieejuuc bloinly. The stoolc wer.' niniHiially ofli'ii^hv, 
and J iersi.it "I so tor «'vi-itiI day?*. lie was siek nine tlays. Throe 
otlier ehiklreu, who ate bnl very little, were >iek htutliivK with xlij^ht 
abdominal (win and diarrhcea. No material was obtainable Ibr exami- 
nation. The hiilciier !<aid that the kid wan H|i)itiivntly heidlhy, Inir the 
mother declared that tlie meat aroinid the Joints of the bind le^p was 
viTV Mifil iiikI wat<'ry, and the jointH tbemwelveB enlai^^l (septie [ady- 
ttrthrilisr). 

Meat Inspection and Slaughtering. 

The value and a<Ivisabinty of thorough in^^wetion of inwits before 
thej' are plawd on sjile are iiniverMJiIly eoiuiilc<l. In this eouulrj', 
nnder the iiin|ie<-lion hw of Mareh ;!, IKfU, all niwil iiilemlcd for ex- 
port is requireil to pifw a very .-irief. sy.-ilem of inppeelion. Tlie ani- 
mals are inspected Iiefore being •ilanghtereii, an<l iheir eiir(Tji».<'» iirr 
exaniiiii-d niien>siii|iii«Ily by oftieiuU i>\' the Itiirean of Animal Indus- 
try before being jwekwl. The iti>|ieeti<ai of mwil tor hwal (■on>inm[>- 
lion U wholly a matier of local antliority ; sftine States have ins|Krtion 
lawif uwl iitherH have none; many riliiw have ^|H.'eial regnlalton» whieh 
are enforced hy officials who may or may not be competent thnmph 
■ ZvilKliriR furFI«i«'li- iinil MiMihvirifnr. VIM., ji. 181. 




MEAT INSPECTION AND SLAUGHTERING. 77 

proper training. In Germany, the system of inspection is very rigid, 
particularly in the case of meats fri)m foreign countries. This is due 
Ten- lai^ly to the activity of the agriculturul interests in protecting 
tbeio-selves from outside competition ; and imder the benevolent plea 
of protecting the health of meat consumers, much care and attention 
ire given to hunting for excuses for exchiding American meats which 
hsve already been inspected. 

The Federal meat inspection sen'ice is, according to Salmon,' 
a sanitary rather than a commercial inspection, applied not alone to 
meate for export, but also to those intended ior inter-state commerce, 
Cnriousiy, however, the very important inspection for trichina is pri- 
marily a commercial matter, being applied only to pork intended for 
nJiipraent to certain foreign countries which require it. 

The United States inspectors are instructed to condemn all female 
uimals in an advanced st^^ of gestation, and to prevent their slaughter 
for fixA, Salmon ruHng that, though "the animal is, strictly speaking, 
ia a physiolt^ic condition, it is not in its usual physiologic condition, 
Mr is the change one which is calculated to improve the quality of the 
meat," Feomles in which parturition has recently occurred are like- 
wise oondemnetl as unfit for food. Many animals are condemned on 
account of bruises and injuries received on their way to market; during 
1600, there were oondemned for this cause, in round numbers, carcasses 
or parts of carcasses of 4500 cattle, 1,000 sheep, and 12,300 hogs. 
In some of these, the injuries were extensive, sometimes complicated 
whh abscesses, septic infection, and gangrene. 

The cattle diseases most prominent as causes of condemnation are 
tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and anasmia ; next in order are septictemia, 
F^eumonia, peritonitis, pysemia, icterus, abscesses, and Texas fever. In 
■vine, the most common diseases are h<^ cholera, awine plague, tubercu- 
Ws, icterus, pyemia, abscesses, pneumonia, inflammations of the 
ibdominal cavity, septictemia, and tumors. The most common causes 
<if condemnation of sheep are antemia and emaciation, bruises and 
injuries, tuberculosis, absct^ses, pneumonia, ureemia, septicemia, icterus, 
oA pyeemia. 

In by no means every case is the entire carcass of an animal afflicted 
lilh tuberculosis or actinomycosis condemned, since, in the early stages, 
^t\i diseases usually are localized, and the carcass as a whole not 
effected. A tuberculous animal is condemned wholly when there is 
emaciation or generalization of the lesions, and " when the lesions in 
vt organ or organs are of snob number and size as to indicate that 
tile system at large may have been affected, either by inflammation, by 
"k mixed infection, by the secretion and absorpti<in of pus or t<ixic 
principles, or by interference with the gencnil nutrition of the IxhIv" 
(^mon). In nine years of Federal meat inspection, the condcmiia- 
•iwis per 10,000 animals, were, according to Salmon,* as follows : cattle, 
*48; sheep, 8.1 ; swine, 37. 

' JoarnaJ of the American Medical Association, Dec 28, 1901, p. 1715. 
) Ibidem, H>rch 30, 1901. 



78 



fOODS. 



In ini«pci-tii)g meat^, f^>MTia1 uttciitiou slioiilJ be paid to the conneotivc- 
tii^t^iic Hiiil gliiiKluInr nrguin^. The txlor <A' a (-iir(iL'<» aIiouM l>e svi't-cl, 
mill iIk- mint i>liiiiil<l foinmiiniuilc no iinpluisiiil unvll to n n-cxMlen 
skewer tbnist into it and withdrawn. The niusele tihoultl be firm mid 
t'liftii', lull iiol (oii^h. Any viiriiilinii from thi> niilimil oilur r^hoitld he 
rcpinled with t*iW[(icion, veiT dark oiilor Bngg<*iin(t l'fl)rilt' cuiHlitiim, 
or rliiit ihtt aiiini.ll vtil" not stiiti^htviiil, nr wus HlHughtoivl in n dyln^; 
eotHlition. 8iich muit uiKlcrgtRw decitiiipoMliun nnich niutv rnjiidlr 
tlian norutal m«tit. Animals that have lM<en dniwrit-d or ]mvc hrnt 
kilKil hv ueeiili-nt witixitit ln'inj; hliil yirld si dark un<l disoilorcil mtnl 
that ifi likely t« dceonipft!^' nmre rajiidly iIimh that of anininU llud have 
ri'^iilarly Ikk*ii i^lmi^liU'r)?il, hut an tiniimd llmi Iiiih been injitirs), hiit 
nut killed, may be F^lattjfh It-red, pr<'|KT]y lili'd and d^eM^?<l, and iIh mtut 
is then peri'wtly jjinmI. 

Aniiniil." :<hoiild Uv kept withunt lixxl for at least Iwelvo honr^ befor* 
■ilaii^diter, and the cuix-aiinef. ffhuuhl Iw biinj; for a nnml>cr of tiiiiim to 
cuul. .Many di.-^ns(t< an' in<iirnte<l more clearly atk-r the body W 
eoulud. 

The Jewish uicttutd «f fhiii^hlciing i" rcpmiwl by rmuij- tin for 
Hii|ii-rior to any other. Amiixlin); to lX>ndH*,' it !» the mo«t isttonal 
from ii by^fienii- ^iaii<l|Hiini, .ijiuv the animal is bk-d ni|iidly niid oom- 
jilrtHy, and the (xinviilMve movements eanw the niittt to be more 
tender and of more attnn-ti\'(' ajiiH^inmce, lartir aeid in develiijied, 
mid ihniii;;h it!* vluniiad lu-tion on potiioAJiim jihonjituite, jtoiamnm 
laelate and acid pbofiphaie of potarviuni aw fomietl. The latter 
liiniU-rx the <)evclopiiii-nt "( niii'nMtTjnmisniA, delays the (oritutti'iii 
of ptoraains snd other {x>iMitioiis mnlteiv, and improveii the taftc 
Kiiipir niorliK ntnu-x on nion' ipiiekly, and the meat is therefore, more 
t|uick)y a\'ailable for use, and idwo will keep K'vemI ibiyn longvr tluin 
ordinarily. 

A piiM^-sw of rilanghterin^ ori^hiatin^ in IVmnnrk iipiKiim t« 
have borne the test of u hard tbn'e-montbi-* trial in a very sjlisiaetory 
manner, mid re<wimmends it-oelf for adoftlion in the trojii<«, wlu'n^ 
nietitfi deeonipow with exeeedinj; nipidity. The animal ts xboL in 
the forehead and klllol i>r xtnntied, and a^ it falls an inHsion in made 
over the bejirt and the ventricle U opi-netl ibr two pnr{K>M-s: to allow 
the bl'Kxl to escape, and to admit of the injection of a sohitioti of salt 
thronpb the bloodviwels by the aid of a [)owi*rful syringe. The proc«« 
re4uir«) but a few minutes, and the eitreafifi may be etit up at once. 

E008. 

Vjf^ fonn It vnbiitble "nhHtitiite for meats Irmm^ fairly rieh in fata 
and pmteidfl, and are well ada)ited to the rtomaoh of the invalid and 
coovalc.->eent uhen mmiK eiinnot be Utnu*. The nutritive part of the 
white U pmcti<7illy limited to proteids, uhieh amount to about 12 per 
wnt. ; the yolk is richer in protclds and contains hi addition a\xn\t ;J3 
'Deuwehc Vi«n*ljiihnchririfflruftt-iilliplii'Ui.-iunilliititsipflt«B, XXVI., ji. «W. 



EGOS. 



79 



:r cent, of &t. The albomin of the white is m a conditiou of solu- 
OQ in cells with very thin wuUs. The fatty matters of the yolk are 
1 a condition of emulsion, being held in suspension by the vitcUin. 
?he entire yolk is held t<^ther by an enveloping membrane and is sus- 
xnded in the white, being held in position by an albuminous band at 
Btberend : 

The following table by Langworthy ' shows the average composition 
of €gg8 of different sorts : 



Ha: 
Wholt egg M purchued 
Wbolc e«g, eoiblfl portion . , . 

WliW . , 

Yolk . . . 

WholetreboileiJ.edltile portion 
Whlle-ftheJIed egKiaa purcbucd 
IniiiD'iliclletl I'gtn u purcbucd 

Diet: 

VMi ta » poTcbued 
mulg tn, edible portion 

WWW. . . ...:;.. 

Yoll 

Guh: 

Vligle r%g u iHirchued 

WlKilcen, edible portion 

WhlK 

Tolk . 

IMn: 

*nole t«g M purcbued . 

*^ tSS, edible portion 

loik '..'.'.'.'.'.. '. 

Mwtlbwl: 

Whiten M pnrcbued 
"tiole et*. edible portion 

Tott , . . 

Finer: 

Wlule tfg u puich4wd 
Wliol* tst, edible portion 

Inianted beni' eggm . . . 






Fuel 


Asb, 


v&Iue per 




pound. 


PermU. 


(Moria. 


0.9 


Wb 


10 


T-JO 


.6 


■&0 


M 


1,705 


.8 


765 


.6 


675 


.7 


GM 


.« 


760 


1.0 


8«0 


S 


■im 


i.-i 


1,H10 


.9 


TOO 


1.0 


S6& 


Ji 


JU 


1J3 


1,«» 


J( 


635 


.9 


72D 


.H 


21S 


Li 


1,710 
640 



lo.e 

11.7 
B«.0 



1.2 
.> 

1.0 

a6 



7SG 

115 

1,U6 



!HS 



The prot^ds of eggs have been studied by Osborne and Campbell,' 
iriio found that the yolk contains a lai^ amount of protein which 
resonbles a globulin, but is believed to be a mixture of compounds of 
protem matter with lecithin. The proteids of the white were found to 
aclnde ovalbumin, ovomucin, ovomucoid, and conalbumin. 

Eggs contain a certain amount of sulphur, to which the gtaining of 
ilver spoons and the odor of rotten e^s (hydit^n .'iiilphide) are due. 
rbe rotting of t^gs is supposed to be due to the admission of fermenta- 
i^-e micro-organisms through the pores of the shell, or to those already 
resent before the shell is formed. 
It ifl a commonly accepted idea in some parts of the country that 
jgs with brown sheila are of greater richness than others, and that the 
^ree of richness is directly proportionate to the depth of color. In 
Mne markets, on the other band, the white ^g is held in higher esteem. 

>U.a DeptKDMDtod'Amcuhure.FiinneiB' Bulletin, No. 128(1901). 
■Report of CoonecUcut Ksp«riment Bution, 1899, p. 830. 



80 



P0Ol>S. 



AcN^onling to th* results of an extensive study of the dipmicnl ooni|>osi-l 
t\<m of vjngM iiirried oii nl the Cidifi'riiin Kxin-riiiMiit Stntioii niiiiiilv for] 
tbo piirpoi^ of tletcrmitiing what difft-rL-noes, if anv, pxUt between tlnsn, 
llii-re b. Ill) IKI.-.U of fu(rl fur ihc {>(>{)(ilur U-licf. [n Cirt, tin* vt-ry diptl 
diflVn-nt'tw noted were in favor of tlip while ^igs, but (lie avcrs^re dif- 
fereiiw-- l>etw<i-h the Iwo kiiid» wcrv less than tlie fltii't until ■uk Ik'Iii«« 
iiidividiml F^pet^menK of the same group. The tij^treH obtained arc 
|ii-e»cDted iu the following tuble Iiiki^ from Farmers' Bulletin No. 87 1' 

ANALYSIS OF HI»nVN.8HELLl<:U A^IO WlllTIv«UKI.I.£D KOm. 



WkUr. 


IToMu. 


ML 


A»h. ShalL Taut 


Yolk 4B.69 

Whil* - eO.flO 

Entire tgg . i Gu.ST 

tt'liilt'theilal njgt! 1 

Yolk - ' 49SI 

Whir* Wl,3T 

Entile e^ . 84.78 


IVrrt. 
l.V»( 
11.09 
11.84 

IG/tS 
12.14 

n.n 


Porol 

33.SS 

.21 

10.77 

83.34 
Si 

1I.S3 


Pvrgl. 

IM 
.84 
.U 

l.OS 
.68 
.67 


Pat «(. ' htM 

. . fRTl 

. . tm 
. . tm 

Hifl 



The question of influence of breed on compo^tion Uas been invfti- 
gattnl lit tim Micliipiii Kx|>«.Timcnt Htiition. The ixwiiU." slmwiii dut 
the variiitions in composition are too .tlight to be of practical va!u^ 
atid, an with tlie brown und tlio white (^PS '^^ cHKhl kk to be h-w* tlan 
the variations between in<lividua] s]wcimeus from the tame breed. The 
inHurnce of thi.' niituiv of the ft^il wit)* inveritignted alio, and was fniind 
to l»e of little or no importance. 

TIk- flavor of (■(ip' Niirit-.* m-cordiiifr to age, ihone which are per- 
fectly fresh having the lincrt flnv<ir. It is dciwndent also, to I'lune 
exti'jit, ii|)on t]ie naturt) of tlie food consumed by the fowl, the best 
eomlnn from a purely grain feed. A vcrj' nitnipiion.'* fired raiu.'i<'.^ n 
more or Ic-.«^ rii.siignMililc Hnvor and odor. 'I'lio influence of highly 
fliivorni feed has been ctndictl by EnicPi'.' who fciI l«u^ with ii nition 
containing wild onion tops and bulbs, Afti-r fifteen days, the eegs 
having no uuusuaJ taste, each hen received daily one ounce of tbia 
addition instead of n half ounce as before, and in three days the ffj»« 
w«TC fliivoR-d so stronjjly a;* to U' rc]iuf;nant to the ta.«te. 

The inm content of the yolk of cjitp' is said by Schmidt* to U- in- 
crmutiHl materially by feisliiig t^echarate of iron lo hens. He asserts, 
nlsu, that the iron so incorponite<l w more ii.->»imilable than mo!tt iroii 
pri-|uinu ioiH given in the ana?mic coudition. Aufslx-iig* assert* tiia' 
by feeding certain iron eom{xnind.-t, the iron content mn be increased 
eight timi's. 

Xlw digestibility of e^^ has been studied at the Miuneitota E^peri- 

■Govommml rrimiiiK Oflifr-, Wmliiagton, HWfl. p. 24. 
'BiiDmIii WT, Nnrlh t'nrnlinii Kxpcrinirnt t^alklk 
■ Z^tBohrift f&r aiiKcnnnilir l~Iicmir, IDUO, p. TOGi 
* PhnnnaeeuliKhe Ztilunn. IWX), p. 30«, 



LARD. 81 

ment Station.' It was shown that, while the method of cooking has 
some effect on the rate of digestion, tiie total digestibility is not affected. 
E^s boiled three, five, and twenty minutes, and digested for five hours 
irith pepsin solution, showed at the expiration of that time respectively 
8^, 3.9, and 4.1 per cent, of undigested protelds. Cooked for five and 
t«o minutes in water at 180° F. and similarly treated, they left no un- 
digested residuum. 

LASD. 

[ lard is the semi-solid fet of the slaughtered hog, separated from the 
tiiiflies by the aid of heat According to the parts from which it is de- 
rived, it is classified as follows: (1) Neutral lard. This is derived 
fiom the fresh leaf, which is reduced to a pulp after being cooled, and 
tba rendered in the kettle. A part of the fat b separated at from 
tOa° to 120° F., and the residue is sent to the rendering tanks for 
fiirther treatment. The lard obtained ia washed, while hot, with water 
containing a trace of sodium carbonate, common salt, or dilute acid. 
(2) Leaf lard. This is obtained from the residue above mentioned, 
which is subjected to steam heat under pressure. (3) Choice kettle 
ladered lard. This is obtained from the remaining portions of the 
leaf leather with the fat from the backs. Both the leaf and back fat 
in passed first through a pulping machine. (4) Prime steam lard. 
This is made from the head, the fat of the small intestine, trimmings, 
ud other &tty parts. 

The spleen, pancreas, trachea, and all other refuse parts and trim- 
Jiings, with the exception of the small intestine, the liver, lungs, and 
put of the heart, go int« the rendering-kettle for what fat there may 
lie in them, and the product b variously, but not graphically, desig- 
nated. 

"Refined lard " is a t«rm used to designate a lard composed chiefly 
rf cotton oil and stearin. It is known more often as "lard com- 
poQDd." 

Pbysical and Ohemical Properties of Lard. — At 40° F., the 
specific gravity is 0.890; at 100°, about 0.860 ; it differs not very 
materially from that of the substances used as adulterants, excepting 
oatton-seed oil, which is notably heavier. The melting-point ranges 
fiwn 39.1° to 44.9° C. (102.4° to 112.8° F.), according t^ the part 
flf the carcass from which the fat is derived, and hence it cannot be 
taken as a safe guide in the determination of purity. 

Pure lard, melted, and mixed with strong sulphuric or nitric acid, 
will give only a slight color, which may be yello\vish, pinki^^h, or 
inclined to light brownish. Cotton-seed oil and other seed oils, and 
mixtures containing them, similarly tresited, yield any color l>etween 
yellowish brown and very brownish black or even black. The re- 
fiactive index of pure lard is materially lower than that of cotton- 
seed oil. 

Pure lard contains only traces of volatile fatty acids, .5 grams yield- 
' Fsnnen' Bulletio No. 87, Oovemment Printing OfBce, Wnj-hinKtim, ISiKl, p. 2'i. 



82 



ing ail iininnnl. whioh h ucutin1ize<I by ^ or J of u cc. of tlcctiKimm] 
^ium hydnite solution. The aou-vol«tile fatly acids are prcaieiit u> 
the extent of about !)-^ [kt cH-iit. Tlii' iodiin- iib?or{iti<m number %tiri» 
ucoonliti^ to \\ip {ttirt of the carcoMi from wbicli tliu fut U derived, but 
averages about liO, Tht* imliiu- niimlx'T of e()ili.ii-!<«-«l oil i« about lOfl. 
ami llial of stftiriu Ik itpproximutcly 20. Thus, tbiw; Mibstauccfi ushI 
a* adulteraiitji may be mixed in nuch proportion as to yield the nonual 
iodine number of ki-d. 

With nitrate of silver solution, pui-e lard caii?*es no more tban ihi" 
veiy Hligble^t iimounl of nHiuctiDii, luid gi-tu'nilly iioin' at all ; but vilton- 
iscffl oil «iow^ n very marked retlut-liou of the salt to tbc metallic state, 
with tbere-^ult that the niixiun^ haii a brouiiinli or bluek ap[H!:iraii<« 
from tlic iiiiurilf^' blufk jjartielts tormed. 

A small amount of lard, dii«olved in a mixture of wfual part, of 
itltiobol Hnd ntronj; eibiT in u ttwt-tiilK- and allowed to st.tuil in a cool 
place, will, when the solvent in lai^e part is eva|iorated, show ma^NS 
of cry>talfl, which, on exam Iiwt ion utidi-r ihc microsrom', an- !«h-ii t« lie 
rlmnibie and cxlri'tuily variable in sire. Beef stearin, similarly treated, 
shows fau-sh:iped anil duniblHll-sliiiitod clnsttan of needle fn,-stal», 
Mix(ui-o.-< of pure lanl iitiil Ix-ef stearin will filiow Ixrtb forms of ervs- 
tals. Sometimes, when ciysiaUiTJitlon pnK«eds rapidly, the ciystaU 
fnim pUR- liirfl an^ cxln'nuly !<n)ull, and «iv cluflerw! in iturh a way as 
to be distinguished from beef stearin crystals only with great ditlicuttA-. 
It is e!^-«'iiliitl tiiiil till- I'lTsljdliKiiif; pivicci nhiill pr<M'wd slowly, aru) 
that the amount of lar<l dissolved iu li;ilf a tcst-tnbc of the solvent 
sbidl lie quite siiiall — not lai^ir thiui n Isirge ]»ea. Tlie muiitb of tbc 
teat-tube should be stopped with ooltoti. 



I 



Section 3. MILK AND UILK PRODUCTS. 



i 



Milk is a solution of :<ugitr, miiicnd innttt^r, and protcids, with other 
protcidf) and fat in suspension. Its composition is verj' variable, not 
idunv ax betwu-n ditfi'ivtii siKi-ie.-< of mamnialiii by which it i> pHMhu^, 
but as between different Individuals of the same s)NKrii?s. Of ibe 
iloiiiCiitie nniinals, the a.ta and mare produce milk which mosit eIo»<el]r 
approximiites tlmt of womau In ouipiisifion, but our ebief interc^ in 
milk as an article of ftHxl in general use lice in that proihicetl by onvrsM 
uud, to a wrtaio c\tcnt, in that "f giiits, whi<-li i.« veiy finiilar in com- V 
position. While the composition of milk of uther animals than those 
alniidy uient^oiMHl can Im^c for niont of us nu-ri'ty a M-k'utifle intern^, 
it may be of some practical utility In the inauagcment of bres^l-niilk 
to iMtir in mind that the milk of .-ininials who.-ie diet is lately or ehie-fly 
meat is richest in tluvsr elcmiuts, the protei<l.'', that an- most commonly 
at the bottom of dige^^tive dislurbances in br«isl-fed children, 

CompoaitiOD of Cows' Milk The composition of milk ofnv 

good (jnality may he exprwwetl fairly in rounif numbers as follows 



2 



MILK. 83 

Vt 4.00 

Sagar 6.00 

Proteida 3,30 

Uineral matter ^-'^ 

Total solids 13.00 

Water 87.0 

100.00 

According to Vieth, the average compositioD of more than 120,000 
amples analyzed in England was : 

Pat 4.10 

Solidfl not fal 8.8Q 

Total solids 12.90 

Water 87.1 

100.00 

Tbe average of a lai^ number of analyses made in this country 



Fat 4.00 

Sugar 4.95 

Proleidn 130 

Hlneml mfttter 0.75 

Total solids 13.00 

Water W7M 

100.00 

^ milk yielded by 426 cows from private farms in Massachusetts^ 
udby 17i> more belonging to public institutions, was analyzed by the 
utbor and bis associates, and foimd to give the following results :' 

426 cows from private lanns, total solids 13.36 

175 cowB from public inBtitutiooB, total solids 13.00 

601 cows (both cknea), total Bolids 13.26 

Ht. — The fet of milk exists in very minute globules which vary 
riifcly in size, the largest being between six and seven times larger 
^ the smallest, but the latter are most abundant. Wbetlier or not 
^ bave an albuminous envelope, is a matter of doubt, tbe evidence 
f and against being about equal, and of no great importance. 

It consists of glycerides of ten different fatty acids, five of which 
Jong to the non-volatile and five to the volatile class. The glycerides 
' the former group constitute by far the greater part. They are 
«rin, palmitin, olein, myristin, and butin ; the two last are present 

very minute amounts. Those of the latter group give the character- 
tic butter flavor. They are butynn, caproin, caprylin, caprin, and 
nrin ; the two first are tbe important ones, and ti^ther amount to 
*er 7 per cent, of the whole fat ; the three others are present iii but 
significant traces. 

' .Uoericaii Experiment Station Record, V., No. 10. 

'The detailed analyseis with data an to breed, natnre, and amount of feed, etc., can 
(lund id the (Hmphlet imued by the Slalf Hoard of IleaUb ; Reiiiillx of Inqiiirie!< 
iuivt to tbe Quality of Milk as Produced in MH.-«ichuHclts. Boston : February, 1887. 



84 



FOODS. 



Till' thl, Ixiii); lilt' li^1il<:»t [Ktrt (>( milk, IpncLi to nut Ut tU- Mirfin 
when tlip milk is ullowul li> »tHn<1, ittii) iIhii furm^ -a InyiT whi<;Ii i 
know art iTt-iim. Tliis rnntains not fnt alfnir, Imt iill of tbt or>ii«iuii'n 
ol" tilt- milk, mill i«, tluTcfiiif, Mmply milk (imtiiittiiif; nn rxw-t^in 
amoimt of tat. 

Ii U n rj>i:iiimTt error lo n'j^ml titc di-jxli of tin- (rniini Inycr v,hkh 
furni» <in i-tuniUng a fjivcn li-ii);tli til' tiiiif iii^ uii iiifatlibtc meaf-iirv of 
tiic ricbiiMW 111' tlifl milk liv wliifh it is vii^Wcd ; but rnmii il-xt- not 
alwiivj< ri^i." well in ricli milk, even iilU-r Hiiiitliii); iimn- lliaii twenty 
fmir hoiifrt. 'riip aiitlior rriK'alwlly ha» fniiml llit? iH-rtftitiip- of rnum 
thniwii ii|i l>_v II .x|Mi-itiicii t>f milk in n 100 ixr, f;nuliialc in tw<-iitv-l'>ur 
huiiK, as muuiiiirc*! bv tin- lintf' iif gnitl nation, to he less tltau ihc nettul 
innfj-niap- of fiit a.-* .■'hoMii bv analvnin. Tin- ni[iitlity witb wbifli thi' ftii 
Hnib il." way to tbf snrlluT iK-|>cn(l!i Iiirj^tly ujxm (lie s'iz/e of llir fill 
glnbiik*. The largi'st rit-c lin*t, iital tlio vory ftmallts-l may ii>ii rise it 
vli. Af^iin, u »'ut4Ti^-tl milk tlki\>w*f up Ui^ fat mun.- t|iiiokly tlian i 
oomial njwcimeii, altliougl) it tim^g not tiMitaiii as mnch. It appfur', 
then-forf, lliat » milk of iiift-rior trnolv miiy iiimUt sonic (■ircnnii*t:iiiii'« 
«how a deeper eream layer tliaii a milk of nniisiial rielmei^ < icno rally 
e[>euking, lKlWl•^'l^^, a rirb milk will iiHually ritiow i(.« ijiiiility on sttiiiilin^ 

I'hi.': Iir»t part of a milking ii- atuayH (Kxir in fat, the middle jmn'm 
contains about the avcnige amoiiiit of tlu- ubole, nn<) llie lust [xirtion v 
nlwayii tbe ricbest. The fir«l [wirtion is known n« " fon-milk." (lif U*! 
as " iitripi>injpi." A spe<-imeu of " !»tn]ipii)gs," aiial^n:^ by tlip autlntf, 
gnvv the following r»i(iit« : 

Fw «.« 

8uK«r 4.00 

Pwwiib . «1 

A«h JIT? 

Ti»l»>lid* 18.8S 

W«et 81.18 

100.00 

MUk-fusar. — I^nctoso or »ngnr nf milk, is pecnlinr lo milk. It 
much Ic6« soluble iu u-ater tliuii de^ctnise und sueniM'. HeiiliMl 
lOO^-t.'tl" C, it bi<i»ii)<>s (■han}re<I in color to bmw-niiUt, ami at liighe 
tfinperalmw liws wat«T of eryistnlliration nwl iindergoe!< fiirtbt-r ehiiii); 
At \7^° C, UetoeitRimel is tonuf^. Wliea liealetl in snUition, iu mi 
itwlf, for r\am]ik-, it licf:!n>i lo nntlcrpt (K-eomjMK'ition ehang<« lit 7(1 
C. and above. Through the atrtitm of the laetir feniiMiti^, it givcK 
(o lactie arid. In tlw- })olftri.*oono, it is dixtmrotary. 

Froteids. — The f;ix«ler [wrl of the proleidf oC milk, alxnit 80 pi 
cent., ie ci^ein. or, iis it \& ealltil soineiinves. ca^iiiof^n. It eoiit:iin!> 
both siiliiliiir and phosphiinir>, nttd is in intimate ci)inl>iiuitii>n with cnl- 
rtiiiu ]iliiK<]iliatv. It iv not etMpthited by licat, but is pre<eipitate<l by 
Hei<)A, by whieh the conibinalion is broken n|». In the pre^'inv 
laetic acid in !<jimll lunonnltt, due to the Imiikin^ ii]i of latntwae, 
hition is luii^eiied by th« ajiplicHtinii of gentle beat. This pheaomt-m 




MILK. 86 

is oJ)eer\'ecl very commonly in the case of milk which to the taste is 
apparently aweet, but which is "just on the turn." 

The chief part of the reominder of the proteids is laetalbumin. This 
ia coagulate by heating to 65°— 73° C, but not by dilute acids. It 
attains sulphur, but no phosphorus. lu amount it ranges from 0.2 
to 0.8 per cent. It is much more abundant in coloatram. The re- 
maining proteids are lacti^lobulin, which is coagulated by beat ; lacto- 
pnitein, ooagnlable by neither heat nor dilute acids, and fibrin. Each 
ciigts in but very small amounts. 

UnenU BCatter. — The mineral matter contained in milk cousists of 
phosphates and chlorides of potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium, 
ind estremely minute tnices of iron. Of the bases, potassium is the 
met abundant, with calcium, sodium, and magnesium in the order 
givKi. The phosphates predominate over the chlorides. Part of the 
cilcium exists in combination as phosphate with the casein, and the 
let, according to DaDileivsky,' as mono- and tricalcium phosphate and 
in CDmbination with citric acid. Part of the magnesium, also, exists in 
combination with citric and other organic acids. lu very small 
uwunts, these are normal constituents of milk of various animals. In 
hnman milk, citric acid is present to the extent of about 0.05 per cent., 
ud in cows' milk, it is about three times as abundant. 

Bpedflc Q/iKTitj. — The specific gravity of cows' milk of normal com- 
pvdlion ranges from 1.029 to 1.034. It increases very slightly for 
iboat Sve hours after the milk is drawn, and then becomes stationarj-. 
TV bcrease is believed to be due to molecular modificatitm of the 
laseiii, and not to the escape of gases. It is lowered by fat and water, 
ind by the presence of bubbles of air, and is raL-ied by removal of cream. 
BucUon. — \Vlien freshly drawn, milk shows the so-called amphoteric 
fraction; that is, it is acid to litmus and alkaline to turmeric. The 
alkaline reaction is intensified on warming, but the acid reaction is not 
influenced thereby. On standing, the alkaline reaction is overcome 
\k the lactjc acid which is fomie<i gradually from the sugar, and the 
W(i reaction ls increased in consequence of the same. The original 
Md reaction is due to the presence of phosphates, the alkaline to alka- 
Hoe carbonates. Human milk is normally alkaline, and that of car- 
oivora b acid. 

Appsuuice. — The appearance of normal milk is too familiar to need 
description ; but under certain rare abnormal conditions, milk may 
vsame different colors, including blue, yellow, violet, and red. These 
disDges of color are due to the action of certain bacteria, and are always 
eijdence of unsanitary conditions to which the milk is ex|x»sed at the 
dairy or during distribution and storage. 

Blue milk is due to the action of B. cyanogenes, which produces a 
blue color in no other food material. For its development it recniires 
the presence of lactic ferments, jind, therefore, has no effect on milk 
that is sterile. Another organism capable of producing the same etfoct 
is 5. nfantojluorescens. 

'Wnitech, 1901, p.549. 




POODS. 



1 



A rpd color may be causwl by B. jtrodtgwmu or B. liicH* n-ythri» 
gmff, wniHiuicK by blood, nnd, it is naid, br ntaddcr and nthcr ni 
«t)Io^in|^■^lattpr in tbe feed. Yellow i» miwi-d by H. agtkxtntihm; kuiF 
vi<)Ii'i by /{. ritjitivus. 

A\\ <>t" tbwo iibmirnml milk)' urc, tvidc fiiim ilicir uhiitviiiii); ii|ipi-ar- 
Miuv, iiiilil for li'id, »'tatf they are likely to cziuse g»«tn>-ii)t(.'sli»:il irn< 
tuti<rD. Tbii)' Kiobcrl ' n'<HinU » niat: of tvvtw diurrliini, with vrn 
t)Ri:n.'<iv« ^looU, in a obild of nine tuonlbf, whivh Wfw tkic lo nil iiiilli 
aiiixcil by II liiiirilbi.-* (]iriilKibly J{. laeti* ergUirot/enf*) jiKM-nl in llic inflk 
dui-ti4 St the time of milking. 

Anolbi-r iibiinmial contlitioD raiixed by a lai^ variety of or^puiuim 
b cbariicti-riKi!d by nlti.'nitiiiii of tliv iialiiinl t«>ni>i»t4*nn> tu vnfvt 
iilimiiit-sH, wliioh appears ouly some boiir» alter the milk in dn«^. 
Slimy or "i^>py" milk i1itowj> up nn crciini, mid <«iiii<>t Ik- oliuin^d, 
but i))tii<iu^b it if' mot^t replicant to tbc i^iiies, it 4^u-t« no dtf,'r«tivp 
<liMtiirb»novM if tiigi^<.-d. In tliroe E>p(x-imrnt« of mpy milk fmm u 
many different vreumcriee in tbv f>tute of New York, Ward' fouml tlK 
cliangt- diw> lo B. tiKtU rimvMi* (Adametn), 

Taste. — ^Tlw flavor of milk ii* ni<Klitiol vcr^- wnsibly by tbeeluK- 
acler of the feetl and by the absor|ttion of gai^ei and volatile miittei»flf 
all kiniU It i." Bffwtwl wry nwlily by turnips, gnrttc, wild i>ia«i, 
mouldy hay and gada, dii>tillei7 swill, and damaged, rotten uisllap^ 

Bitternfttti of laMo may Ik' "bie eiliier to some coiLtlitnent of the ttii 
or to biMteria. When due to (ixsl, the lactc is bitter from tbe \T'y 
firit, but when niusol by biu-1<Tial agt'noy it rU'veliips Home tiin*' aftf' 
milking, wbi-n the oiyuniF^m^ nbiili ihimIikv il have Itad the oppirti^- 
nity to aet ui>on the protdda or whatever ooiiHtitiienl may 1m.- oontvmoi- 
It inay Ik due nloo lo inllammiitory mnditioiix of the wider, in vtlac^ 
case it may or may not 1>e notit-«ible when the milk if- fn^bly dra^a- 
Tbe b;M'1»Tiit roiiiiT:«il in piv>diifin)i bittenieKf mny i-jci»t in ibeiltirt* 
of llie t«it(f, or may eome from I'tnblc filth. Dammiin^ mentiun^ * 
case in which the jiereiMently bitter ta^tc dimpiHtirol aArr tlwIlMdl 
of the .xtnblo wuh rl^^nu-d and dixinfeeted, and the ibiets of llie IMIiT 
eyrinjp^d out with diF^infeetanl dilution. Strong-«mellii)^ diMnfeelunti 
may not be u.-^wi in d»iri(?> Ih-(iiiiiu> of tbc rcwlinetw with wbieb milk 
al)M>rln^ <xlor«. This al»<>r[>tive ciipueity is sn wdl i«cojjiitzetl tint milk 
{(• sIoth) oomnionly in (ie|iamte eom{iartnients of n-fngeniton!, nwiiy 
from foTMU whii-h evolve diMinet (wiow. 

ProMnce of Alcohol. — Oi-tiller*' hwIII itot only caumw a ileeidcdly 
Wl flavor, but iniiy, in ni)<litt(>n, and i-i.ntiiiri' irt a Kc-ncraily ai-tvptcd 
idiii, «inM* nn iiieojiiilie milk. Thus, aecorilin); to H. W, Weller,' a 
Hiinple of milk derived from cows fe<l on <lii>ti)lei7' refm<« containiiq; 
6,!H) per rent, nf akoliol yielded in addition to a high pni)iortti>n of 
DiUk Holidjt, 0.9C per cent, by weijflit of aleobol. The milk was coni- 

■Zcllwlirift fur Hi-iH-h- nnil Milcbliv)clon« Vn].,NaLfi. 

* Soimw. iwi, Nn. .122. 11. sat, 

* Dwitarlw llilphintlii-lic WfM'hi^nvhHn. 1897, No. 1. 

* FkinchiniK(ib«rlclil« flher l«t<eiinDini-l, cWi, IM", |x SOOi 



MILK. 87 

tlained of od acooont of an unpleasant after-taste. Teicbert' records 
i case in which calves and lambs &iled to thrive, and many died from 
I form of diarrh(Ea. The mothers were fed on distillery waste, and 
vidded milk containing alcohol. That alcohol or something connected 
therewith may be eliminated in milk, is shown by numerous cases, 
uiHHig which are the foUowii^: Vallin' records that a nursing infant 
ns seized with convulsions with great regularity on Mondays and 
Thursdays, but was quite well on other days. Investigation showed 
ihat the wet-nurse on Sundays and Wednesdays, her "days out," was 
in the habit of drinking freely of alcoholics. The curtailment of the 
privilege was followed by disappearance of the difficulty. Farez' cites 
2 csaes which show the bad influence of alcohol on nursing children. 
In one, the wet-nurse drank wine at meals, and especially in the even- 
ing, and the child never ceased fretting, crying, and screaming from 9 
o'clock until 11. The nurse complained bitterly of the naughtiness of 
(be child, and was grieved at the su^^estion that she was herself at 
fault through drinking too much, but she was induced to abstain from 
ilcuhol entirely, and from that time there was no further trouble. In 
the other case, the mother drank tea at noon and M^ne at dimier, and 
the child was quiet during Ihe afternoon, but screamed and fretted all 
tlie evening and until midnight. A change to wine at noon and tea 
»t dinner produced a corresponding change in the behavior of the 
tlild, the turbulent period occurring in the afternoon. When the 
Bother eliminated wine from her dietary entirely, the trouble ceased. 

Ckilostnmi. — The milk secreted before and in the early stage of 
Wtation is known as colostmm. It is a yellow, somewhat viscid fluid 
(^ etrwig odor and acid reaction. In composition, it diders very ma- 
•nially from milk, particularly iu its percentage of proteids. It con- 
tting, liometimeH, so large a percentage of lactalbumin and lactoglobulin 
I^t it is coagulated by boiling. Its content of casein is about normal, 
iwit it is not coagulated by rennet, or at most imperfectly. In the early 
tiges, its sugar is dextrose and not lactose. According to Tiemann,* 
H ranges in specific gravity from 1.0299 to 1.0594, in fet from 0.56 
to 9.28, in proteids from 4.66 to 21.78, in ash from 0.82 to 1.25, and 
in total solids from 12.93 to 32.9.3. Under the microscope, it shows 
luge corpuscles, known as colostrum corpuscles, which disappear within 
two weeks at most after the time of calving. 

Ohanges Produced in Blilk by Boiling. — Boiling causes greater 
walescence of the fat globules, changes in the character of the sugar, 
on^lation of lactalbumin, and destruction of micro-organisms and 
frnnents, Boilwi milk, therefore, will keep better than raw milk. The 
enim which forms on the surface is lately fat, aiuein, and hictalbn- 
min, and occurs in consequence of rapid eviiportilion at that point. 
Boiled milk is digested slightly less readily than raw milk, and sour 

> Milch ZeiluDD 1901, p. I4S. 

' Revue d'Hypfne, 1896. p. 953. 

» Tribune niMicBle, June 20, 1900, p. 488. 

* Zeilschrifl fur phTtiiologisehe Cheiuie, 1898, p. 363. 



FOODS. 



milk i» (lijriMiUtd more readily than eillirr ; but boiktl milk, w will be 
notui lat«r {see page 02), in not ahviiyn a dcjiirable fi)od for yoiin]^ 
iiiliiiit.->, uii jKToiint lit" its cluiiigtsl clmnirtfT. Tlio <|iK'!»tion whctlicr or 
not a given niilk has heeu lioiletl may reatlily be determiue<i by the 
a|ipli<-al)iiii of siiiipli- tc.its (wi- Aimly^-is iit' Milk). 

Changes Due to Bacterial Action. — At unliuary tcmpcratuivis 
milk MH>ii b(>^inH li> iitxliTgo i-biiti^>.i iiul.iiittil hikI ciirricil iilmt); by 
various !.pe<;i(»* oi' niicm-m-gsiHif'ms whidi esirt iu the <]ticte of the leaia 
or fall into tlii^ juiil from tlu! i-xt<!niiil Hurfim* nf tlit' udrlcr or enirn>iiu<l- 
iiig piirts, or fiiini tht air, or from the bnl10l^ and clothe*^ of the milker, 
or which are ali-cjuly prtwcni in tin- ]iiiil or nlhcr vc-isi-l into ubioii tin- 
milk is rwrivi'il. Thi' moft whuiiiuh t4uiti{p' is bnni;f!il iiljoiit by the 
laciic ferments, of which more than a hiuiditxl »|»ifit-s have already 
Ixx^n idcntitied. They utturk tht- milk-Hii^ur iitid ciiu«' the fomuitioo 
of liictio acid, wbidi, on aeciimiilatiu}; in sufGeient amount, RaUM» the 
milk to (.'lutlli.'. Tbt.'ir miillijiIicEitinti iiniit-il^ mwt ni[>idly hI trm- 
pi-ratures ranging from 'J^i" to IJO" C. Therefore, in order to inhibit 
their action as tiir as |uiN<ilik-, milk should Ik- (iHikt) without dcrlny nod 
kept iu stonige at Ion temperature. In addition to the laetic fejTn«nte, 
there are others whiili arc known nj* i-ii.'it^in fernients. These produce 
a sulwtiincf iinich like reiiiii't in its adion. They may act in ibe ab- 
»0ioe of the laetie foi-nicnls, and then their action is an^onipaniod by 
the dvvclopiiicut of alkalinity. 

Under certain conditions, in addition to changes in taste, color, and 
oon^tii^tency already iioti-d. intt'iisely poisonous benzene derivatives an; 
formcil, tho im)si iiii|M>rtant of which, dinwilHuiBcne, csillcd by iLs tli»t- 
ooverer, I'rofessor V. C Vaiipbaii, tyrotuxicon, i* the cxcitiiip cvum: 
of th(! train of symptoms eoiunionly known as milk poisoning, cheese 
|R>i*iiniii{i. and iocvim'Mm )MJtMoniiig. 
c A nninbtr of other oi^.ini!ims i-on»ititute the ffroup of so-called butyric 
fbrntcnts, niimv of wliirh mi- of ihi- cla.-w of easein f*'niicut,->. Tbcy 
cause the iJi-orluction of butyric acid in the dce')n)ptisitit>n of proteicL, 

[n wtnsiHiuHK^' of the acliim nf the varions species of oi'giuiisms, it 
ia imjiortuiit that luiett^'riu in general «bou1(l bi^' ciceludci) «» oumplctely 
B.S possible fri>m milk by the observance of the utmont cleanliness in 
milkinp, liaiidlin^, ami storing. Tlic milk of eowfi sliillcd in budiv 
ventilated, unclean slablen, and of cows with imclcaii udderw, will doeom- 
|X)»L- much more rapidly than that of cuvvs kept nndcr tx'ltcr siinitiir^' 
conditions. Even when the cow and ber iinrroimding^ are kept in a 
clwmly stnte, the veir first jiiirt of a mitkini; slmuld W rejected, on 
account of the veiy larp- nundurs of bacteria present in the ducts of 
ibc Iwtts. I'nder even the lK-siofcr>niliiions, nuuiy Ixtcteria are piY*ent 
in freshly dmwn milk, and these incn^ise rapidly in number unlcM 
killed by the action of heat or other gcrraicifles. Indeed, it has l>een 
fouml !ni|>(i!vMblc in the majuritv of exfierimcntti to obtain sterile milk 
even when the greatest precautions have been observed to exclude 
cxtrnntiius organisms. 

The lirst part of a milking is riohet^t in bacteria, becnuee lhos<; whicb 



I 



A 



MILK. 89 

hive multiplied withio the duct^ of the teat^ since the previous milking 
an expelled mostly with the fore-milk, but even the very last portions 
of the strippings may contain as many as 500 bacteria per cc. Thus, 
Scfiultz' found in the first portions of cows' milk 97,240 iter w., in 
the xtrippings 500, and in goats' milk 78,718 and 665. For the attain- 
ment of the best results as to keeping qualities, all dirt should be 
bnshed from the cow before milking, and tlie udder and flank should 
te dampened, in order that dust, fine dirt, aud bacteria may be retained 
h atu, and not fall into the milk-pail, which should always be perfectly 
clean before use. 

The difTerence in the number of bacteria which fall into milk wlien 
proper precautions are observed and when they are neglected is very 
ronsiderable. Thus, Soshiet found that the milk of a oow with a dirty 
udder, stalled in a dirty stable, kept sweet 50 hours at ordinary tem- 
perature, and that, when her udder was washed and she was milked in 
tbe open air, it remained sweet a day and a half longer. Still more 
bUructive are the results obtained by Freeman,' who exposed plates, 
3.5 iDches in diameter, for two minutes as follows : ooe in the open 
lir, one inside a bam, and a third in front of the milk pail under a 
oow in the same barn while being milked. The first plate showed 6, 
Ihe second 111, and the third 1,800 colonies. Such a number of bac- 
laia, falling upon so small a surface within so short a time, is an 
index of the enormous number which may fall into a pail during 
the time required for a complete milking. 

The enormous number of bacteria which may be commonly present 
inordinary market milk, the great influence thereon of non-obser\-ance 
of the strictest cleanliness, and the extreme rapidity of multiplication 
inder favoring conditions, are shown in most striking manner by 
V. H. Park,^ who exposes the inexcusable lack of cleanliness in the 
mabods of procuring milk, and of care in cooling, and in keeping it 
unring transportation to the city. Milk from individual cows, u'liere 
"oy reasonable means was taken to insure cleanliness, yielded an aver- 
•ge of 6,000 bacteria per cc. when 5 hours old, and kept at 45° F., to 
which temperature it was cooled soon after it was drawn. Afier 24 
Wre, the average number fell to 1,933; af>er 48, it increased to 17,816. 
Uilk taken in winter in well- ventilated, fairly clean, but dusty, barns, 
•nd cooled within 2 hours to 45° F., the visil>le dirt having been 
denned off the hair about the udder, the milkers* bauds wIimkI off, but 
oot washed, the pails and cans clean, but the straining cloths dusty, 
yielded the following average figures: At time of milking, 15,500; 
»fter 24 hours, 21,666; after 48 hours, 76,000. Milk taken fmm 
tows kept in ordinary barns, the conditions as to cleanliness of sur- 
nwodings and method of milking being about what obtain on the aver- 
ts &nn, yielded the following average figures : 

' ArohiT tiir Hvgiene, XIV., p. 260. 

■ Mediol BecoVd. March 8, 1896. 

■ Journal of Hy^ene, July, IW], p. 391. 



.^ I 



90 "^HV FOODS. 

6hortK Mtmi niitking 1U,0&0 SO^BA 

AfUT 24 lioiin 31.000 4»fiOO 

Attvt 48 hour* 210,000 080,000 

Twenty smnplet of average milk taken immediately on arrival in 
the eily, roueli of it having been tmnttjtorted more tliiiii 2iXt miles, 
yirhlcfi' fivm .52,000 to ;)fi,200,(H)0 biiPteriii ikt cc. (average, 5,«I5»,- 
850), The average tem|»eratiire of the bamjiles ^vhcii taken fnim the 
imns wn-< 4.'>'' F. Milk iw wfld in the nhopgi ijuriii); the morning hours 
yielded the following averages: 

Fmm Unommt dlntricu, inid-winH>r(lA <<iiiipl««) .... l,9T7,6ft2 
F"ivm well-Uulo " " (10 " i 327.500 

From ii-ii>;mcni " twplcinbcii 5 " )- . . l.%Irt3,tW0 
Fr«in wcil-todo " " { 5 " ) . . . . 1,1X11,400 

Oonccniinp the infliicnw of temjK'mtiire npon the nipidity of bacte- 
rial muIli])liwition in milk, it is notrtl timl milk which is niitidly nni 
iinlVii'ienlly i^ooled ke(-|).^ iilincwl inialk'ret) tor^itl honrs, whili' if in>'ulfi- 
ciently eoole^f. it ilctcrinr.ite« rapidly. The n)aiority of milk haeteria 
grow lx«t at lem|>enitiin-!« iilmve 70° 1'"., l)iil twiHtliinl.-i of ihr «pf<ric* 
iMilntol will develop phkI gnjwth at 39° F. lit the end of 7 days. 
They inercace ■itowly after the jirirTuic-idal [>rfii>«Ttien of die milk have 
diwppi'ansi, aii<l when llii; orpuiisnis have Ix-eonH- aeenjitumwl to the 
low leiiijieratnres. 

The Jnflnem* of JilTcreiil tem|R'ralui\'f' on the nmidity of bacterial 
nnilti|tliearion is well ■^ho^^^l by the re.anllfl obtaimxl on allnwinfr I>or- 
titm* of the same upeeimcii to i^tiitid under utlierwi.'W similar ronilitiuni^ 
Al t em (>e rat II res below oO" F., there waf- at the end of 24 honis no in- 
emuH- — in fael, n dwriHsi' — in the nntnlMT of haicteria ; lint al hi^^her 
tempemtnret^, the mnltiplieation viivi enormous The original numlier 
per (X". WHH .tOOO, and rJn- prowths nt the several teni|»eratnr»« above 
55* F. were a« follows at the end of 21 and 48 houra: 



I 

I 



Tnnptratiiiv. 


M iM^iirp. 


4it h'tiirnr 


(Ml- Ft 


180,000 


28,000,000 


«8" 


4Mi,(»00 


2S,OOf),000,t)<XI 


SB' 


1.400,rKX\000 




91" 


214,000.000,000 





Milk of fair quality from u nhop wax kept at 90" F. for 8 liours, 
during whieh time its contained Itaeieria inereased from 92,000 to 
6,S00.000 [KT rr. ; another, >if jmor tptalitv. midcr llii- .Mime <-<inditions, 
jiliowe.! an inerva;^ foim 2.«00,OIKI to 124,"XH1.0O0. 

Sui'li gMwilis i)f Iiiii'l.-ri.i in milk inivniliil f'>r hninan use eon in no 
way inijirove the milk, bnt miwt seriouftly affwt itn wholcHHnenww. 
To avoid tliem, the means are Him|)le: cleanlinefw everywhere and low 
tem|Mrn»turw<; elumlinew of tlie eowx' exti-rior, of the .■•Inhle, of the 
milkers and their clothing, of all ves^l-^ employed — milk pails, piuis, 
bottlw, dc— flnd of die jilnceK where the milk l..« ~iorcd. 



MILK. 



91 



I Preserratioii of Milk. — The kwpinR qruility i>f milk is infiucncrd 
by cold, wliicli retards tlie groiiTh and miiltij)lic»t!on of Kictcria whit-h 
tinug alM)iit d(iHiiii|M»itiiin ; l)v Ik^iI, whii.'li (Icnlniys lIiciii ; nml liv |trt> 
wrvativw, which either kill tlieni (ir ifiard their pruMlh, Proi^rvati'tp 
hv wJd is in many rtwiK-ots prflVmbh- ii> i^ilhta'of the othw nK-tliiMU. 
The oonAtituente fire id no way ulterod in chamcler, there id no change 
iu d^'itibility, and no (-li-im-iK i.- introdm-iHl into the- systt'm willi the 
milk 111 exert iiny hiirnij'til inHueiicc iifx^n the Wi{^-*tivf prm-cs.^f''. In 
places wheix> \w is exjienjiive or not »htainahle, this method is not 
>\'ni]aUc, btit where tl iis eh«i|i iind [iletiltt'iil, it in t)ie one in tno^t com- 
mon oae. In some jiarts of Europe, milk is frozen into solid hlocks hy 
llh: Hniiiia'mi:! pnxxw, Mn(| ^hipfH-il in thai (iiriri to iniirUi'I. A larfri- 
pnrt f>i' the milk §u]iplv of (.'opfiihajjeu is reet-ived from a dihtanee in 
lar^' air-ti^ht tan;., intii (steh nf whieli a hUw-k of frozen milk, weigliing 
alxMit '25 jMunds, i» placed, to kt^^^p the milk in which it floats ut u low 

\ temperature, 

Prv!*<T\'iitiiiu hy heat include" piwtcnrinttinn and r<tenh'niti<>n. In 
pasteuriznlinn, the whole linik of the milk )!■ heated to not over 
158" K., ninintainwl at ihiil tcm|RTatnr^' for 10 or 1 .*. miniite-s iipiiI 
then cooled rapidly in o«ler to p^e•^.■rve the fiv^h flavor and prevent the 
miillipticntinn of «tic)i of th<- bni-icriii iii> survive. The leiif^h of time 
m|nircd for (lie dejitruclioii of bacteria varicw with the tem[)er!itarc 
tmplored. Tlinn, atirmt 70 jvr ii-iil. of .■<aproi>hyti<' l>ai'leria an- killi-d 
in nil hour at 140" F., in 1-5 minutes at loO", in 10 minutes at 158", 
in 5 ininnt4>Hnt 171>°, in 2 minuter nt 191°, nnil in 1 minnle »t SO't". 
h Rt (vscntial that all apjiaratus and vessels used in eooling and storing 
»hall be elean and Blerile, Thi.x jhywi'tw 1* ijiiite nntlicicTit (or all |ir:ii'- 
tical puriKL-ies and hygienic refjitirementi^, unlets the milk in to he kept 
Sir a lonjccr lime than nsual, in whieh ease it should he n'peat<"<l al 
the ejid of 3( h'Hin*. Tempcniture* hipher than loS" F. ciinse the 
milk to acquire a cooked flavor, which to many persons ia disagree- 
■hle. 

Acivinling to H. Bitter,' all pafhogenie bacteria in milk are killed 
with absolnte eertainly hy fXjHWiin- to l"i-).l^ F. for a half hour, and 

, the milk i* altered thereby in neither appcanmee nor tarte. I'mlei' 

loidinan' cinrumstancett "20 minntcti' ejc|>Oi*iin- is quite snffieient, Smie 
aiithori(ii."> a.vw^-rt that temix-mlnre*- of 14<i° to 147" F. are wifficiently 
lni;h for the pnqxjse, but I'mfessor Tht->>!iald Smith' has sho\ni that, 
while mben-ii- hju'illi arc <Ie»tn>yeil within "20 nnnute.i at I 10^ V., the 
forination of u surface |>ellic1e into which they are carried hy fat 
Itlohules shields Iheni fnmi the hi-at, •*> thai ihey nuiy i4ur\'ivc an 
Mi|iiwiire of over an hour to 14£'° F. It 'u^ asserted by Morgcniirfh' 
that at least r[0 minnte>i' e\]KFiure to 158" F. is neceAsary to kill all 
of thv iMieilli, hut thnl the Hiimc rt-Mult can lie aUaini'd al a mneli lower 
temperature (i;il" F.) in 'A liours" heating in a thermophore. It has 

' ZdbK'hrift (ur H»irfene. VIII., p, 210, 

* Jmitniil >-r IC:i|n'niiu'iiliil >l<-ilirin(^ 1809, p. SIT. 

■ HTgienuche Buuitsdiuu, ^jil. 13, I9W, p. S6A. 





92 



FOODS. 



been ii»»ert«l also by M. Beok ' Ihat 158° F., and even 176* F., 
nirt siifBciciillv high, even when iiiiiiiitiiiiicd ■'JO mimttc^, for ihcdcstnic- 
tiuii uf ull the tiiliLTcIe luicilli in milk intmtinDally inf(vle<). He 
hentecl such milk fur ;(') minuter al |jf)th i>(' the hIhiv*- iinit|>i'nitiirus 
mild tlurn irijcftwf it into lo jfiiim-ji-pipf, ull ul' which iKcanie iiibtrcu- 
lous iifttT h III S weeks. Bill Irfvy and Bmiis,* after <']C]M-rliii<iiiiiig 
ilh milk viirluvH'd in fliLHk.H ]ilii(-(il in n wiilcr-l.nil h, jiuni<) th»l, to tsr 

thf tiihiTcle biicillin- is titnwruwl, milk is sterilized afwr lo lo '!'> 
DunilteH' eX)HWin- to I lil^-l.iS" F. Il Mi-jn.-" iinilmhit*, un tin- whole, 
that the witlulv diverjti'iit roiilt* of various experimenters have l»eeu 
due to diffeii-neet* in manipulation and in (ihyniml ivmditioni^ 

All tlif IjU'tii" fiTnieiit:? iin- iUwfn>y(il vcrj- eaiiiily, but some of (lie 
casein feniieiilc are verv- i-esistant, and their .-|mrcs still niuiv mt, aiwi 
arc not kllli il hy iHiIlin^ fur ii niiinlicr of hmii> ; and it i« to the j>i**- 
eiiee of these hardy varieties tliat the difficiilly of ajmjilete stcriliyalion 
i* due. 

Sterilization rcqtiirw^ coutiniiouK heating under pre,«siire for abo<it 
two honn« ut 'lAi^" Y., al which teniiifi-sitiiri' not ahmv ilu- IwK-tiriii xnd 
their Kp<)R-s an," dtisinjvtHJ, lint the minntil ii|i|HiinnKv and tasti- of the 
milk as well. Part of the migsir is ennveiiwl to mnmn-l, jwrt i>f the 
caM-in is prwipltsilwl, and tin- milk will no Ioiij^t form u iTohc«ivc 
<'oa^nlum with rennet. 

Ill the opinion of niiiny |>mctiiionci», nciltior pH:<tenriKuti(Ki nor 
iiU-ri ligation ia free from objection in infant feeding, since e\-en a temper- 
ature of l')'7° Y. iiifliieiiw.-' ilif nutritive vaino injnrionsly. Manr 
RLKo^ of MvirbntiiH and (lys|K'|i«ui in infants have bei'n attributed to the 
iiM' of sterili7i-<l initU, iiml it mi'Iok proluihhr that llii- truuhlc i> <-on- 
liwusl with the de>-trnction of the xyniacLS nornially present. These 
(emients, the pR-^-t-ncc of which was announeed in l!K)l) by Eselierieh, 
have Ihi-ii studied by SjKilveririi,' who iwilntol no lei*« than h^^tii, two 
t>f which, t>e(»inic and try|i-inie, an' present always in iKnh hninau and 
tvw*' milk; the others, iimylolytif, lijiiL-'ic', trlyi*" lytic, eti-., are imL 
cunnlanl. All are soluble, and none can witli>tand the steriliziiig 
twiiK'nitiire. 

'In avoid the nntoward results of the use of slcrilizixl nulk, Fre^ 
man' jin^iMisw that the crtaiin be allowed to rise, and then l>e removed 
am) Mibjeetiwl alone to steriH/atiou. alter «liir!i it niuy be niixol in 
|)ni|«'r pitipoitiou with tin; .tkimnuHl milk, which contains only a verj' 
MOitll nuuincr of l»eteria, since about !f{) [>er <tunt. of thvni arc carriod 
tulo llie eniini layer by the Jat jrlobules. 

IVixrvation of mdk by the »d<lilio» of anti.'^'pties in unneeessary^ 
tii\iit<liliiiblc. anil |io>.»ibly ininrions. If milk \» dr.iwn jimpcrly fnim 
iKvxtitly cUtin animals inlu cJiwn vessels by clean milkers, ami stoiied 
itt \\«Ka |iliiow, it will keep ewu't (]uile as long, under onlinary eirciini- 



I 



I 



' |1«UM-W VlvrwIJithTMvhHft tvT ullciitliclii- rji-*uiiilhelt«i>Il«^ XXXII. p. 43(h 
•t(<itMd>'>H K<iiul«'l>a>l. .Ink \f>, 1901. p. IMIU. 
' ,Vt<.«lvv >tv MAWiiir clw Kiinmbs Dei.'., niOl. 
* ,V«U<m U IWuiiriiv, Auguil, ltni9. 



(etuDops iLQil iiitdvr the iiaiial comlitiunsi vt fr(H|iK'nt Jclivon-, ii» is dwirH] 
by the cnaxainer. The addition of aiitii^eptic^s which only relanl 
gn>wth of Imi^criu withoiii divlmviii^ thetii, (.■iiiiiiW the vendor to 
mippK- S't.ile milk iuiatmd of li'esli, am) to dir^peii^e with ptin of the 
fainiliin,- imt^iiliKiis i.tlit-rwiKc in^-i^-tarv. Tin- siibftaiiocs iimhI iin- l)y 
no mmas ivholly iDiiocoiil in their iictioii ou the humiiD !r}>tpiii, evi-a 
Hlh veiy emati (juantitieH aDtl, moreover, it ia inipoi«iiblff to oontrol the 
BjUQoutit addnl hy a »iuf;le iiidividn.'i) or to be itiire tlijit T-iicee.-wive 
f haD(lh-n< Imve not (wntrihiitwl additional doses. The sijb-itan<'t>« iishJ 
ss milk (iiwervativw' air- iM)ri<- :ieid, borux, juilieylii? acid, torinnldphyde, 

•oarixinate of .sodiuni, and clironuile^. 
Boric »dd ond bunix are usied (rcnrndly in eonihination with ctioli 
Mher. experience having shuwii that the mixture is more eHicient than 
hIIm-t iiKifie. The iiiiiiitniini i-IIIcii-iil ({nuntily of the inixlure is ahutit 
10 grains to the i]nar1. an amonnt which evt-n for an adull may well he 

trt^rded an a fairly lai^' nuHlioiiiul doie. In addition to its action on 
tbc p^neral system, it exert* a XTirj'inp cfl'wrt on the digiwlion mi'iirdinfi 
to the amount pre-ent. Aceordinji' t"» Professor R. H. Chittenden, 
bonix n-lUTiL> the anivlolyllt.- adion of sidivii, Uirii- iii'iil in amonnl.'< h'sK 
than ! per cent, favors it, and hoth increase gai^trie digei-tion in snmll 

■ aoMiiint^i and nHard it hi hiffre. 
The iiflc oT saU«3'lie acid in milk is not exh^n^vn. It is u fairly 
eSkienI presopvative, Fornialdihyde ha* eonie into iipte withiii a few 
y(«r*. It i>s a ino»t erticicru |>rei»ervative, ami not ahme iiiliihlts -jniwlh 
tint alflo kilU the kieterin. A<i'«inli[ijr to tests niiide hy Dr. ('. ]'. 
Wonxwl^r,' 1 part of eoniniereial formalin in lflO,llU(J of milk will 
• postpone the cnniling-point fi honi-s; I in oO,0()0, 24 hinirH; A in 20,- 
OOn, 4S honrv; 1 in 10,000, 138 hoiirK; 1 in 5,000, lofi houns. Al- 
though nothing is kiiown as to the action of small amoimts of for- 
nialdi-hv'de on the (rtia-nd .■•yMti-ni, it is not. eorrci-t to ii««inne that, in 
the ulwen«X' of evidence to the contrary, it is ueeessarilv harmless or 
benelicial. AVIiile the occasional ingcsiinti of a small amount of fur* 
in»ldehyil« iimy |in«Uife no cti'eet, we i-annot reason that ilii daily nse 
over a long period will l>e ix|ually non-pnxhietive. An mx^isionn! 
tirink of vralrr cunliiininp lewd will do no injury, while itj: daily ujm? 
may cau*c leatl paralysis, and hi the sime way formaldehyde may Ije 
the CHiLie of seriou.H dtstnrluinix's »ttrihnt«tl In something else. Bnt 

■ whether Iinrmfiil or not, llie nse of this agent ami of others is uni>ro 
e^sary and unjust ilia hie. .\side fiMin its |Missilily jHiisononx a<'lion, 
ihen- is the 'il-jii-tifm lliat it alteiN the character of the milk proteids; 
the eaiein heeomas unenagulahle by rennet, itxeejit in thick elots, and 
ntk^h le^ dige^ihle, or wholly iiidigivlible, by the proteolytic fennentif. 

■ Certain it is lluit anything that imposes additional hnnlens <>n the 
4ligt><t!ve function of infants and invali<lK can hardly Ih' re^inlid a.-, ii 
[in){M>r Mibstanc*.- fur lue in food, vlnnet^^ after a study of furmalde- 

■ TW«i(*-ninlli Aaiiuul KcMrt uf tko Suite Board of Hcnltb of .MaawchiuactDs 1897, 
' 'The I.Bncci, Nor. II, 1890. 



A 




M 



FOODS. 



hyde and boric acid oh roilk prct^n'ativefl, concliid<.<x llmt t]le^' nrv ia- 
jum>u^, c*p«fiiilly m yntin^ iitruiit>-, uml tnijjpiwt* llw po^ibility of 
cuiiad relation betwwD their iL^e and the great inrunt uiortality diirinj 
tlic h(>t inonthi*. 

Carboniito of fiodiuni i\- a weak a);;eiit, and diK« not ]>o^t|Mii)e di-com- 
(MMilion to ail I'xiciil .iiifKcioiil to fiii-<>iinig<' ils wi<k- iiil"[ii)oti. Si 6u 
as i» known, there nin i>e no (Jywtion to its use on ibe acorv of iujiity, 
<>j((!e})t in m» (tit ax the n.'i.'UTtion ihiti MKliiim laetale, fortut^d In' il« 
du'onipoi^iliun liy the fn-c luetic acii), tu-ln im a nitlil catlmrtie, is wonbr 
of crwience, 

Thf c-tiroiimt(M are not i-xtcut-ivdy «inj)loyc«l, bnl have been rmnd 
present in ]nwer\*ative pow<lcrw ni^wi in Fnin<^ Denin^ ' fimiiJ llie 
nornml chrmntiU' of [M>tii>.-<inni in two of tiicH* |m-]KinitiotiH, aoti tlie 
(licbronuitc unil cbroinate together in a third. Tlie latti-r vrm^ rnvm- 
niciidvd in tin- |mi|Kirti<>n of 2 ^rnun." to *>0 ItUis 'if milk. A<st>n)in|!! 
to Fniidi-vaux.' r^tich an innotint of polaseitini <l)ehn>inate U iii«iiin- 
cietit to retard ciiu};ul:iti<>n luid imjmrlA im iibnorninl inUtiKe }rtlloV 
color to thv milk. 

The furtb*-r diM-usKioii of the oibject of tnilk priwrvalives nay 
be liNiktiI f'lr ln-Iow, iindor the fpMionil snbjt'rt of Food Pn-wrva* 
lives. 

Adalteration of Milk. — ^Tliis moKt ini|Mirtant iirtick- of fnod 'a 
more Biilyi^n !■> !i<liiltfration than any other, wnre it K'nds iwlf « 
iHidily to fnindiili-nt nmni|iiibition. The {inncijud ndultentfi"!!* m* 
the addition of water and tbf xbf^triKrtion of crcinn. The foniict 
diniiiii>bt^>» the nntritive vahie, and, if the water usi-d is fnim M 
unclean nource, inereiif<e« (he poi^ibility of dit^cmiunttn^ di^cvse; w 
latter rolw the nulk of one of iin moht valuable constituents. TM 
dett'i-tii-n of these adolli.'nitions by unnlyi'ii^ ii» not nhviiys jxiwibln ^"'J* 
a rich ntilk may be .-•lijfhily watereil or only [inrtially skinniied and '*"' 
uliiiw avcnige t|nidity. Afrain, even ihoiij^h tiie wiitcrinj; in- fin'''y 
exteniiive, it cannot always be proved that the milk was not of ^ 
gnulc fVoin natnnil eani^ei>, sinei' ^inw cows give milk which on unaly^ 
is fiir below avera^ poi^l milk un<l bc!ir< wvry reNeiol)lim<v to w^t^** 
milk. FnrtbtT, a intik eDiitjitnin^ very liltle fat may Ih> nalan^^ 
poor in that constituent or muy be the fimt jxirt of n niilkiiif:. 

In oonM-qucnM! of tlie diffioidty of proving the addition of watc*" 
aljftniction of cream, Jind Iktjuhw of the enornmiij' imporUiiKx' of see**" 
inga public supply of at least average good ipiality, most States ti*»* 
fixed legul iilnndiinU, to which niilk intc-odiil tor Mile nniM conlof*' 
The Mondanl for totid solids is commonly i:i, 12.o, or 12 ]m.t eeii'' 
and for fut, •1, '{.•'>, 3.7, and 4 [xtr cent. Hy the iidoptiou of a ivff 
^tjiniliinl, nil milk of tow (rru<l«, whether h> by r(iii>on of fnH«l«lrl* 
praetieeti or be mm- of jioiir feed or individoiil [K-t-uliarity of the i>'*i 
mtift lu' Iniitfil itliki'. By prohibiting llu- sub' of all milk not ofl 
certain gnitle, it bironw^ nnneenwary to |»rove fraud or criminal knoitl" 

' B»TiM tnEMiintlonftl den F«l«!litiiliiinB, IX., p. 36, 
' Journal <l« I'lannade et ilf Clicmie, 1806, p. US. 



UILK. 95 

dge, the alle^doD of inferior quality being sustained by the results 

tf the analysis. 
Other forma of adulteration include the addition of coloring matters 

£ir the putpose of concealing watering or gkimming, or to give a creamy 

tint to a very white milk, and the addition of pre^rvatives, and, ooca- 
wmally, of other foreign subntances. The coloring matters commonly 
used are, annatto, caramel, and combinations of anUine dye^. Their 
detection is by no means difficult (see Analysis of Milk). 

It is a common belief, even among people of more than average 
intelligence, that milk as found in the market is very largely a mixture 
of chalk and water. Upon what this absurd tradition is based, it is 
difficult to surmise, since even though a person were led to practise such 
I misemble fraud, he would discover that chalk and water will need 
coostaDt stirring to maintain even the outward semblance of milk, and 
that a few minutes' ntanding in sufficient for com[>lete sc[>aration into a 
deposit of chalk and a fairly clear ^ipernatant liquid. A less common, 
bat equally absurd, notion that calves' brains arc a common adulterant 
rfmilk, arose about half a century ago from the report of a microscopi- 
ai examination of a milk sediment in which certain particles were 
delected which bore a resemblance to nerve tissue. Calves' brains do 
Mt lend themselves readily to the making of emulsions, the supply is 
limited, and they find a iairly good market in their true character. 

Cane sugar is said to have been found at rare intervals, and gelatin 
w used occasionally as a thickening for cream. Starch is believed by 
numy to be a oonunon adulterant, but it is used very rarely. In the 
ocnrae of many years' supervision of a lai^ pubhc milk supply, during 
"liich several hundred thousand samples of milk were examined for 
adulterants of all sorts, but one in.stance of the use of starch fell under 
*ie author's notice. This was due to a shortage in the normal supply, 
vliich led a dealer to dispense a mixture of water and condensed milk, 
whii^ latter component had been thickened with starch. 

OONDENSED MILK. 

CcHideosed milk is prepared by evaporating milk to about a third or 
• ftporth of its volume in vacuum pans. It is sold in bulk for immedi- 
ate use, and in hermetically sealed tin nans for use as occa-^ion demands. 
Most of that sold in tins is made from skimmed milk, and is, therefore, 
^'wy deficiait in fet ; and much of it contains a large proportion of care 
'ipr, which is added to increase its keeping qualities. Condensed 
"ilk is in many respects and under certain conditions a valuable ftKKl 
l»eparation, but its use in infant feeding when other milk is obtainable 
*t>ot a wise one, since it is deficient in one of the most important cle- 
1«it«, and contains another which is not a normal constituent. 

K0trUI8S AKD KEFIR. 

These are fermented preparations containing lactic and carbonic acids 
od a small amount of alcohol. They are produced througli the action 



96 m^^r FOODS. 

oi inicro-«r^niKni^ which induop fcrtiK-DttttivD pluingo« and hna^ nlxiii 
a jHiiliiil (iiiiv^-rHinn of thu prnteidi to a)l)iii»niM?s iind ]M>|iC>n«s. Iloiij 
lull) tticir origin in KtiM'iii, whore tlit-v havi.- Ix-wi in iiw ft>r uiiinji 
ye:ii'is KntinilN^ is D)a<le generally l'n>iii the milk of iiiare!<, hut nijiv I: 
iimdi- from ihut of tt<\\* with ihc ii.'v''iMnn<r nf m)(h-<i Mi^r. Kt-Kr i* 
nuidi.' niort" ooniiiioiity frtmi ihf milk of oows. Ifeilh siro eff('n'f*t"rtit 
]ii(iii(]» hiiviii); Mmirnhttt tliv Iniitc of btittcr-milk, iiihI iirr viilimhli- id 
lliv fccxlii]}; of the i^ick uml of thi>!ii< with imjHiirctl (li^^vtivc fiinitiiin. 
The "ki-fir yraiiis" iiiv niiiall, \\ar<\, granular |nirlirl<^ whirh omiftiin 
tlic rc<|itisile or^puiisiiis, Tluy siri' :i(Miil to x\iv milk :iftir W-Xa^ RiaktJ 
uutil Mirt, anil Ujfir action iw iwiupletiil in two or three day;*. 

CREAM. 

C'ruiiii, as alruidv statiil, luiiy hv ilvfitied m milk containing a \ittp 
Mcfss of till, and ce>rres]iouclingly hu-ktu}; in water. The d«yr<T «f rich- 
new ii^ dfju-inlciit ii[«m the inHlim] ('iii|ilov<i) in \\i^ ^t-jwnilion fnmi li» 
orijfinal volume of milk. That olilaiut-d hy ihf coiiimon melhoil "f 
iikimmiiiir coiitiiiu.-* iinliimrliy iilioiil I <> lo '.^1 \vt ii'ht. of fut, whilo lliil 
^(.■piinited hv thi- cditrifu^il machine coutaiu!i from '2,^\ to ujiw^id of 60 
jH-r <H-iil., iu-conling iw tla- macliinc i!« nyulalcd for " light" or " hnn?" 
t-rcuiu. The lattor if h> t]ii<?k a» to give riirc to a rommou iiniioii IMl 
ettm ^tiiri'h iw U;<e<l as an adulu'ninr. ThU ^mbstam-e, huwrvi-r, U ii*"! 
mrt'Iy if ^'cr in this way. <_iela(iu is cniploywl ais an !(dult('iuiit Ion 
limited e.\leiit. A prciwration lai^-ly advertjeed to the tradt' at "W 
time- ii» H "crrtini thickfER-r" wiw utinlymHl by the atithor, ami tuvxA 
(« be a mixtiir« of gelatin. iMirax, and iKirir iicid. The «>mnioD mini* 
t«nniti« of crwini arc pi-t'sirvativcs imd mluriiig agtiit.i. The flirnirt 
are used mostly during the hot months ; the latter duriug the winWt 
whi'^i, on uf<'0ijut of till- dilft-n-nec in ft-cd, the cream ha,-* not ibe ('ba^ 
acteri)<lio yellow tint ho highly prixcd. 

Milk as a Factor in the Spread of Disease. 

Milk may avt iii< a cnrricr of diridtic or ciuix- of fnixiiuiuil distutl>' 
nno; through infectious or |x>isonous matters uriginally |irtarDt, i>r K- 
ceiveil or evolved during bindling and di.-itribution. Thutt, milk V^"! 
be poisonous by rmi^on of miitterv derived from the fcod or of Mil*' 
oMnocfi fonued aiier it is dniwn ; it may contain organisms of varim' 
kind)> eoiincclcd with ixivine discHKc^s; it niny become eimlaniiiiiitwl " 
various ways with matter t^tntnining the exciting catiae of varioi 
human diseases. 

PoisoQons Milk. — Certain plants oaten br con-s niny eaiiHe milk 
become niifit tor drinking Uthum' of toxic iiropertii"?*, I*oi.->>n) iv 
(/Mint li>xu'<><liuilrtnt), for ex»n)|ile. eausej! in eowK a condilton know 
ti» "trembles," during the coniimiaiiM- of which their milk is sjud I* 
cause severe gastric symptimi;* with gn-iit wcaknii^^ The most pmnii^ 
iHDt KymptuniK are pain, nausea, vomiting, ciinstipation, and «ubnom: 
temperature. If the milk W Ntiled, the pttittonoiis pn>{H>ititTi urc di 




arriK as a pactoh ?.v the spread of disease. 



97 



^■Kyed. Aoronlii)^ Ut Dr. D. I). Cin>iit,' whatever the nntiin* of llie 
pijiK>u iu milk fimn cows afi)!c4i?il with " tninblcs," it nttarkK tlic cc-ii- 
iia! ner\"oiw svstorii iirul |imihice)* fbaracteri.-tic in-iiililmg and pn>finin(I 
low ^if niiu^^iLir [>owit. He liclicvtw tlinl u [K'ciiliiir niicrozyitu* p\\^U 
in ibe blmil, and lia> jtaihiifrvi'ic pmpL'rtie?i, which may l)e reprfxiiii'wl 
inli'liiiitcly throiiffli llic iiiilk iiiiil ilii'ciugh IxiCtcr tiiiil chix.'-'i.- iiiiidt.- 
ilttivfntiu. 

TItc Iwivfjf of the fiirniiion iirlichokc are said' to cnuiu- n Mi •mi mil 
^tiit. vonuting. and diarrhn>a. 

\i "tiiUiI on « |i(xiTdin{: |iajr<% milk may undergo a pci'iiliar fomi 
of ileroniiioBilion i-csidlin;; in tht- priMhiclinn ol" an iiitt-n.^cly viok-nt 
[•ivn, a benxeiit- diTi\'ative, known as tyi-otoxicon. Fortunately, ibis 
i" ID un«»nini>n cban^jt'. 1>nt it bvimys to iIk* <'on.-<iiniiT no wgn of itK 
MrutTPin-e at the time of drinking, Tbc tfteets prtidncwl are various, 

tuv\ nnr wt-I| ilbiMniUil ity ihi- fiiIlowinj£ l~.^M■.^ : 
C.U-K I. — I{ep.)rteil by I>r, W. K. Newton and Mr. S. Wullure,* 
On Augii.-*t 7, IftSfi, 21 |:ui.ptii of one hotel at I.ong Hranoh, and 1!) 
<>r another hotel at the Kime place, were taken »iek «"">ii hI'Ut "npjKT 
"itli the i^anie Iniin of ^yniploiii.-4, wliieh wert> naiu^ea, vomitinj*. eninip.*, 
■od culla]K-e, <lr\'iioK of the tbroal, and 1)nriiin<; neiis:ilion in the n'.scipli- 
ipia; in manv ea.-e.- ihei-e was abnemw of disrrliu'ii, ami in several 
Itlu'rc wii> adive diarrluva wilhont vomiting. Many hiul violent vom- 
[ning foIlowe<I by coIla|»«?. At- a rule, the D!iu<<^eii and vomitiiip were 
I pcrM-Hienl and oluiinate, iind aepomjMniied by a lendeney to e-xhaunlion 
'Wii oollap!4'. A week later, IfO guejilH of flill another hotel were 
in pnt'iM'ly tin; !«Jimc manner. The on."et. owiirrei,! in fri.irn 
to four hours after catinfr, but in one instance tlie symptoms 
tral almoHl immedititi-ty after drinking about it quart of nnlk. 
jf^ntinn j^howetl that the trouble was due wholly to milk, for only 
milk-lrinkers wire r«-jzMl, and those who had had no other (IhhI 
ure tin- ^vorsl sntrerciv. The three hoteli? were ^ervetl by one ilejder, 
*ha made t«'o deliveries daily. The milk of the second delivery was 
ibe cmi-ie of tlic miifehier in ewh laitbrudc. 1 1 wtk* drinm at ntjon, and, 
vitliout Wing eoolefl at all. was earleil eight miles in tl)e heat of the 
(Uy. The iiiw^ weiv- beallliy and well fell. In a |M>rtIon of the milk 
Iktt c»iii»eii the tbjrtl group of ca^es, the preseiiee of tyrotoxifju was 
daoooetrated. 

Case II. — ^Thi* vra» a most extrwordiuari' ontbreak, limited to ii 
luaily consisting of father, mother, son, anil daughter, of whom all 
lit ibe Jirst ini-ntioni.'d die<l. The tinnilv plivi'ieiiin mdlcil I'rolessor 
T. C, \*aughan in conj^ultation after the fourth meml>er of the family 
vaa aeixed, and from hi^ report of the ciu>e the followinjr thcl.t nrv 
tokeD. The first one seir^ed was the father, a man of fifty VKvrs. When 
fifBt seen, he was vomiting seveivly, his f:we was fliishe<l, and his teni- 
peratUTL- was t^nbnonual (96* F.). There wiw markcil throbbing of the 

^ ■ Ijiioiiil ill AiiwrioHi M (.-(licTinc, Aug. 31, lOOL 

■ ' MiU-tixciiiiiiK. I)^9I. p. to. 

■ * MinIIlvI N#w*, SefiK-mW ^ IHHA, p. 343. 



98 



FOODS. 



alHloiiiiiial aorta, tlie toi)g;uc wan Imtvily nnilctl, iitui llii- hrmtliinp' 



vvrv 



Uili 



"■nt 



The 



<1 with . 



«h. Til. 



imjH 



U wcr«-(Iilatc<l. iiiul nuk-li ut' iIm' hixlv u^is mv^ 



iuuKl^ 



■1)1 



. lh< 



' Iii-tiie 



iiniiliiiiifi 
iitlimil Willi liilf. Tlif IkiwcI!' luic) mit iiinvwl, Imt uiKltT the JnHunMv 
of II «itliartic, a .-itiKil nii'iimil mi the Inllf.winji tliiy. I!ci<-tiiii^ miJ 
voiiiiliiig [■Diilliiiii.il iliiriii}; tliiit ilav 1111(1 iiijfliti iukI llirr*? yvtit^ |M-rKirtml 
Ktujior. During the tbllDuin^ three daVf^ there uaf but little cbaD^j 
Thi'n ini|ii-<)vciiiciit lii-^n, hut nttivi-n' ni{uii\Hl ii (uonth. Thf wii,a| 
gtrmig ymith «!' cinlilceii, wiu' the in-xl tu be iwizctl, four davw after tlirj 
ln-^iiiiiiiip "f lii.- liithor't* aii-kiwiw. The symjiIomN wen* »iiiiilar, but ( 
wen- iiKin- vtnlciil, anil llicn- wim uo ni^h. ()ii tlic folluwiiig eveninp. 
tlie mother, iihoui lortv-five, Wiui HetMK) in the ?aiiio w«y, iiinl i«i tlif 
»iKiHt'(liii(i rvniiiif;. (lie (liui^liler iiL«i. On the <liiy following tliv h;! 
spieniv, none of the i-aseti nhowcil itupl^n'enieiii. The Ir'nijieratiinii | 
U'cri' Mihiioniuil, li-l" ntiil !'■')" F. All i'>>in|>l.-iin<-<) "f n Uiiniiiif; '■""- 
Ktm-tioii ill the tliroiit unil dillicult »w:)llo\vinK, aiu) tiilh^l rni(iHiitly i 
for icw. Two days later, llie nintlit-r nml xni ilicil ; the tl.-iiightiT fit* 
wonw, beeanie iiiieonwiiiUN renuiiiieii mh lline thys, ami then dii'd. 

Poet -mortem examination in the (w.*^ of llie tlan^hter ivvmlnJ uo 
('hanii-tiTi:«tic Iej>ioMf Ki aeeoiint for tluilh, 'llie '>nlhn-,tk mip- ii"»fl 
curetnlly and (lioroughly investi^ited from every sliiiid|>uiiit, anil liu' 
(HMioliLilon ntiehi-<I wiin thiit lyi-otuxieoii vran the I'nuw. The iiiilM 
hiid V'eii ke]>t in a hiittory wliich vran in u Dinnt uniiaiiltan' mnditim- 
During ihni- yeani, the liiniily lind fnittired fnijueiit nltnet;* <if Bf | 
rliai^ctcr, hut they wer<' iniieli lesn »i-vere. KiitIi milk, jiliicrd iiiliel 
hntlen,- ovi-i' iiiplil, and then exnininetl for tyivttnxieoii, ptve ininii*-| 
takablp chemiesd iiml pliysiolotn^l cvideiKi.' iif (Imt [NiiHin. Knr^l 
milk in(M'nhite<l with dirt frwiii the buttery floor also iWclopeil it, s'l 
did ul!«> iither |>iii-tioni> tmil'-<l wilh voniitii^, nliinmoh oontealH, ind] 
B<[Ucon!^ extract of the intestinw, while a litUi s]Kvimen uiiln«i™1 
nintiiiiiil fill- fiYnn it. All the evidenec in llii.- i-ji.-e |H>iiil<il toi^J 
more or If** i<oii»tanl presence of [miKon in the milk, and ihe *iil<'] 
variation in the time of weiziire in the final oiitlireak in<Iieni« 
all were not nffeeted by iIk- i«inie diij'i* Hii|)])ly. 

Milk from Diaeftaed Cows, — The milk of <-ows ■iiifteriDg fn>ni l!u 
pruniiiii'Ml i-iillli- iiliiifni-^ i^ mure or K^a ultei'e<l in iMniinwiliini, nu'^l 
there apjM'Jini to t>e evidenee that it may be actually <liin>rer\iiiN 

In i-imlrrjiivt, the jiniteid.- are mueh inrnu-nl — in faet, niorellfll 
doiibktl ; the niinemi eonstitnentJ' are e(>n«idendily inen^^u-MMl, ami tlie1 
and wnirar are diminiHliM. 

In/'i<M! 'iiir/ mimtJi ti'mniMr, the lotttl solid:* ar* incmiMil eiHi^idi'mh*!^ 
or diminLxheil at dilTerent !ilat:ee, and the milk wMI ^mielimeM eiiu|;nliil^ 
on Ix'itin^, hy nw^on of tin- exe«wsive amount of eoa^iiluhle [initeiil*^ 
There is R-asiin to Iwlieve thai this disease mjiy Ik- <^umnnini<«teil *j 
other animab throiifrh the milk, and there U eviileiiee thai the n* <^ 
the milk by tiian will [iroduee loctd kv-iiins in the mouth and thnwl 
Thus, Notter and Virth' niiiition an epidemic of sow throat at Dovc^ 
■ThvTlu-orv nnJ INacilL-o of tlj-iclviie: London, IIJH !*■ ^"XJ^ 



d 



MILK AS A FACTOR IN THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. 99 

1884, in which there were 205 ca.sos of vesicular eruption in the 
ipoat or on the Iij>c, enlarged tonsils, aiid In most cases enlarged glands 
f the neck, all occurring within a week in persons supplied by a single 
airy where the disease existed. It is asserted by Pott' that such milk 
Q the Taw state may induce a similar aifection in man, and especially 
D children. 

Id anthrax, the milk has an abnorimd appearance and decomposes 
npidly. The specific organism has been isolated in active condition by 
Brwchetti' from milk as kite as fourteen days after it had been drawn. 

In arllnompcotis, particularly if the udder is involvwi, the milk 
■iould be avoidc<l, although there appears to be little direct evidence 
bciring upon transmission of the disease to man by this means. It 
» certain, however, that the disease docs occur sometimes in man, and 
tbough in the matter of transmission of disease from animals to man 
nothing shoOld lje taken for granted, it is commendable in such cases 
of lack of positive knowledge to err on the side of ,*afety, and to avoid 
>»! pn>hibit the use of such milk. 

The milk of cows afflicted with goiyet, an inflammatory cnnditioa 
rftbe milk ducts. Is believed to have cnused epidemics of gastro-intew- 
tinal irritation, and there is reason to believe that it may be a common 
tmsK of cholera infantnm. In an investigation institutetl to deter- 
nuiie the cause of diarrhoea among the consumers of milk of a certain 
iiry, I^nieris and Van Harrevelt ' discoveretl the presence oi' strepto- 
(Wci in great numbers in the udder of a cow which recently had re«>v- 
md from an attack of garget. Whether in this particular instance 
fliese micro-organisms were the cause of the disturbance among the 
MMumers, cannot definitely be asserted, but according to the researches 
ofEscherich, Adametz, and others, the severe diarrhceas of infancy are 
iot largely to the presence of SlreiAococcu-n pi/of/ene«. This and other 
fUhogenic oi^nisms appear to be exceedingly common in ordinary 
Kuket milk, and in the milk of cows with no apparent local disease. 
TTuw, Eastes* discovered streptococci in 106 of 186 samples examined; 
mk* in 35 of 56 samples of the Berlin supply ; Betsey,' in 20 of 40 
■oples of market milk, and in 3 of 59 .samples from first-class <lairies, 
«ed and Ward' have recorded the ease of a ci)w, one of the CJornell 
university beni, apparently healthy, whose milk yielded streptococci 
^intervals extending over two years and a half. When the animal 
*» killed, the udder was examined, and showe^l an iibundance of the 

"•pnisms. From the secretions of certain diseased udders, Klein' 

*Wd two varieties of pyogenic bacteria — B. lUphtherfiUhn and Strep- 

^<W"M radiabiM ( pyogeneg). 

Other pathogenic organisms commonly present in milk include mi- 

' Uoncbener mcdii'inixrlie Wotliennchrift, July 25, 1890. 
' Giomaje di -Mettidna Vewrinaria, 1K9]. 
' Zeibvhrift fur Flelitrh- und Milchhvgionc, lOOO, p. 114. 
'Britwh Mediial Joiinial, Nov. 11, 1890. 

'tfeotHfhe Vierttljahrwchrift fur fiflentliche Gewundlieitspflege, 1900, p. 430. 
'American Medicine, .\pril 20, 1901, p. 122. 
<>ntnJblaIt fur Bakteriulogie, 1901, XXIX., p. 49^ 
' 'riiniBl of Hjgiene, January, 1901, p. 78. 



100 FOODS. 

crococci, tbiind bv Ber^y in 36 of 40 samples of market milk, and in 
lOof 'if samples from fir*t-<;lass dairies; Sfaphylococcuspffoijeneiimirctii, 
timiid bv tilt same investigator in 3 of 8 samples from individual cows 
of fin-t-clast' dairii-s ; by Leblanc,' in the ducts of 10 of the 2i teats 
of (J dairy cows examined ; and f<fap!i!floco<-cuK aut-etm and albug, fouod 
by Ijfblano, v. Helleiis, and others. li. eoU comniuti!« is present alniiist 
invariably in milk from all Miurtfs, and P/o/<'(m rd/jMcw is found fre- 
quently. 

Tile presence of the various py<^uic bacteria in milk, whether due 
to their existence within the milk duct or to even slight lei^ions on tlie 
hands ol' the milkers, is a matter of grave eon<'em as a common wiufe 
of serious g-.Lstni- intestinal disonlers, es|>ecially in children in thw 
tirst years. 

It woid<l iipitmir from a re])iiit made by Gaffky," that the milk nf 
i-ows snfimng from s[iocific enteritis may Ih' a cause of sickness. Thr« 
[ursiins c.miHi'H.il with the Institute of Hygiene at Giessen were seized, 
al'ier drinkini; milk from a ei>w sidlering I'rom such a disease, *rilh 
ii;ui>wi, viHiiiling, diarrliiva, and uiental confusion. One recovered in ' 
a fiw iliiys, the others in about four weeks. The milk was drunk in i 
the raw state. ' 

C'oiieerning the agt'ucy of milk of tuberculous cows in spreaditf ! 
hi/ii'i-i-itlouli', there is, as ui the case of tuberculous meat, a wide diw^ „ 
genee of opinion. There t-aii Ik' no doubt that the milk of such coffc i 
may convey the infeetion to other animals, but whetlier to man canno' 
Im' definitely slat<'<I, beeausi' of the imjxissibility of experimentation, ffld \ 
siniv, in any case of supiH)se<l transmission, very many other possible 
agencies must \w eliminati'd. As stated on a preceding pnge, local iu- 
feetiiin by meat tliRMigh >(ounds incurred at autopsies of tuberculous 
animals is not imi>ossible, but cases of similar infection through oil'' 
are exetixlingly ran,'. Sidmon ' eiti-s but ■'! eases in all ; one, from tbe 
applie;Ui<in of crtain to a hg snp|H>se<lIy p".iisoiied by ivy; a seconiii 
from milking with a wound in one finger ; and a third, from atlemptw 
removal of tattoo-marks by the iniro<luction of milk through needle 
puoet art's. 

There i-an Ik- no doubt that the tiilH-n'Ie liacillus finds its way io'^ 
milk, iKirticularly if the udder is involve<l. but even when not. Tl'>* 
was asscrteti so long airti :is 1. •*?«!) by Pn>fessor H. C. Ernst,* who, aft^l 
a very exiendcil inipiiry, proved that the milk of eows with tuberc**" 
lo-is in any ]iart of the liody, and with no KksI lesion of the udd^' 
whatever, may contain tile Uicillus. This finding has been confinn^ 
by a ninnbcr of inoiv n>e<'iit observations. K.s)i«'iallv noteworthy is t** 
invisiigation pursuixl by I>rs. Habinowiisiliaud Kempner,* who obtain^ 
positive iX'sults from iniK-nlatioii ixiMnmeiits on guinea-pigs with tf 
milk of li> out of l.'i i-ows that had n-.icti-d t*) tuberculin. Of the^ 

' T.virti iiiAlii'al. llXHI. |.. .'nil. 

' IViUm-1»' niiiliciiiU'lic W.H-lu'iKn-lirifl. Xf'.'i. No. H, 

■' lliitlctin :V1. I!iin-nii of AiiimnI InttiiKlrv. VM'\. 

' Anit'riran .Iinimal of Mediiml S^ii'iioi-s, Novpmher, 1889. 

^ Zeilsclirift tiir llyfi^ine uiiil Infi.>t.'litniF.kranthcilt<n, XXXI., p. 137. 



ilWK AS A FACTOR IS THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. 



lOI 



linial^ orilv I sliiiw*-!! idiiiiiHl ovidencft of iiivftlvement i>f the 
iiilder. and only 1 other --liowetl niiy sign of it on mirniwopiftiil (.■xutni- 
Qiitioii. OiIk-ih wliii havi- olitaiiitil jMisilive iyktiIi.-j fTOiii animalij with 
DoriDal itddcrs iticliiik- H'jHiii;;^!'. IVk'ijiin-. lijing, iiihI Ad«iiii. 

I Similarly, iV- niilk of a iiibc-rciilous mother inny be infcclivp, even 
tlmugh no inatiiriiary Ii>ii)iii' exirt. Sin-h uti iii«tntii!<- Is re|x>rtwl hy 
Ropr and fiarnier:' The wunian dieil, seventeen tliiys aiU-r eonfiiu- 
nifiil, with piilinoiijiry hilHTi-iiInsiw. <)ii tlur fourth diiy afiir dt-livory, 
2 guinca-piir* were inoculated with her milk, one of them with |i(i«ilivi* 
nsiiiltjt. Tlir ehihl lo^t wclg'lir from hirih, and dii.tl at fix months with 
liiberetilar lecions of the meHpiit(Tit' (fljind*. liver, kidni-ys, urid Hjilei-n. 
But tlie i|n(9lion of exircrljoti of haeit-ria hv active mammary frlmids 
with DO !ip|xirent le^iont- has not hwii >tiiilii'<l exluiM.itively. Aw<irding 
to Bownau,' ■>iiiy fhnr* liaeteria ivhioh ai'e eapiible of aetinj; on tint 
wnIU of the hl(»<«l-vewel» »o a» to «niw hcinorrhiifr'-s are able to [lass 
from the hhvMl into the milk, and in thaw eases in whieli B. iuhrrcalomH 
hsL* biTt-n ilctifiiii in the abs^-niT of evidence nf nmmmary lesions, the 
chancer are that more or hvs alteralion of the ves.>el walU had <iecnrred 
in i»iiMi|n(-ne<- of di:>rin-bi-il nntririon. Tin- ex [icriniojits of Ilaseh and 

[Welcmiiisky* IcikI one to the ei^uehi^loti that Ik^eiian'it jtiwitioH in 
correct, Tliey infeetetl aiiimaU with ditlVreiit ^"(M'oies of palliofjenic 

I iirjianiKTiiA, and fmnid that, even when the bluixl Uenictj «ith imthruN 
bacilli, the niilk i^tuiwed no evidpncp of tlieir preseiiee niilew llii-iv were 
b.n-ul tii>n<litiuu« ('.<]>eviidly favondjle, stieh 113 ^■!lJ^■uL^^ le<ii<»ns, which 
mar be eaHf*d hy the liemorrha^ro-produeinp ixu-leriH. Il ha? tjeen 

■ ileino»»trat«-(l hy Ostcrtad* that the milk of eow» which show no evi- 

■dence of ltil>crenl<b'iB beyond reacting to ttibeivulin containrt no liai-illi, 
and tliai oalvfw and y'tff* M therein for inonthis 'lo imt hwmtne tiiW'r- 
mlous. 

It ifl a.<«t4>rt<'d coRiiiionly tliiit (he iim> of milk fnnn (nbercnloii.'t oows 
i^ » positive d:mgi>r to public health, an<l attention is directed to the 
persistently high rate of niorlnlity from ndicreidnMH In all if» f>irm« 
aooODg veTk' yonnff children, and to iniprovemeni in the death-r.itei; 

I (ma o4her cniu^es. It U aiKV-ntA that lliU condition e:in U- cxpliiijiiil 
in only ouc wny; that is, that 11 very Inifie pmporlion of iniirket milk 
is derived from tubereuloiiH cows, and thua bottle-fed children, if at. 
all s«w.vpiibh', Ix't'onie infeet'tl. 
.V.S to the prolwible proporiion of infected market milk, owing to the 
wide difference in ii«idt.i ••blaincd by various invc!*lijiaioi>i, no delinitv 
Malctnent can be given. Itabinouitscb, for exaiiinle, found it to be 28 
per cent, ; Massono* by inotrnlation exiwrimejiln plaei'<i it at 1) ; <^l* at 
11.6. Sl.tdcn' fonnd ihat more than halt' wf the jwunnle." taken from 



I 

I 



won. 



* Coniutn rcniluMjc In Soci^ttf dc Dio1i>)(ic. Murcli 2, 
».1relurf.,rllvini-ni-, XXtll. flffflSl, |>. 44. 
'IbUtm. XXX'V. ilWHii.i., 2ir.. 
' Zritocfann rar Ilvcu-ne ..lul Inrppoo™.Wi.khcilcn, -XXXVIII. (1901), p. 418. 
' AiiBkti il'litioiic Sj-aTiiinrnliili-, l*'.iT, ]>. \>V,t. 

* ZriiKflirid fiir Mil,!.. u.hI Flf i-nblivKic.itf, IWI», Xo. 8. 
< Tbc Lani'M. Janunrr 14, 1M99. 



102 



room. 



tin- supply nl' the collcg«8 at r'umbrid^ (RngtaDd) WMix-eii't^l tulM-rcn- 
luKis tu gliiiiru-pijTiit on iii(x-iihi(ioii; Ititt h^u^kv' t'inim) tJir Inu-illlf ia 
liiU 1 1 nut i»r IWI! snmplcs nf milk which be ox a mined. Ochcrs barf 
4>ltliiiiiiil rrMil(>Hiiv\vh<-n'Hilhiti flu- niii^i-of (> ti> 'til \K-f n-M. Ihiulit- 
l(>A!i the (liffeivnoch urc iluo to vuriutioiif ill hH'u! ci)ii<litions, t'l iliffr- 
(•mt^ in Ui;hi)ir, mid tt) luvidriit--^ alwiiy.-* iittciiditi^ hii|i>hnziinl Mviinu^ 
o\' any nrtick' of fiiod in o|k-ii niiirkvt. 

Tukii)}; llie niMiii of ihi- titriin-.' givt'ti, luxl Hivt-pcin^ ihiit it-iuTur 
t)ppii>\imiiU'iti <<r (he extent lu whicti public i^itppbcK iiiv iiiln-tni. il 
mii.-l Ik- aj;'"''*^' t\\at, il" inl'cclioii thniti|;h milk i.- [)■»— ihli-, iIh- anmojn 
of (liNeiiKL' !>•> miiMi) ix ipiite imuill in pr<>|Hmioii t» the niiiiilier ot' tlic 
pupiilatiou who are exiKi«Hf iliiily lo th<- tiaiijrer. Thew un- hut frt 
rt'i'DrUil iii.-icH ill which llu- inlliu-iiee (if ulher jHoxibV eoiulitioiiT' itin Ix 
exi-hidtil Ml thoixiiiffhly :l^ to leave no rtsiHiiuihle dniibt of the riimI 
rt'liitinii of milk. S1i)|fle in!>i»ii<i-n iii-c iKi'i-.SNiirily of h'w viiluc ilun 
jrruupfi of uiM-)-, iitid the letter arv niiich lesN oinimon than trencinllv 
I- t.NpiH>!.i'd. From llic niinilxTiivikiljilile tht fnll<iwint; nre wlcrliil** 
illiiKintlion": 

Hiiimmlel' miirds the death of 7 children with no hei-eclitarr MB. 
iiiiniite.-' of a i-ouveTiI, from liilK'iviili>>!i»i snp|K>>e<t)ly iiiihie^'il by llieow 
of milk fnmi a eow ivilb [iilienrnlofti.* of the Wilder. AnotlKTrtw 
ri'porteil by liitn, and ipioItHi hv Freiideiireieh,^ ik one in whieh Itiif H 
girU in :i hniinlin^-Hehixil lu'cnnie infiK-teil and <lied. Tlie tnilk vrliNil 
they had ii^-il daily I'^inn- finiii ii liibeiviihniH cow. 

Demme' re|iort«l iii^ the only in?^tjiiiei> in liip- exjiericncc in wiiicli nil 
other I'diiM-s i-diild Hjitt>lui-tonly he exeliided, a ymup of 4 infiilitK »( 
hmlthy |KireiHiijie iWt ii|>on uneookitl milk of Hil«iniIoini eowfi. Thf* 
all dicil of tulK-n'nlor>is of the tnte--'lii>e, and the (li:i;;nri!<i!< was mntinm" 
by iiiilopsy. Later, hi' reiRirltil* fliil iinoiher duitli ihnu llu- -■*»""■ 
oaiiM* at four moutlw. In iJiis ca'* aL«o there was aliMihitely ii'ifnnulf 
hixlory of InheiTiihwi''. .\Oer tlie enntiriDiilion of the iliiifpio^U I? 
autopsy, the cow waa .alnUjihteivil anil fouixl to be tnlH-rcnloUs 

A niore exlen^ive imthn«k uinonjr older <liildren wa." iV|)orttd bv 
Ollivier lo the Awl demy of Mwlieine. PhH", on Kelniuiry 21, IM*!. -^ 
woniiin of tnenty-one yiflm, of ^mmI lamily birtory, who Iiad al*iiy 
Mijiiyeti (jtuxi henltli, died of tiiiKTeiiliir meniiifrili- "borlly after laki*' 
tip her residence in a hiHirdinir- honi^e in whieh within a sbori rin" 
pn-vioti-ly II icli'-il pris hiiil been K'iwil willi 1iilK-iviibi.-<i<. Ii w^ 
knrncd that the milk snpply wa- derived from a single animal wlii<^ 
wan (ateiiHively InlH-reuloiiH. .Shorily afterwnrc]. Mill umillier f;irl iH 
of phtbisif pnlnuiniilis in the f^me house. 

Some of these i-ases, if not nil, iiwiy U- aeeepled as veiTi- sliuitg 
deiiee that tulx'reiiIo»i)i may be f-pniid through the agx'wy of mi 

■ Britiih Mnllnil Joiirnnl. N.<vr.-iii)vr 1 1. I^IID. 
' Aniuilu) (l'H.v|!i^Ilt.■ |.iililiimo. .\X1V.. i.. Oo. 

• Ijt* MieroUit tt Will «I« hull- ilnni In Liiii-rii-. I'liiin, ISflJ, |i. ili, 

* JnlinstxTiirht tlU>r dip Tli»iif[kt<ii iIm JviKicr'aclii.-n Kliiilmi 



P.4S. 

* nridan, 1686, p. Sa 




ilmplUl* ill tirni. I 



MILK AS A FACTOR IN THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. 



103 



I 
I 



if it is true that so large a propiortion nf tlir milk kiijiiiIv ii^ fiimi 
iltM?M.'«il (Wkw^ iind ihnt the disiaite it^ oommiinicablp in ibi^ u'av, it 
follows lluit witli thf viwt miiinritv of ilrinkcis of raw milk tin- tMiorlli 
ltIsIi or are tjii^luiiywl without gaii)iii|; cEtRiiic* tn the tis?ftICi>^. 

Gr.tntin;; ()mt iiiiirli iif thi- piitilic milk ^iipjily U dirivitl fnnii tiibcr- 
;culouA COW5, ami lliat it is coiisitnittl very l;tr<;fl_v in uiii^orilimHl tiMuli- 
ian by vmv j'oiinj; oliildrpn, one wmild uaturallv expect, if the bovine 
laoillus is markedly inH-olivc to luiin, to find a von' hifih <li'itlh-ntk' 
fnnii alxlomiiud i iilxTi'ido.-iit. amoiij; the vorj' yDUiig, It is aa-ertei! ihiit 
tlitu a tile «i«»\ anfl fhl"inttt' nrjriiiiK-nt(« in fiivor of tht- siiiti-ini'nt llxiil 
taberculou!) milk U rtw]M>iiwble for a great |»art of the tvjnstjujtly hipb 
ii>futitilc dcnth-rnio Imvc been biutcd on figiin'ri givwi by the late Sir K. 
Thonw^Tbonic, in biii Hnrbeii lectura-, in XuvoiTibtT. I^ilS, ""bowinp tlmt. 
wlK-naf in l-ji(il:ind mid \V;ili'-% tbi- n-tnms for [Rill— iJStto, loniimi'eii 
»-itb tluw« for I)*")l— IStJO, indicate a iwhittion in iiiorl.-ilily from 
p)ithii<ii> nl u)l apsi of -t'lA [)er oonL, iind fmm all fona- of tiil»frcnliJHa 
of 39.1 per criil., the deercaw? in talies mesentericji W(i8 fi>r all iig«» only 
8,.'i, anil for ebildn-n under live ordy 'A per cent, ; and that, moretjver, 
(•>r rliildn-ti tmiler oiii: vciu' iIk'iv wiik not onlv no niliii-llon, bur an 
aenial inen-a.-* of 27.7 per eent. Snoh tigiire's fmanatinpr from so high 
an Riithorily, would m-i-ui to admit, of brit onv e.iitlitn.-ilion, niiiuely, 
that infi-cted milk in a dunger lianlly to be overratetl. Hut thoM? ligiirM 
an' dint'tly ojuHwcd to i'liiii(':il i-\|M'rii-niT clM-whcn' and. lut will .ijiiicar, 
art- inrorro-1, I>r. 1). ISovalrtl ' jiointfi out that il i*: only in Kntflatid 
that n'[>nrlA inditiit^t anv rtin.'«i<l<'nibU- iuiiiiIkt of ciu-o of |)rinjarv iute.*- 
tiiial tulwrfultisii^, and asserts that it is very rare in and about Now 
York City, ami that the eviilenee (■otuiei-tint; liiJHrriiloHis ui ehildrcn 
with infwt<il milk i» ver>- mwigrc. Kocli has called attentiou to the 
jrreat infrei|ueni-y of pi-ini.nn- lubenndosjw of the intesiini' amonjf i-hildren 
in iu.-<tilntHiiis in I{(-rliu ; an<l Hiiih-rt,' t'>>, itru>eTif that the amount nf 
tulwrrular infci-tion lbroii;:h the alimentJiry eanni in ver\' p^niall. Adaiiu ^ 
'le i>f the opinion that tntx-renliMit of youni! eliililri'a, and iv|i<i'i:illy {ktI- 
tonwd and int«-stinal tiilKTtnWis, is remarkably rare in the [jreat eiiies 
of North Anieriea ; bnl .lno<)l>i,* wliih- iidniiltiTit: that ]iriniii!-)' tiiln-n'ii- 
lar nlo-rrition." of the inU-Mine and primary tnl)en'u]o.^ij. of the mesen- 
terie i^lunds are rare, liolds tliat peritone:d luU-rr-uliwiH in vcrj- common. 

finmi citc« the morlality n-turoK for Moiilreiil for the year eiidtil 
■Itine, inOO, »bowiii<.' tjiiit of i)ii'^ de:ilb>i from lulKUVulofis, but 4 were 
of childrtn under foumTu, and -t of thf-'«' wi-n- fivim abdominal tnU-r- 

kicis in cliikin'n iHnler five year*. Crookshank ' dlswnts from the 
ion thai alHlominnl tubenndoni-i of Hiiidrcn i^ eonnei-'ted with in- 
niilk, bat In-lievcv that not Hunioietit rouKideriition ii> );iveii to the 
ijiwibility of infeetion fmni biinian sourves. 

The &llaey of Thonn'-Tln)ni<-'s liirui-iw lias hceii |)i>int<Hl onl by Oirr, 

' Aroliivr* of fV.liiitri.^s IVmv. HKII. 

• BwliiiPr Itlirii-rlif Wuc'ln.ii*lirifi, NnvpniU-r 2.>, IMOI. 
■ riiilii<lt-lpliin .M«tl.iil .Inoranl. I'Vliruiiry 2L'. IV>02. 
' New York .MnHi>'Hl .(..imrnl, Jiiiimrj 2^ IflUi 

• The 1jiii(«I, NuwuiU-r 2, ISWl. 



mi 



FOODS. 



Guthrip, Donlcin, (mt\ Mhi^rt, mid all ni^iiniciil> luiswl Mieiwin niurt IhII 
to the ground. In PwciiiIkt, lXSt8, Carr' i^lKiwed lliii) the vast ma- 
jority oi" coin's n-tiinii'd ih lalu-s iii(?^iit4-ricii wc-rt? |)n>I>iildy (if ui:ini.x- 
luu.*, due _t(i K"'^t''''-i"'(''^''''!d ""'fcirrli, <iuthric' corivhidcil (Wini Ihp 
reeults of 77 aiitopsi«« perfoniiwl by liim on tubePL-ulam chiidren tliat 
the <li!M>H«(! liegiiii> fur more commonly hi the cheKl lluiu in the alxlomm, 
sud tliiit tabi'.H niej^ctutt'rioa an n cavire of death in young chiIdn.'D U 
[>raeti(-ally unhnowu or i-MrerucJy mm. Duiiklii, who oontetid^ tbut 
the origUKiI si)rnifie:inee of the term "tabes nK-fieiiterica " no lonjier 
holdfl, siys ; ' " We sdl know tliat all kind.i of iiiti^tiniil »n<] mher ili»- 
ordcre arc wrastaiitly styled 'tuhen PK*euteriHi' by tho!<' who fail to 
cure them," 

Ni)lwltliHtinidiu); the jmiieily of e«;<» wliieh offer ctronR evident* of 
^Ciusal rtlation between iiifceled milk and the oi?eurren<* of tiibenm- 
wcis, and in .^iiili- of liie now rts^jjfiiiw.'ii dilVeRTici-fi l«'lwee-n llie bovine 
and hununi baeilli, the poesibili^' of danger iu individual cases eannot 
lightly be hnichcd asidf. Aeci^nling lo 'fhculiHld Smilh,' it i^ qiiittt 
[)ij!»{<ible thiit Mmielhiii); ind-rfereis with ihe !d>>orp<ion of bovine bacilli, 
while allowing the human Iwieilli to jiat* ; and while nieial diftVrenct« 
probably pre-voiit the nU-Mn-plion ol' bovine budlli uti<ier oiihiutry eincum- 
stancus, and n few bacilli are harmlo^, there iw danger if the digestive 
tract itt flooded witli baeilli fi-om Iiibi-n-nloii? uildc-i'*. 0!«U'r1i4f ' rnlvo- 
catea the eulliug out "f all e<)Wti i-howing eludral evidence of tuhemi- 
Wl4 (beyond reaeling), and c->[>K'iiitly of nil wiili li^^iouM within the 
udder. 

I^eblanr;!' ]» of ihe opinion that tin- milk of (ubcrvulony txtw* u 
dangi>roTiH, uot on account of the bacilli, but on account of the toxins 
thai i( eontniriii, tiir it liii» Ix-cn ]inivi-<t to have toxie ])rojK-rtic^ 
Michellaiui has showti that Eueh tnilk lujix-ted into tuberculous ani- 
mals eaiuies n it^nction, and thai the- milk of a tulH'reulons mother will 
iu lime prove toxie to her ohilil. 

Milk Oontaminated ft-om without with Organisms Related 
to Human Diseases. — Milk timv l>i>'iiini> eontiiiiiiiiiitii] with infec- 
tive matter in variou.-* waviv It may reixi\'e it fmm the hantU, |>er- 
9(U), and clothing of the milkcts tmd othcis by whom it i^ handled, 
wltcther thcj' are themselves sick or convalescent, oi- acting in the 
oapncity of nui-wt' or atti-ndanl for oilier^ ; it may aetjuin- il from 
unclum vi**--M.-!.-[ rini^cd in polJntetl water, or fnini water with which it 
liaa fraudulently iwen mix«-d. Oullirwiks inutil to milk generally 
involve a oon.->idi'nd>Ie number of (HTwon'.. and apiwar with «imc »ud- 
(lennees. In fact, it is the i^imullaneim.'i a|ijj«imnce of a bigr number 
of (taMLs that di-awN altentioii to the water Mi]>|dy or milk ax a uomniou 
utWH?. SjHirailic eju^ei^ are rarely traewible to milk. 

Ou account of the danger of .■•[ti^eitio ii>ntiimiiiation of milk, no i>er- 

H 'The Ijinm, 1*18, II.. [.. Irtlia. 

■ ' tbi.]i-ii>. IWS, I., p. -m. 

■ ' Briti.b .Mrdi™! Joiininl. IVlriWr H. I8BSI, |). 1046. 

■ • MnlLiil Nri.^ FrLill^iIV 'ii. IIMIJ. > I»M dtltO. 

■ * Lvuu ni-.'tlk'Tj]. April N. ItiOl, |s :M. 



1 

I 



I 

I 
I 

I 

I 



_i ^^ 



UILK AS A FACTOR IN THE SPREAD OF DISEASK 105 

!on sick witli or convalea^nt from iufectious disease, and no iKtrfk>n 
laving to do with the care of the sick, or with the dinposa! of their 
excreta, or with the washing of their linen, slionld be allowed to handle 
milk intended for the asc of others. Public authorities urc ntpidly 
betoming awakened to the importance of restrictive measures in this 
ngud, and in many communities it bos be<^'n made a criminal offence 
to £iil lo give iiotiise of the j»resence of caseri of infectious dise:ii^ at 
the place of production of milk or among those engsiged in its distribu- 
tion and sale. 

Upbtliena. — A large number of epidemics have been reported in 
which a positive connection with the milk supply appears to have been 
&irlv well made out ; but so tar as Ls known, there is no connection 
twireen any disease of the cow and that which we know as dipbtlieria, 
ilcbough a number of outbreaks of diphtheria have been reported as 
traced to gai^t. The specific oi^nism of diphtheria may be intro- 
dnoed into milk from the discharges of persons employed in the hand- 
ling and distribution of milk before they have recovered thoroughly 
from the disease. Dr. J. W. H. Eyre ' found the bacillus of diphtheria 
in samples of milk supplied to a large school where a number of cases 
ofthe disease had occurred. The organisms gave the usual character- 
Btics, and no reason appears for doubting their identity. 

Srhottelius ' proved that the bacillus of diphtheria can giow very 
fipidly in raw milk, less so in sterilized milk at ordinar>- temperature, 
l«t very much bettor at 37°.C. Injisrauch as the nrgimism may pcr- 
"^^ for long periods after the disease apparently has diwa|)peiirod, and 
iiiiy be present in the throata of jiersons in apparent lieidth, it nee<i not 
excite wonder when it is reported present in milk. 

Cholera. — Undisputed evidence of the connection between milk and 
Asiatic cholera is not very cimimon. There is some disagreement as to 
tl* viability of the cholera organisms in milk; thus, Hesse' found that 
liteh, raw milk exerts a destructive influence on them ; tliat, in fact, 
Hiey begin to die as soon as they are mixed with it. lie foinid that 
wydieat ordinary room temperature within 12 hours, ami at ineu- 
wtor temperature in from 6 to 8 hours. The age of cultures, the 
"Mure of the culture mediji, and the addition of the latter to the milk 
»ith the bticteria, appear not to afibet the resuH. Stcrilii'.cd milk was 
Swnd to be a better culture mwlium, Bnsemui ' disjigrccs with Hesse, 
He found that uncooked milk does not kill the oi^inisms in 10 hours, 
•liat they are active after 38 hours, and that u}» to the |)oint of coagn- 
ation of the milk tbey increase amsidembly in number. He found 
that in polluted milk they remiiiii active at Icjist .'J2 hours at ditfei-ent 
l«nperatures (room temperature, 24° and 'M° C), and tliat tlicy 
ftDuiin active even after the milk lias coagulated. 
Weigmann and Zirn' found that the length of time cholera bacteria 

' Rri(u-h Medioal Journal, SeptenibcT % 18Hil, 

' CentrslblHll fiir BakterioloRie, Alitli. 1., XX., No. 2-"). 

' Zeiwchrift fiir Hvpene iinH Infetliimskrankbeiteii, XVII., p. 233. 

' .\rchiv fiir Hyjiiene, XXIIL, p. 170. 

* Centralblatt fur Bakteriologie, ete., 1804, No. S. 



im POODS. 

TfumUi lu-t'iv <l<rj*iML- uprin ih^ raiW' iher bear to the numbCT of otticr 
or(;:ii»i.>ffi.'' ftn:-4-iit, and tliat in '*nler to survive fur manv hours tliev 
wmilrl hsiv U) in- iiiM<«] t>i milk in ext-^Mlin^y Lii^ numlters. 

'I'Ik; i'vi<li;r)''«; timt '-Imli-Ri CUD br- (lis-^iiiDat«d thnMivh tbc Kgmrr 
of iitilk i^ cxiifiJitijfly liiiiihfl, anil alxiut the only ea^ tree Irttni diiubt 
i- iliiit nii>nM by .Sinijw^n,' who rcLites that H «l-kw of cholera 
oiTiirrcl r-inMi-fily on a whip in llif luirixir of Calt-uttu, 10 men of wIkw 
iT'w Im'l ohriiiiit^l milk fnim a native. One dnink but little and 
(■-ciijMil, I dinl of uiiiloiibtcl rlioleni, and 't were veiy i^iek with (liar- 
rlioii. Ki^til ollicrs who n^-d condcnseil milk only, and those wb 
tM-i\ no iriilk wliati'vtT, wcnr luiafl'ectcd. It was learned that the 
vendor had iliinti'd the milk alxtut one-fourth with water from a tank 
lo wliii'li dejei-tioiin from eholeru ]iatients had gained access and in wbich 
the elolliex of the jHitieritM were washed. 

Bcarlflt PeTor. — In I )e<'emlKT, 188'), txicurred what has l>eoome wra- 
inoiilv known iis the Heiidon onthrc^ik of sciirlet fever, due to a di:«isf 
of rown, mid ninn' that time ii niimWr of other epidemics have Weo 
(niriil niiiiiiii-ntly lo » conmion milk supply. In the Hendoa ca.% > 
nniiilier oT imw- were or had been wick with an infectious eniptionuf 
the iMhIi'i'H, anil llieri' eiin be no doubt that the disease under eonsiden- 
tioii was ^■|n^'lld lliroiifrh the agency of milk coming from thie dain'; 
bill nihcr eiiw- having tli<' wtinie dis«'asc csinsed no trouble, and the pos- 
fiiliilily of iiinlriminnlion I'roni hnmiin sourc^cs could not be excluiW 
Mbwoliiielv. A nnmlHT of other ontbrejiks of the diseaise have whk" 
whiit doiiblfiilly bii'n ascribed to similar teat eruptions, but in no case 
i« lite evidence eonchisive. On the other hand, there is midoubted 
cvidciii-e tliiit (lie ilisciisi- bus manv times l>een spread by nnlk from 
liii'in- wheii' i-liildivn and others wctx' sick with it. 

In tniiing c|iideniie> of this ;uid other dis«>sos to a common raus*i 
\\\<w i-i !dw:iy-i ilangci' of lending tii> nnieh ini[X)Ttanoe lo coincidenWt 
iiml of .-oniing ilieoby lo imvvarnmtitl ii-nehisions. As an illuslrJlioni 
the lliUowiiii: cri-e niiiy Ih' citc<i : In ISit", in one of the oatlyiog 
«!iiiK of lliwion, !i lrii"u:i' nnniliiT of i-;)-es of seariet fever oecurrt" 
«iili ••iinie --iiddfiini" ;nnonjr diildtx'n chicHv of the well-to-do cla* 
NiiiiinilK ibc»i' wa* nnici) di-iiLrb;nuv ot' ihc |Mib!ie mind, and an ii' 
\i- ii.;:iiitin «a- iniden.ikcn inumiliatdy. It was ascertained iba* 
n<viil\ all ol' ihc liiiniliev .v>n.»< nml wiiv >npplt<^l by one niilkmaO' 
«li.< "r:ii..>r' all tbc milk «lii.b bi liandlnl, aittl the n-sjionsihility fi'* 
ill,' .MolnwiK \\a* ai .^n.>- laid at iii- d.-T. His premises werp e*' 
iimii.>l I'l til'- !i.\dili ani!i.>riiii^ and l^i;iid ;o Iv in exivllent «»nditiof' 
\,. ,.. ■ .X .li-,-i-.- .'! ■itdi-ivv.iii,.n i.a.i Lw-.irrnl in his £)mily or amiin£ 
lo !i. ]]' " ■.\\>r.\ :t iK!.-,!>iv ■•>'. ;\:,v.;:l>. ^-^ .y \::„\ he or snvlxidv ou th* 
pi l■^ , .1 ! •: <■- ■■.<:',i Iv a^s ;-..:■.■. \', Sc; ■; i', >• inisci with anv case o^ 
-,Mil.i I. V- 1 .'1 ■■! ■i!i> .';!>.: .;'.:.v ■;■.■;.- .h-i :.-, Hi- imw- weiv examin«.l 
l>\ I ili,-i\- :,' li ,•,'■■, o*.-;. :■; \ .■:.■■ :>:■ ■,■.■,:■ ■'.ii^nni'rtl in I'Verv respect 

1i.mIi1i\ \, \. 1 i!i, k'v-, -;>. ;!>;:. ,\. ;;,:■.•. ■ . :":.:. -■ high ihsi hU business 
1. 11 a«\M\ ^.■l^ .s>ii-i.l,i-^,Mv H:..: ■ - '^^^ .-. w shewn the slightest 



MILK AS A FACTOR tlf THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. 107 

vidence of an eruptive tlisease of the teats, the epitleniic might have 
«eD huiled itR aaother Hendon outbreak, und been quoted in sanitan' 
liston.- as a noteworthy example. The fact that the great majority of 
caaes occurred amon^ his {)alrun8 was easily ex)iIaiDable, for he was 
bnnwn to he a careful, cleanly, honest dealer, and was, therefore, the 
very sort of man to attract the particular class whose homes were 
inv'aded. The children aifected belonfi^ to closely affiliated groups of 
playmates. Further iuvesti^lion revealed the fiict that the first case 
ws of a lad whose family was uot a customer of the Huspected dealer, 
utd that, immc<liately Ix-fore taking to his bed, he had been playing 
»itb a number of those who were among the next to be seized. These 
io their turn had been at«ociate<i with others, and so the infection bad 
spread. Thus, what might have served as a most useful example of a 
milk-borne epidemic of scarlet fever fell to the ground, and the unfor- 
tunate dealer was absolved fnjm responsibility. 

Tjphoid Ferer. — There can lie no doubt that, in the spread of typhoid 
faer, milk plavs a part only second in iniportanee to that of drinking- 
ister. A very great numl>or of epidemics have bL-en traced beyond 
1 possibility of dispute to milk coming from farms where cases of the 
toease have occurred. The contamination is brought about by the 
httdfi of the milkers or other handlers, who, in addition, assist in 
■iireing, or by the addition of infected water, or through washing pails, 
Ms, and other vessels in such water. 

From time to time, tabulated analyses of outbreaks supposed to be 
^ to contaminated milk have been publLibed, but a very large pro- 
portion of the cases included are l»ased on very insufficient evidence, 
fonwtimes exceedingly slight, such as that a cow had drunk from water 
intn which drainage from the barnyard bad had access. But within 
front years, a number of extensive epidemics in this countrj' and else- 
*bere have been traced with as much tlefiniteucss to the milk supply, 
»lave others to the water supply, and with the same and only defect 
4m the bacteriological proof has been lacking. As is the case when 
wibreaks occur from [lollufed water, when attention is drawn to the 
Iixnble cause, the bacteriological evidence is no longer obtainable, the 
'TOilitions having change*! during the period of incubation. 

The State Boanl of Health of Ma.ssachusctt-s has traced a number 
•^utensive epidemics to the use of polluted milk, but in no insbince 
wihe oi^nism been found in the milk. In the city of Boston also, 
'We the local authorities keep a constant eye on the reports of t^-phoid 
W cases with particular reference to the i>o.ssibility of dissemination 
""niiph milk, a number of small outbreaks have Ix^'n tniccd definitely 
'•milk supplies derived from small farms where j>ei'sons sick with tin' 
■"aw were nursed by those who had niilkwl tiie cows and handled the 
■"III. and in these instances also the bacteriological evidence is ia<'king. 
Tliat the ot^nism can retain its vitality in milk, and even in sour 
"ilk, has definitely been settled. Hein found the oi^mism in sour 
»lk at IS^-IS" C. after thirty-five days, but not after f.rty-ciglit. 
oKsehas found it in sterilized milk after tour months, Drs. Fr.ienkcl 



108 



FOODS. 



iitid Kuilcr,' Imviiii: renson to Ilpli^?^■l> llmt th« iiiiii>>aiiit iinioiiiit nf iv- 
j))ioiil fovcr at llatnltiit^ ilitrin^r Hif f'iimm«r nf lUiiJ wna dw in |Kirt 
til iiittK^tttl lnuti-rniilk, umli-ri.">k (in- !«lii(iy of tlti- i|iii9<ti(>ii wWlWr H. 
Ii/jihiiiiini dkli vx'm it) lluil fliiii), niiiivrniii); wliii-li piiittl tlii?re Iiad Ixm 
moiv or less iif conflicting teniiinony. Olitaiiiitig rome i«im|tl<^ ihn' 
firxl itiv(:r<tigtili'<l tin- niiiiilKr tiiifl iilrnlitv nl' tlit- (i)titiiiiK«l t)arlcrii, 
iiiict IcnriicKl tli.'il, wliik' tlie iiiin)l>er varied widely, tbe 8|>(><.'Mv> w*if 
iilu'uys nlmiiL iho n;inii-. Kiiidiii); do jiiilliiipiiio <ir^iiii>iii», tltey (b-HI- 
iwd "(KriiTH-Jii' in twt-liiW-)' » half hour a iLiy for thivf iLiys, (Iwi 
jiliiiiled (he typhoid l»arillu»^ in thciu and ki-pt them nt difTvrdit Um- 
|ii-mtimv> ; iiu iw anil at 22° ond 117** C Lcm^jh wero Uilivn from «rfi 
lii'iii time to time and planted, and each yieldtd |>isitivo iVHiilts Tbf 
Tipi-eiiiieii kept at nmin leiii|H'nilin'e \mu under obf-ervatioii niacds.it^l 
the uthcr* were not examined alU^r the lliini. The hjH<oimeiH of fn'"h 
InilUTiuilk eonlitiiiiii); all it.- Iwctiiia weri^ planted and kept nniitT tir 
fame eoinHtious iinil fi-um (heai the Ntme resnltii were otiiain^vL Vil 
there W3» this diflen-net^, tluii llieiv mi.-' nlwitvn a <limianlioi) ii) tii* 
niind)<.T uf the ]i!Hluif;enic orjjaiiif'tn'i, and this was the more nuirkal. 
ami ^onieliiiu"' very nipid, willi ini-mi.-in{r tom[wratiirtM. 

Oholern Infiuituin. — Li ksctw Ln-f^ community, it \ia* b«^imc (ii»- 
toTuaiy to exjx>ct as a uoraial ei>ndition a large <J(ulh-rate antone rliil- 
divn with the advent of hot weather. Thi" inenfli»c<l deiith'mtc i* 
iimilfil ven' laiyely to the verv earlv aj.t- periods and lo ehililreii W 
on eows' milk, and while eliildren of the (hut an' ihe ontw nin-t inin- 
niouly attacked, those of the well-to-do ai*e hy no mams froe. During 
tlip sit^ of I'ari.H, ihe intiinl tnorlalily was redneixl to a Iiall" "f '" 
ywirly iivcrape, alllioujrh the ficncnil <le;itli-nitc had doiil'liil. Thi* 
nnUMial rttndition wiu* atirilniled. no doiiht eonwtly, lo liu- tici tint 
niiithers were obliged lo unrse their iiifnnt-< when they could, ou ik»w"i' 
of the groat scarcity of cows' milk and other foods. 

The cotuninn milk I«ii't(^ii an- ni-diiuii-ily luimila'M, l>tit it inij"*"*" 
that some sih-ticb under wrtaiii eontlitions prinhiw toxins in ciilli-'i'"' 
amonnis to eauw fraslrie anil intestinal dislnrhanee.-, Aeeonliiii: '" 
Bii)rin)»ky,' a hir^e part of the auuual amount of cltolent iufuntiiKi ■' 
due to ihfs* prtxiuRtft (see imder Gnrgd, p. 99). 
^B l>r. l-X \V. Ho[>i* inviiiti^iitcd over ii thon,'*nnd «n»c« of Mtniiin"' 

^B di»rrti<pa, and found thai, of 'l'.\'.\ deaths of infants under tlm<<> mnatliN 

^F only lA had not n-eeived other than lluir naliirul food. Thnl '\s XKi^t 

^^ thtf ik-utlii^ nmong artificially tctl ehildivn luider ttiix^* montti^ ofi|^ 

^1 wei% fifit«n timos ai> nnmvmiLi iu« ainon^ those mirsed. In do les^ diM* 

^1 '2'2 [KT cent, of the whole number of fatal ca»c«, otlter iucnil>civ "f l''*1 

^1 houwhokl had suffereil from diarrhira. The most strikiii;:^ insiaarr ij* 1 

^1 the eommuniealiility of the iliMiirlKiiiee whm tlint at an infant>-' hon"' '**! 

^1 whieh were 10 ehildreii under the age of five montlis, all in iJorfK-" 

H^ keullh. An infant of two mouths wuh ndmitt^nl in .(ulv with vomilin^ 



I 



' Milnctwnor mMKciniiwIio W.i.-hi-MH)irin, F«-bnnirr 18, 1898. 
> BrriitiDr kllabrhH W»~)iciM'lirift. 1NU4, .Nqk -13 and 44. 
* Pablh' Hcklth, Julf, 18!ffiL 



A 



MILK AS A FACTOR IN THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. 109 

ukl diarrhoea, and within a few diij-M G of the other infants and the 
Dorses were sick in the same wixy. The 4 other children were taken 
awaj at once. The admitted child and the 6 that became infected all 
&d. The 4 tliat were taken away were saved. 

Bacteriolc^iotl examination of milk has shown the presence of ex- 
tremely active organisms, including B. enteritidiM sporoffeiiei of Klein,' 
which has been found by its discoverer in the ileum contents of chil- 
dreo and adulb with diarrhcea! conditions, but not in a condition of 
health. It has been found by Andrewes in tlie discharges of cases of 
spmdic diarrhoea of adults, and by Klein in three different outbreaks 
UDong the inmates of a single hospital. It is a common saprophyte 
louiifl in stowage, in polluted rivers, and in manured garden soil, and is 
lay commonly detected in milk, the use of which has not been fol- 
lowed by untoward results. Under certain unkno\vn conditions, it 
becomes highly pathogenic, ami recent milk cultures are intensely 
virulent when inoculated subcutaneously iu guinea-pigs. 

It is probable that to this oi^juisni was due an outbreak of milk- 
|»t«ning in Malta, described and investigated by J, Zunimit." In one 
village, o families conipri,«ing 12 jwrsons were' seized with vomiting, 
diirrhfpa, and cramps, and 2 children succumbed. Post-mortem exam- 
inatioQ revealed nothing except congestion of some of the viscera. Sub- 
Bequently, in another village, 17 persons in 5 houses were attacked with 
swere gastro-enteritis and collapse. The symptoms, which came on in 
■11 cases about three hours after drinking milk, included vomiting, 
diarrhoea, acute pain in the stomach and bowels, cramps in the extrem- 
^, weak and irregular pulse, and cold and clammy akin. The per- 
ms oonoemed in both outbreaks obtained their milk from the same 
<Wer, whose cans, which had a sour smell, yielded on bacteriological 
eumination a bacillus having all the characteristics of the one men- 
toned. Families which were supplied by the same dealer, but directly 
fiem the goats, showed no symptoms, and the goats themselves were 
free from disease. 

Andrewes' has described 3 much more extensive outbreaks, referred 
tiiibove, due t« the same oi^anism, in one of wliich the offendmg f<)od 
»« found to be rice pudding made with milk. The first and second 
witbreaks, in which no one article of food could l)e incriminated, in- 
Vfllved respectively 59 and 146 patients; the third involved S6. In 
ill 3 outbreaks, the great majority of the attacks were mild, hut in some 
«f the more severe cases, the discharges containe<l mucus and blood. 
IfJl 3, the oi^onism was found in the stools, and in the second, it wus 
^i in the milk given out on the previous day. In the third, it was 
^ipoesible to obtain any of the milk, but the pudding made with it 
.lelded the organisms, in spite of the heat to which the compound had 
wen subjected during its preparation. It was found by direct ex|>eri- 

,'Centralbl«tt fur Bftcteriolope, etc., XXII., Abth. I., Nos, 20 and 21; XXUI., 
*™- L, No, la 
'Briiish Medical Jotmia), May 12, 1900, p. 1151. 
Tlie Luicet, Jaouu; 7, 1S99. 



110 



FOODS. 



Fvi. I. 



/AiTi* tar 



IM- 



\ 



Diciit llmt Ur- intrrinr »f kiicIi » imddinf; did tint itttain n tt-nipfnittnv 
above 98° C. diirinj; rookiii;:, a tfiiiixTiilure IwIkw that i>w*6eari' for 
[lie (If^tniotioii nf tint !^[M>n-s, tvliicli mi- iiniiirig Uic most ix^b4iuit 

kOL'WIl. 

Analysis of Millc. 

For ordinan' pur|iiis«.>« of il<-tt'nuiniii|r llir cjiuilily of milk, t\w jins- 
t-nw i)r al>R'iip^' of u<l(li'il walor, anil wlit'tlier it hnn Win n jitied «f iu 
oivaiii, n o(>iu|>lctc clieiiiit'Eif aiialyatn i.-< liy un nuTniin al^vuv:* ncor^^'. 

fiiKv iiiiicli may Iju knimt<) trm 
Flo- i niiiiitk- iiispprtion hy uinutH of the 
liid'xk-nifimi-tcr mid tliL- brtOMWpK 
Tho Indodca-iiiiPliT (Fijt. '1), « 
IiicIonn'tiT. i" iiicn-ly » kii)?' k- 
iln'melcr ivitli a Mi'iii j.'nnla;ilnl t« 
sliow ?|)f<'itif (fraviiit-? nuigingfn«i 
1.015 to 1.040. The lartcwnpr, 
iiivoiitcil hy Pnifciwiir Vt*!^n, is an 
iii-'triniiciit ilm^Ktt (o itHlii^li- llic 
ii;)|>n<xiiiiiito fiit i-Diititit ol' milk. 
J I i^»U(-iiiU of •; jilastj c\-ltii<]fr, inw 
the \mnf. of whirh a nnmlU-r ovtindcr 
uf wiiitr |;1fiN<, do)>vd at tin' lop 
and mmiiitnl on a mt^illir Inw. ^ 
liiii'il, Thr iiii^T i-ylindiT i' g^a>^ 
ualwi along the side ; the f^miWvt 
on<> tHwiK a number of lOuck hun* 
zontul linct). The instniOH-nl "^ 
Amwn in l"'ip. !. 

Tlic ])riii(-i|ilc of tlw instrunii-nt: 
ih luiK^) ti[Min the tWt that tbi; 
ojHioity of milk ii- itiiv luiiinly to 
tlio fat ckibulei' in litispeni^ioa^ and 
llmt, tlioivfoiv, ihc Hi'hiT a mitt 
iv in fat. iho nr«>'<^ >'' its oiwcitT, 
aiifl th(^ more it niU-Ht be dilul 
to n-diiixr thr; (^ms^ to Hicb ai 
extent as to permit th« pas!)ag«^ ol 
light. 

Tlie method of tite \i^ a* follows 
Koiir M\ of ihv speciiiH^ii iirr d 
livervd fix>in a j)i|)ette into the eylinderthrou^rh the opening; iii ilitui: 
eitd, and llu-ti water i< mkled in kiiuiII |iorlionM imd tliomuifldy mix 
by inversion of ibe in^t^nnent, iIr- orifiot- U-inp kept oIukiI by Uie 
of the furi-tiuprr. Aw .*i»n as the sneeewivo additions of water bav 
rMltiwd the o]i!u.'tty of \iw mixlurt' tr) snch an extent that the bbtd 
liuoi on the n-hite eyiimler «m be dijuvniiil tut distinctly that tli«y ma; 
be co«nt4xl| llw height of the liqtik) on the wale in noted aiid the ] 



Kw*rt l«rto»cop». 



tJinvWr 



ANALYSIS OF MILK. Ul 

centage of fat indicated is read. Four cc of skimmed milk will re- 

(joire so little water that, when the lines can be seen, the level of the 

nbturc- will be very low on the scale, while with rich milk it will be 

wrreir^poadingly hij^h, and with cream the whole cylinder will be tilled, 

wA evea then the lines cannot be made out. 

Cuntntl analvises show that the instrument gives very fairly accurate 
lesulls. Neither of these instruments alone can be depended upon 
to indicate the true quality of milk, excepting in the case of samples 
thich are either very good or very bad. The specitic gravity alone is 
specially fallacious as a guide for the following reasons : The spccilic 
mvity of normal milk at 59° F. ranges between 1.029 and 1.0^4. 
Ibe removal of cream causes it to rise ; the addition of water causes it 
to&ll, A normal milk when robbe<l of its cream may show a speciHc 
pavitip- of 1.036, and then if a small amount of water is addt^l, the 
pavily is brought down to 1.032 ; that is to say, within normal limits. 
Thus, a milk after being doubly treated so as to reduce its nutritive 
iilue, may show a normal specific gravity', and, on this test alone, be 
dsffied as pure. Xor is this the only objection to a system of inspcc- 
tioQ of this ma-it Important food bas^ upon the use of the hictometer, 
ance milks exceptionally rich in iiit have a specific gravity below the 
nomial, and thus may be condemned as watered. 

The lactoeM^ope alone is also not to be dei>ended upon in all aises, 
lioeea railk which shows a normal content of fat may be one of eoii- 
liderablc richness in that constituent and extensively watered. Tims, 
lipecimen containing originally 4.50 per cent, of fat may be watered 
very considerably, and yet show 3.75 per cent, by the lactoscope. 

By combining the use of both instruments, however, the fallacies of 
other are exposed. A normal specific gravity shown by the one and a 
Knnal &t content revealed by the other will indicate that, even if the 
■ilk has been tampered with, it yet possesses average riehness. A 
oortnal specific gravity with a low percentage of fat will indicate skim- 
oiig and watering ; low specific gravity with normal or low fat, watcr- 
■g; and high specific gravity with low fat, skimming. Ixiw specific 
ptvity with very high fat will indicate unusual richness ; thus, cream 
W a vCTy low specific gravity, due to it^ prepondenmce of fat. As a 
■at of the accuracy of this process of examination, the author' caused 
■n be analyzed under his supervision 1.714 specimens which appeared 
bj tboee tests to be of good quality, and of this number but 8 were 
fcand to have deviated materially from the statnte reipiiremeni of 13 
perccDt, of total solicls. 

Datenmnation of Specific Qravily. — In taking the specific gravity 
by means of the lactodensimeter, the milk is mixed thoroughly, in 
inler to insnre homi^eneity, by pouring from one vl's.-*c1 into another; 
1 cylinder of sufficient depth to allow the instrument to float freely is 
GDed with the milk, and the instrument is carefully inserted, not 
<)Mpped, down to the bottom, and then released. When it comes to 
Wrt, the reading of the stem at the level of the surface of the liquid is 
'TUrty-Gist Anntttl lEeport of the InHpeclor of Milk, BoBtuti, I86tl, p. II. 



112 



FOODS. 




I 



I 



nolcd. It .■•houl<) !>(> Ix>nie in luind Ihat nir bubbles are retained nitber 
teiiadouclv bv the milk, HutI trmi ft lnwcr ibt- fk-ni'ilv, utii), tbenTuir, 
in mixing the milk, ton violeut nctiou tumt be avoided, and a short 
time should be uIIuwhI for the bubbW prcwnt to me to Uir surface 
and esnipo, 

Itiri'siiiiioh af tliK gmvily varii's with ihc i(rm]K*ranins and ibo in><tni* 
ment is graduated f'>r 'ill' F.. either the milk should be brought tf 
that te-m|»ei«mre, nr a iiirrwtion .ihiMild in- uiade Miivird- 
Pm. 3, iufi ti) the deviiilioii idwvt- or Imlow that, point. If tlie 

milk i^ eolder, the readiug will be too liig]i, ;uid, if 
wanner, too low. It ii> niwn- wjuvenicnl to niuke n vor- 
rertiou t'or temi>ennniX' tlmii to heat or cool the speei- 
IIII-I1 to the iiorniid jhihiI. TIji- d(-ihi<'li<^'» of n hiilf de- 
jjrce of grrivity for esieh live ilejjree- of triiii>crature below M 
AH",- or the addition of the name nmounl for eoeli four ■ 
defjniw above 59°, will be found to be upgiruxinintely 
aecuratf rorreetions. 

DetenniltatiOQ of Fat. — Fur tlie ueeunile iletcrtuimi- 
tion of fat, several nietlKxls are in use, iucluding the 
liilliiwiiif; ; 

I. The Paper-coil Bxtractlon Method. — This praooB 
rc'|uin-.-> r-li'iii!" of iljK'k Hlt<-r-]Hijier, i'lv from sub^tanceii 
Mijnl'le in elher and iih-iihol, about (i.'i'j by (J'2.5 em., and 
a Soxhlcl exirsietioii iippiimtux. The moM approved form 
of the latter com^i^tF^ of thrt->e trepMiiite piei:^« which fit 
l<i|rcihiT by |n-miiid-pla.«8 joiiiL-« (.-wt? Fig. A). The to]) 
and bottom pieces are, respectively, an upriuht Licbig 
eolK^^■u^^•r fliiil a fliLik. The middle pieoe, wliieh U the 
part in wliieh the txtraetion pR«.t*s iKfurs, coiiMst:* of n ■ 
glass cylinder, elow^ at the Imttom, fmni wliieh a nar- ■ 
rower eyiinder willi ojtfD end projtt-tn downwiinl. The 
two evlijiders are eonneeted hv a wide tube whieh opens 
into the iippir portion of eaeh, and iil^i by a nijilton 
whieh opeuH from the t^Ide of the bottom of the large ■ 
cylinder, extends iipwiirfl, then turns ui>on iti^^lf, piere«t ■ 
the middle part of the wall of the lower cylinder, aud 
terminates within and Just helow its lower end. 

When in use, the substaner to be exlnietwl if placed 
within the npper eylinder, upin the Intttom of wliieh is 
pliiei-d a Willi of absorbent eolton, whieh prevents the 
entrance of solid particles to the siphon tube, or it ts coii- 
finwl within a eartndp- of ihiek fdti'r-|iapiT whieh 6ta 
loosely within the cylinder. When the eartridKe u* tuml, 
it U l>est to plug its open end with absorbent i'r>tton, in order to pre- 
vent the tJKiape of fine particlejf of the eontiiined subt-tanoe. 

The three »e]Kiratc parU are joined together and then mounted on a 
water-bjith. The ciher or other extraciinj; nieibum is eontained in the 
flask, the exaet weight of whicli has l)een tietcrmined. The heat of the 








I 
I 




ASALYSIS OF MILK. 



113 



wntrr-bath cnui^c^ the ctlicr to volutilixp. un<l the vjijor |MisKf* iipwiii-d 

Ihroi^ the »k)o tub*' into the exiniclor and ihflice to the iiiiKieuwr, 

whi-r*-, iiimiiig in imitnt'l witJi llic ii>l<l ^iirfhci- nl' lln; iimi-r I.uIh' tlicrwif, 

U cuiMltnrcs and fall;- upon the i-ubht!in«? to be extra<.-tc<l. As the proc- 

e«>er>ii|iiiiir-s thi- i<(in(l<;n-^tl liiftiiil .-KvuniiitiiK^ niiil ^nidnally rifttw iiniil 

it nacbea the liend of the f-iphoii. whiih, when tiill. bi^in^ to net and 

di-i.-lBii^?» downward into the Hitsk inilil the entire lifjuid ift retHmcd i<i 

ib'^tnning-p'iint. Diiririp it:< awumnhitiuii, it afi.- iiiimi t\w ^nhj^tanpo 

nithin llu- (nliiidtT, :uul esiraetn nioie or le.-w of the fat or other nnli- 

Tiatw, AS ihf wi>*e may W; whicli l* nirriiil in suliilioii into thf (hi»k. 

Tlie volatilicition eontiniie-, and the pro(?H« is rej>eated a^.iiu and again 

ai\oag ttit l* neiNW^trv, uiiil in lliis wny the whole of tlu' exljin-tifl 

mtttr ie linaliy within the Hupk, !-in<-e. Iicin^ itKulf noti- volatile, il 

imniim hdiind, wliik- llic liignid hy whieh it in eximcted ii^ .sent eon- 
ttiiiiaily on its crmnd. On thv complL-tion ni' tin- pnM^-vs, the (.-ilwr 
i»WOt lip agnin into th<> i^'lindcr, and lielon- it reaehe« the level of the 
Bpboii l(i« flask U di)^joint(^<d. The rirnainint: ether i.i ev|)e)l<^ «in- 
li«ii>)y, and tlie tla.«k wiili it^ eonti-nli^ in planeil in an air-hath, uiain- 
tsiiwd ai liKi" C :ind diiti! nntil it" wei;rl't i* oonslant. The. ineroa.-*!^ 
B in tlip weight of the tla.^k re[tr(-senlK the amount of mutt^'r <-xtrucTted. 
™ Id tletvnniniag the liil I'f milk hy tlii.- proci-S'* thi' meth<id Ih us fol- 
W»; To one of the strips of lilter-im|K'r, ma<ie into n eoil. a definite 

»wi'itflit of milk, alionl ii grams, is upplin] in either of two w-ays. A 
wiall bt-iiktT i^ontiuninj; a))otit the rtt|nired Hintniiit i^ wi'igLi'cI and then 
iht toii U thnist into it, krpt there until iie«rly the whole luis hecn 
ibasrlM-)), and then carefully withilrawii and pineed dry edge downiivani 
npwu a sheet of g]a^'. The lieakcr is then weighed agiiin, and the low* 
io weight, wliidi reim.'wenl" the atnoiinl of niilk ahsorheil, is noteil : or 
till.' liKiker oaitainiiig the milk and a small pijiette is weighed, and then 
(iie ueees-iarT,' amount of milk to tnumfcrri'd to tho coil from the pipetto, 
xfhyr wlik-li o|>cr.itioii the weight of the biiiker, pijwtte, and the remain- 
ing milk is i>o(>,>d, and the diflVrenee x-t down as the weight nf [lie 
milk ittiMtrhiii. The tsiil i* then dridi in an air-hath at 100" C. for an 
hour or more, at the expiration of whieh time it is ready for insertion 
ini*) tin- extnti'lor. 

AfttT it has Seen acted ii|Jon hy the ether alxmt a (lojien times, the 

flvik b) detaehiH] and Irentiil .is nhnvc mentioned. ADer iH-ing ulkiu'ed 

to (■'M>l, the weight is noted and tlie percentage of fat eidcuUted urith- 

tnelieaUy. 

^h KxAMPt.F:. — ^The amount of milk abMirbed hy the coil was 4.950 

^Tpsni*. The inerea.se in the weight of ilie A-.i^k was 0,1 ":{ gram. Then 

the auoiini of fiit presi.-rit in the Njimple i)< i>hlnini.il hv llie oi|n:ilion, 

mt.Sr, : (1,1 7;J : : lOII : j-. when^n r = ;i.4!t. 

^V 2. Tlie WerncT-Schnudt Method. — In this proeiws, i^^nal volnniw of 
milk will hydroeblorio acid, about 100 ce. of eaeli, are mixed in a teet- 
Inbe and bnil4>d for alKiut a niinnte and a half, or he-.ited on h water- 
batb or i(t4^im-bHth until the misttin^' U >iiirk brown in (!oh>r. It i« 
then moled, aod the mixnire tduibeii with aO oc. of ether. When the 



114 



FOODS. 



two liqiiitU hnvc M-pantUHl, tho i<ii]H^minnt rtltcr ty wiilulni 
meoua uf a pi|>etLe or blowD out with the ai^iirtance uf a ttciub 
8ucb an U iiMxl ill wa.->h-hiittl(«, iho doliwr)' lulx' extiiKliiif: iiit<> t 
ether layer vci')' n«irly ap fur ;« tlie lint- of ili-murcvtiuit Ik-Iwwii 
othor nnd Uic- acid mixtiiri'.. Tin- o]H.>rati<>ii is ivjieatMi with .-rt 
IH-^b eiiiuIlLr ]M<r(iuiiis of <^'tla-r, uiul lh<.- wliulc of llic Hhcr umxI 
coUivIed iu a weighed fluHk. Tlieii the ether iis distilled off, nml tl 
fliLuk with it.-* n.i>i<liiuiii of fiit is V^iunI to fviii.->timt wui^it in tui 
Inith, (Hiuled, and woi;fho<l. The proceM iiuiy Ix.' f'liurtciiixl ooii^'iilt-nlilj 
liv tmilin^ tlx' milk in ii ^nidimrt'i) iiilic jind, iiOt'i* tli<in>ii^h r>liiib 
with etiivr, ri'iiioviu^ mi iili<|iiut jnirt uf the hitter by nieaii^ of u pipra 
and e\'nporaiinff to dnnertn. From the wtnjtlit tif thi» residue, Ih 
uinoiiiit uf liii ill till- wliult' voliiiiii' ul" utiicr «m rcndily lie dHt-niiiiirt 
Sintv iht- milk tuUtfii in tneu^ureil, and not wei^li^xl, :i iitrn-<Tti'iii biu4 
b>' nuuli' for j^ivily. 

ExAlll'Li:. — Arunuiit of nitlk used = 10 co. 8|>ecifie (rravtiy « 
(•pecimni = 1.0:i2. Weight nf Diilk ti.-cd = 1.0^2 x 10 ^ 103 
gniniH. Aniuimt ol' liit toiitid ^= 0,397 |n^m. Porcentuffe of Gkt in di 
original milk = j- iu the ciiiiation, 10.:{2 : (l.:J!17 : : 100 :j- ; j- = S.M 

■i. Tbe fiabcock CentriAisftl Method. — In ilii^ pnn'O!', (i|uiil vulumi 
of milk and .-uljihurii' mid iiiv iiiisii'd iu tia^kf of !-]H'<-ial dew^ "il 
uurruw, f^i'dnutct) ncrki^, und then whirlod in ii cvniriftifrtd nmi'tiint' To 
a de6uilf length of time. On Ihccomidetiou of the pr<K'e6(., the delul 
of wliidi im- ^ivt'ii boliiw, tlii' tiit in ti jiiire t'otidititiii in within ll 
grudiiali'd itwk, and the [n'rwiitape i(i rwid directly oil". 

The kind of liii.>k iisc«) is shown in I'Inte III. It ha» a cn|«dhF'ii 
about -10 cc. The gratltiated purtioti of tlie iK-ck hiiK n npHcitv of 3 
The detiiiU are a» follow;. : 1 7,(1 ee, of the milk are nieaj-uretl by lurtl 
of a pi]>ette and intrfnlnee*! into the Ha?k, Then uu itjiinl voluiiwU 
!«Mlplinric iirid, .»|Mi'irii' (rnivity 1.800, Li added, and the two liqnid>Jil 
mixi-d ihoroiiKhly bv fjc-ntle rotary motion. TiiHi tin- thmk i.-. plaM 
in a nailrif ugal maeliine made especially for the pur|K)«i-, and wbirll 
for five miniit<-M, at the expiration of whieb time hot WTater Ih tu3ded i 
to the l>e(;inNiu(r of the neek. The f\afk u whirksl aKiiin tor t« 
miiiuti<s, and more hot water >i^ u<ldf<l io as to liriu;; the fat layer '** 
tip into the neek. After further whirling for oue minute, IIk* depth* 
the liat layer is ik-lemiinod by lyfun^net^ to the ^Lvile. 

This pro(^-jw pivc* euHicieutly a<'cur;ilc n^iills for nil pniHinil pfl 
pot^ee, and is in eomnion use at experimwit stations in tlii;' coimtiy. 
is niiirb ns^d at ereanK-ritw (iir (leU-miiiiiuf; tlie butter value of mil* 
■cDt in from tbe f^urroimdiiif; cauntn'. 

The eniploynutnt of sulphuric acid having a hif2;her Apeeifie grav 
tluui that given, Miy 1 .820, ii^ objectionable in that it frcqneiitly biip)^ 
tiait it is im|Kissible to obtain u elear liii lay<-r. The fat itself may 
turned a very dark ixilor, uikI ibc Migar of the milk may Iw attack 
to Mieh an extent tltat eharred potlium^ of it will separate and acoum 
late within and l>eueuth tbe oohininof Iht, and so pn^^'l1ll o tatiafiida 
raiding. If tlw acid uiwd in weaker llian 1.800, all tlie ea^ein may a 



A^iALYSlS OF MILK. 



110 



pSL 



held in wilntion, HncI portiotiA of it niiiy mingle witli llio l»l imrl 
3atn>v tlic o«?iinii-y of tlif test, 

III I'laie III. L-* ^hl1Wll rtio fal \&\ct iii i!n> .sti'ni aj* it i^hmili] Ik-, free 
fnjcn !ilk-ni[i<>D nf oulur jiikI I'mtii charrifl ^^ii^iir juni (wirtick'.-i of eiui'iii. 
It will be obi*r\'e<] thiit the line of deiimivalion between ilie wall r and 
iV fill in iIm! Kiwii in vtry .■•linrp. F<)r orwtm, ii fimik with a iiiiich 
browkr neck is emjiloya), 

14. Tbo Babcock Aibcstox Method. — In lhi.< nu-thiu1. tbt- diicil lnUil 
B)li(Ls iibtiined by tlie nit ttntl ilp-itriboJ below (Xo. '1) jire extraclHl iu 
iSixblc-t oxLni(^tii>n aiiparalii.". 
Determination of Total Solidft. — i. Wt^igb iutu n iI»t-lK>ttoincd 
jilHiiiiiiiii •li.'>li of alHiiit 2 iuohes (.5 era.) diameter, o ^raois of milk. 
Plan- on a wuier-ltfith lor an hour iind » Imli". Kcmovc lo ;i liol-iiir 
hsili, maii)taiQ»i at 100° C, until iis wi-if-bt ii- i-onstiinl. Cool in a 

Ii]i^rn«)or iiiul woijrii. Tbc ditVercrux- lK:tWM'» tlii.i weigbl and tiuii. of 
tlwilie-lt alone repre»«nt»> tbo total Militb of (be iiniouni of milk taken, 
anil, multiplied by 2(1, ■■xjiri.-wi's tin- jwrivntiige of total si>lid.-* in tJie 
HUDple. is for any rta^fHi it is dt^«ii"e<l to nw tbc totiil wilifU fur cx- 
tnction in the Soxblet ii{ijiaraCuA, tln' cli^h may bo |>artly liliwl before 
wti(lliinK witii fine, cU^tn, dry siind, or wilb iViwhly i^rriitt-il ^^'lHllly 
lulwtos. One objection to the iiiw of the total Milidii in tbint way in 
that it ]» extn-nicly (iidiciilt lo n-nuivt^ tbo whole lunimnt fiinii the tlish, 
in tlie sidcQ and bottom of wbieb a portion will adhere witli ^reat ten- 
nriiy, and can be rv-inoved only by burninj;. To obviate thi." difli- 
I fiUty, Dr. C. L. Spaukling Ikw supgc-te^I lining the platiniini dinh with 
|»*ry thin tinfnil, which, atii-r the weight of flic totjil wilids bac Iwen 
liiotnl, is wilbdniwn uHth llie ^^iind or iisbesto!^ an<l with it ui3erte<l into 
(the exiraetion a|>iifir;itns. 

Formerly, tbc rc^idnc of the milk dried in the disk alone without 

1 or Oflbostos Wiia iisetl for the determi rial ion of fat by fhi' Wiinklyn 

8, which con«i»tn in tilliiifi the ilisb with fifubly ili)^lilled napblba 

with ether, and allowinjt; it to act upon the rei^idiie »nd di.-v<olve nut 

he &t, several jKirtions being n«-d, at>er w hiili the tlinh i.« iIHmI iipiin 

Fsnd weiKhcil, and the lo>^ In wei^jbl taken a* the mea'inn^' of the liit 

a>Dtaine<l. luaiimueb as the wlvent eannol penetnite the liorny layer 

which liirmn on the Ixittoni of ihc dish, not all the fat can thus be ex- 

tmctcd, and the figures obtained are ordinarily about O.o too low. 

2. Tbe Bibcock AitbertoK Method. — In lliU iuim-c-ch, llu' milk is 
wcipbed into a cylin<ler of i>erl<inite>l metal or into a filter- pa per ciirt- 
ridjje tilled loocely with fnwhly ignited wrmlly ii.«lx'.'»Ios, wibjt-cti-d ft ii 
Irjn{ienitiirc of I0f)° C nnlil the weight is constant, and then cooled 
and weighed. The gain in weight repriweiilo tbe total !«i>lid> of the 
umount of milk taken. The eylinder m:iy then be «lip{)i'd into the 
extr^iction apparatus and u^^ for the detenniiiation of tat. 

Detennlaatlon of Total Solids by ronnola. — Kjiowing the correct 

cific gravity an<l the anioiiiit of (at, it i» jwasible to determiite litirly 

tirately the amount of loliil m'YmU by the mm: of tbe formulii of 

Ichner nud Kichnioud. This formula is as foUowti: i^= 0.859 T 



m 




116 



FOODS. 



— 0.2188 (3, in wliieh F rqiresentfi fat, T the total foliAs, and G the 
fipin-s iif till" -»(>ti-tf'n.' finivifv lu'Vimd llii- fiivi (lii'tnm) |>!jmv. 

KxAMiM-K, — The f|R-cific gravity of ii *|ic{'inK-u of milk is fnniHl la 
be 1 .0'H\ uikI iu* tiil tHiiitt^iil .'{.OA. Then applying tlie formula, wc 
Liive 



S.9S 
3.BS 
aM9 r=T«..').W 



= 0.859 T — (0.81 SB X 80). or 
= O.B.^S 3" — B.3.i!>i. or 



-K.%=lU..»S,aniI r--=ri23. 



I 



In other words, multiply O.'JI^U by the figures expressing Bpecifio 
gTHvity, add the iK-ifi-iiliig^- nf fiit lo the [ii-iidiiH, miiiI divide tin- hmiU 
by n.S.jJi. 

Tilt- fiirniiiln may aW be u,'*«l to dwomiiiM- the i>er«'nlajre of fM, 
the j-iK-cilic gnivity aii<l mud MtliiU Winp known. 

Detennination of Milk Sugar. — ^TIk- amount nf lartose may be 
determined eitlier elienii<-jdly <>v liy irniin>- of l!ie piil:irirH'iij(e. 

1. Method by Febllng Solution. — Itciigents reipiiretl: Sohition A. 
Dissolve IJ-l.'vtSt [;niiii> "!' pure Milpli.-ile of eopiH-r in dint.ilhi) wntpr 
and <lilu(e to n liter. Solution B. PirMtotve 173 fn^ui« of potat^ium 
Mxliiim uirlrate (ItiK'helle sdt) in distilli-d water, add 100 oo. af saxiiiiiu 
hydnte fioliition of 1.3!iS Bpeeitic gravity, imd dilute the mixture with 
disiill«l waler tn a liter. 

In ninktng n determination, 10 ec. oi' «ioh wiliition nrc mixv<l in a 
lxiiltii(r fla..*k nf about .'tOO ac. capacity. The amount of copper oon- 
taineti in 10 ee. of MiKition A requirii- for ib^ ivduelimi 0.050 gnun 
of de.vtroft?, or n.Ofili? griim of laeloM-. 

PufMFXS. — Into a porcelain ev;i)i()nitiug dif<h fd' tuiilidde mw, dis- 
chiirgc from a pipetle 25 oi-. of milk. Add three or four times as mueh 
water and heat to 40° C. Add acetic noid, ii drtip at a time, with non- ■ 
stimT .ilirTinji. until the mixture i^parateii into curds and n fiiirly clear 
whev. Trjn>-fer the whole to u gniduiitiil 'lOO er, flai^k, and dilute with 
waliT to (he I'lOO mark. Filter a [wrlion tluiiugli a dry filler, and \im.- 
the filtrate for titration. Oihite the mixed r<a(!;entfi in the boiling f):isk 
with water antl Ixiil over a Bunwu flamt. From a biiretfv ^i<hmted in ■ 
tenths a<ld ihe llUnil.- fmiii the eunb" a litlle at a time, and eontimte the 
boiling after each addition. Ac the blue iitlur b(^iii> tn apjH-ar faint, 
the atidiiiou should be made eautioii.-ly, in order not t(> over>^Iep the 
end reaction. \» WMtu as the blue color i» di.-charged uompletclj", notej 
the reading of the burette. 

Tile ralcninticin is exej-cdingly simple, ."sino- O.OOti? gram of lactoMi' 
is nxjuiri'd to re<iuee the e'i))per in the reiipnt, it f'dhiws thai thai 
at of ihi- ,-<utwtim<H' if contained in the numlx-r of ce. of the whey 
and the percentage is obtained by the H|ipli<^iti(>n of the nile uf 
three. 

Ex AMT-I.B. — ^Tlic color in diwharpiil by 2-1.-1 ee. of the diluted whey. 
Tlien in the whole amount of milk taken the amount of siipir will bi' 
:c in Ihe e«iuiili<in SJ.S : 0.0*ifi7 : : ftOD : J. 3- = l.:t72. The amount 
of milk taken was 25 ec,, hence tn 100 cc. the amount would be 6.49, 



■1 



JiVJZ.l'&'/S OF MILK. 



117 




awl this amouiit divkUtl by tli« j'pM-ific gTa\-ity givw tha p^ rccitlajire by 

I wrigUt. Siipi>o^iiig the Miieratii' (iraviiv to In- l.lKtO, fur ■^'xiirii[tl<-, tin; 
101} w. iif milk wi'ifjh UW! (jranw. and tlif iRTCtiitfifn- nl' suj,-,Lr will l>e 
1 in the «iimliou loy : lOU ; : o,4!l ix. .r = 5. XI, Iiui.-vtiiiii-h a- llift 
mam «f tin- lirwl it^iiiition un- ii'iWnTit.*, tlif rwkoniii}.' rwiilvt* it;^^■l^ 
bludividit^ fiiiir times their pi-oJuct, ^{■'t.lt*'), nv V^'AA by the number 
iif tv. iimhI, and dividing tliis niKtdt by tliv Hjimtur gniviiy nf ilic 

L nccinien. 

r ' 2. Method oT Polftiijicopy. — Th<; di-t<-rniiiiHtiiin of lat^one and other 
fOpTf by mean^ of the polarifcope t-omhintw tilt- ad\anlHp:» xsf uwu- 
raiT antl of rapidity. 'I'lie iiiMinimenls in ciimnion use are of two 
kiwU: tl>ttM> of which the nurnnd sncnw \v('inht, lliiit ix to say, iJie 
Bmounl of siicDHe wliicli, di^4»lv»l in watiT and made np to 100 cc, 
willxliow lOO di^n^^^"^ "fi tbf -will' whtrii ulwcrvHl ilimitgb ii 200 mm. 
tube, is 26.048 grams, and lln>«; in which it i;^ Itl.lS* gnimi;. Of the 
fiMHier, the V<;nty.iti*-Sclii-ibk-r and tlie Schmidt aijd HaenttcJi modilica- 
liiin,autl of tlie latter the Laui-ent Ed Mti-u merit, may ln' nf?inl»l as 
,Thf S<'hmidt and l[iieii^i-li trijili- tielil, half-o-bndnw inr'tniiuent 
the iidvaiilap? of doing away with ihc iniililiin^ of colors, 
whI henoo may be tiM-d by tho'^^ who are color-blind, and e\en ivith 
(hwf not so alHictL-d (fives, on the wiioli-. the nioit ^itinfiiclon.- nwiilts. 
Piux-E»«. — Into a fla.'ik jtradnated on the neek at W1X> ee. if the iu- 
ftrauiMiI nsc-tl i* one of whitth Ihc iiu'm-i- ni.rnial wcijiht \!< 2fi.U4fl 
piuu^ weij;h lifi.Ho grams of milk, or into one gnidiiatfxl at 101. iJ c*;., 
if il i* one of tin- other cla«*, weipli -Ifl.Jtfl frruni*, mid t t-e. of solu- 
tion i>f mercuric nitrate of ])hamiaco]xrial tttren^th, xhake well, and 
diluK- ntlli wali-r np to the mark. Kilter fbnintrh a dry riller-|ui(Kr, 
(ill the 2o() mm, obi-ervation lulie. .in<l note tlie i-eailing of the ^eale 
wb*n tin- field of (ibsi-rvnttoii in nniforin. The ri'afling divided by 2 
«q(ia|]' the pereeutaije hy wcif-ht oi' hictwo. 

The weights (>ri,!).i and 40,!i1) represiiit twieo the normal laetmie 
wfqrhLi uf ihe re^iHTtive \y\wit of instnitnent^'. The gi'!idnalion> 102. ft 
and K'l.tJ ai¥ atIopte<I instead of 100 ec, since the dried pi\'ci])ital«l 
eunli fnmi tin- ii»|H*i'livi- ainoiiTitt' of milk of avem^e siNX'ific gravity 

tttVc It bulk cpial to the excess over lOO cc. 

■ Determinatioii of Ash. — The ash may he d(>tcrmine<l by i^nitin^ 
ikr rf^idnc obiaint^^l in the determination of tond solid", providetl no 
ntber stih-tanci* has l>et-n intwMhieiHl into the di4i Miih ihi- milk. The 
ition shiMihl be coDdnelcd at a low red heat luilil (he :ish is [>erfe<'lly 
l»it«. Then the dish is eooled in a deniwator and again weighed. Tlie 
iffereure lietwwn this liinil weight and iIk* original weight of the empty 
tlMi r«-pre!>ents the amonnt of miner.d matter in the amotinl of milk 
taken. <>r a lai-ger amonnt of milk, s,ay 20 gianis, may be evajwraied 
witli a fitw cv, of nitric iwid and the re.-iduc tgidteil iis above. 

Determination of Proteida. — Having determined the total mlidf, 

£it, r>iig:ir, and iL-ih, the pmleidi* nm\ Im.' reekoiietl hv dit1'er«>iico — that 

hy subtracting tlie sum nf the liit, sugar, and ash from tlie total 

sntids, or tlwy may be dcu-nnimtl ilin-i'tly hy the Kji-klahl pixxip-tt, 






■£' 




FOODS. 



4 



I 



w)ii(-li (l<-|H>n(U upon Uic ooiivetviun of the nitrOKmotii!! dmHct into 
niDmohiiiiii i^iilpbaip, which then i^ tl<>ooRipnM'<l bv au exccMi of Btrou); 
albtli, amiiioiiiii iH'ing m-{ fni-. TliU i» f)(]ti'llwl bv b*yit, «iniUii?«"i 
with tlip ao(.-<.>m])anyti]f; ^tteatn, and peceivod in add ol" knutrn birenph. 

The pmeesi \n a« (inllowH : Into ii Kj<>ldnh1 (lip-.itivc tla-->k InitiKbii-c 
;i dfliitiU' nx-iffhl. -^ly .'» -jniint- of milk, jilioiit I'," ktudi of mercuric 
oxide, aJid *iO cc, of riilphuric mid iif 1.S40 .-jnH-itir gravity, fnv fmiii 
iittraK?* iind uiiiiriiinriiiii itiilphiilc. I'Uicc (he tl:iTik in un im'1iiio«l \¥»*\' 
lion and heat below ihe boiliag-iwint of the aeid for from five lo fifteeu 
minute!*, or iinlil frolhiiiijcctu'cK. Thc-ii niLo; the hi^tit until ib<- mixture 
UuiucM to boiling. ui)d contiuiie [be proceiis until the lii]iiid ia clenr and 
ba-s a very jwle .-•Iraw oiilor. Thii will ni|ntn- onliiuu-ily \vw- tbnii im 
hour. Withdmw the lui]i|i, and dmp in, in ^^mall qiuintiticfi at a tiiiie, 
permanganate of ]K)lasNium, nntil, affi^r Miakiii];, the liquid aiM^giiires a ■ 
[H-i-iuanent grceii iir ])nrp]c w>lor. This adilititni L» not alwjivi' or even 
usually necessary to s^mi'UI* i<iraplet<> oxidation, but since it i" sometimes 
rcijiiin^l, it !.■« W-xl lo miik^' it n ixirt of the roritine. Allow ibc liiutcntii 
lo cool, imd ihtii transfer ihein with about UOO cc, of distilled water, 
pluH »iil)ieient for thorough riuHiii]^ tu a distilling flask of ntxxit 5'%0 c«. 
(upueity, fittvtl M-itb a rubber stopper and a bulb tube eoniicetcd willi a 
very loujt Liebig CDiidcnM-r, tin- dclivwy t-nil of which is filKd with a 
rittss nil))' hcnl at ri<;bt sniplc*;, w that it may dip beriwitti tbo »urfarr 
iSf the aeid into which the diatillattH lh lo be received. Add a few pieces 
of pumiec or j^niilnled xine, or nlxiut 0.-5 gram of xinc diu>t, to prv- 
vcnt bum|>ii));, and 2o cc. of a -I [x-r tvnt. arpuvintt !«oIulion of sul^ditde 
of ]i(>ta<'ium, to prc^■cnt the formation of iftmiKiund" of anniH>aiiitii 
und mcroury, wbicb an> not wliolly dewmiKi."ul)le by alkalies. .Shake, 
and tlien add of a »iluratLd foluUoii uf :<iKliuni hydratt^, fnv fixuii 
nitjntM. sufficient to make the reaction stronfily alkuline, pouring tt 
down the side of the Rusk jhi iv* not to mix «t oiioc with the aeid oun- 
K'ntu, Next iimneet the tl;i*k with the comicn«'r, uiLx the eonteiitif by 
jfcntiy rvtatinj;, and apply the flame. Distil, and R-ceive tlip di^iillale 
in n vessel contaming -iO ex-, of lieeinorma! liulphurie »ci<l. Whni alniut 
I"') VK. have pn.'^Mil ovor, it may be assumed that all ammonia has be^n 
expelled, and then the distillate i* tilrat"! with dci-inonmd alkali, u.^ing 
txichiiit-al or melhv I -orange a.* an indicator. From the difl'erencc in 
strength of the ilerimirmal ncid, ihc lurionnt of unimonia is catcuUited, 
and fi'oni this the amount of uJtrogcD; and ibis multiplied by 6.25 
givc« (he totdl protcids. 

Detection of Added Coloring Matters. — Aniutto. — T» about loo 

«■- of milk in ii cylimicr iilmiit l..'t in(■llc^ in diamitcr. add a few ee, of 
sodium carbonate xoluiion, to injure a strongly Hlknlim- rxaction during 
the examination, and then introduce a strip of heavy wlute liIUr-|m|>er 
alwut 0.5 by 5.-> inches, and jvt the whok- avmy in a ilark place over 
night. If any aniiatto color it prrweut, it will, through Me»rlive 
nlhnity, jms.- from the milk to tin- fibre of the paper, which thereby 
ne<|»ire.- a Kdmon tint, the depth of which i* <le|K'ndent nalumUy U)>on 
the amount of tJ»e substance present. The strip is wilbdniwu from the 




A SiPip ot rm»r PBp»r Dyad by Immanion In Mtik Ciito««4 wtih Annnit«. 
8. Sam* afiar TiMitmant with Soluilon or PFOMchlorM* of Tin. 




ANALYSIS OF MILK. 119 

milk, washed gently in running water, aod laid upon a piece of paper 
of the same kind as itself. If so much aa 1 part of the anoatto solu- 
lioQ in 100,000 is present, the strip will show a distinct salmon tint. 
Od dipping the strip into stannous chloride solution the color is 
cliainp'd to pink. 

Another method, by means of which all the color in the amount of 
milk operated upon may be concentrated tu a form best adapted for 
jHMen'ation and for exhibits in court, is as follows : Coagulate from 
1110 to 150 cc of the specimen by the application of heat and acetic 
aekl, ami separate the coagulum by straining through a piece of cheese- 
fluth. The coloring mutter, being insoluble in acid media, is preeipi- 
taitd with the cunl, which, however, will show to the eye scarcely any 
indication of its presence. The curd is placed in a mortar and tritu- 
rated with 50-75 cc. of ether, which next is transferred to a stoppered 
separating funnel and shaken with 10 cc. of a 1 per cent, solution of 
Mu-tic soda. When the two liquids become sop;iratc<I, the latter, 
whidi now contains the annatto color, is drawn oif into two porcelain 
or gkss dishes about an inch in diameter, in aich of which a disk 
of fiiter-paper is placed. They are then set aside in the dark and 
left over night. The disks are then removed and washed in fresh 
wter. If annatto is present, they will have acquired a color varjing in 
Hepth according to the amount of the dye in the sample. One disk is 
inmersed in stannous chloride solution, the other in weyk sodium car- 
bonate, and then dried and mounted on a white card. The colors 
ji«l(l(d by a specimen of milk to which no unusual amount of the 
tdalterant has been added are shown in Plate IV, 

Cinunel. — Pour 125 to 250 cc. of the suspected sample into an equal 
Tolume of 95 per cent, alcohol, and filter. The filtrate, if not perfectly 
dor, should be returned and passed through until it is quite free from 
tnttiiditr. Any caramel present will be in solution in the alcoholic 
titrate, and may modify- considerably its color, which normally is 
.^Inwish or greenish according to sea.son, the latter obtaining in spring 
"i^'Ummer, To 100 cc. of the filtrate add 2 cc. of solution of basic 
"Mate of lead, which will precipitate the caramel together with any 
"naining proteid-s, the precipitate showing a slight brownish color 
^ raratnel has been used in sufficient amount to bring about the 
Biiproved appearance which is the object of its employment. Filter, 
'•iJiwith distilled water, and dry in an air-bath. According as the 
"■•"unt of caramel present is lai^ or small, the horny residue on the 
'li*r-paper will have a more or less deep chocolate tinge. The re-^idu*; 
jiHlilftl \,y a pure milk will bo either almost colorless, or yellow, or 
"iirlilly inclined to brownish, but not to chocolatr color. The iipitwir- 
""* of the two kinds of residue is shown in Plate V. 

Caramel may also be shown if wc proceed according to the second 
■nniiod described for the detection of annatto. The cunl, after Ix-iiig 
^from the whey and triturated with ether, gives up to this solvent 
"nly fat and annatto. If caramel or anilins are present, the curd will 
f^iear brownish in the one case and more or less intensely yellow in 



120 



FOODS. 



the other. If the curd is now elmkon wltli hydrodilorip at'tJ, ^H 
(if the following fliaiip>s will !»■ ol)!»>-rvMl : tf niiiliii-omn^ is \tKsaSf 
thv rotor 1hx-ouh'.> liri^lit pink aiImo«t iniinc(li:iU'}y ; with airouic) it 
beoiinipfe gnitiiiallj" brownish hhie ; if neither is present, the ciianp- is 
t'l lihic. 

AniLin-oiaa^e. — .See ])re<*ding ]Miragrai>h, A tnore direct mt-tlwd U 
jimiMisiil liv LyiligiH-.' Fliiei- l'> n: of milk in ii [Mim-liiiti tliHh and 
iidii iilwmt the winic volume of hvilroehlorie :icid (^jwi-ific KTsivitj- l.IiWl). 
Aplate j^nllv, lo bring abuut ihimnijjh mi\in>.' and to break n|i the 
rc-Miltinfr i-im! into mlhi-r enurn' bimp!^. If anilin-orHnjjt U [irwtut, 
the ciini will be colored piak ; if none is present, it will be white or' 
vol low is b. 

Detection of Preservatives. — Bora* and Boric Add.— Tlicse eub- 
stain'iw arc ili-lii-tt-d >n.-i!y I'ilhi-r in tin- milk itM-lf or in the ash afti^ 
iRiiitiou of the TL'sidiif. In the latter ease, muiMteu the ash with a 
drop or two of strong ftiilphuric aeid, and aiWr a few minutes add 3 w 
4 tv. of ctronj; aleoliol. Uiii a .»trip of tnrmerip |wiikt into the nilxl- 
ure and allow it to dr\- without the aid of beat. In the presence of 
citbei' of the MjlhitiiiKi-s srjtighl for, the imjicr will biivo, when <lry, the 
characteristic red eolur due to boric acid, iiistend of tlie yellow pwlor 
wliioli will be maintained in itt* HhiS4>noeL While the pn^ier is drying, 
pluLv the diiih in a chirk place and ifrnilc ll'c ronttiitn^il iiU^)hol. If 
btme aeid or its sixiiiun (■oiiipimiul is pi-est-nl, tbi- flame will show at 
itj« nnter wljie a cliaractvristic nrwni.-ih mlonitioii. Thin » shown mmt 
strongly ilircetly alWr the al»)hol is igniteil. 

lu the orlgimil milk, the teet may Ik- niude in iho following manner: 
Mix a few drops of ilu* milk and an oiju-.U amount of fresh tincture 
of Innneric in u i^mall porcelain iliKli :]m<1 (-vapniiit^- on a waier'lmlli to 
dryness. Moisten the suriinf of the residue with dilute hydrtxrhloric 
acid, and ilry a^iln. If either of iJie subMunit-s is present, tlie n-siduu 
will be tight pink to dark re<l in color, and the udtiilion of a tirop of 
amntonia-^^'ali'r will ehanp- this to a green or greenish blue, according 
lo the amount of tin- pivserv:ttivc pn.'*ctil. 

SalicycUc Acid. — 1. Coagulate aljoul 75 to 100 ce. of milk with 
mt-i-curic nitrate solnllon or bydrocldorie acid, and s(')HUUlt' the whey _ 
by liltratiou. Shake the whey with ether, <Iecaiit the ether \aU> a H 
wftteh-glass, and allow il i<i i-vapomte. To tin- i-csidne on the iratcli- 
ghu^*. apply a drop of neiUnil ferric cldoride. If «Rdifylie acid i.» prw*- 
eni, the eharaeterisfic piir])le coloration is prodnei-d. 2. Mix the milk 
with plKispboric iirid and stmin tlimu^ti cloth. I'biw the Ikjuid in it 
itbsk, connect with a conden^^'r. and distil. Test the diMillale with 
ferric ehloritle from time to time. Any salio'lic Hcid present will go 
ovtT with ihc sliani, most of it toward the ctnl of the oiiemtion. 

Formaldehyde . — Many pnMt~..»es lor llie detection "f this iiul]sfainc« 

in milk buve been deviled, some ex«-c-<lingly simjile and olhei^ iiuilc 

fomplitvited. Those which pve the best restilti^ and the greatei't imtj^- 

faction are, on the whide, (hose which are the siinpli.-l in a)ipli(»tioti 

■ Rrpnrt nf Mumu-Jiiih.ii> Siutc ItiMrd n( Ucalifa Tor lUVU, ji. M7. 



I 

1 

I 

I 
I 



A^ W. 



ANALYSIS OF MILK. 121 

«>d require the least expenditure of time. The test should be applied 
vithiD a few days after the addition of the preservative, since after a 
time it cannot be detected. 

1. Method by DEcoix)RrzED Fuchsine. — Through a solution of 
liicfasine 1 : 000 paas a cun-cnt uf sulphurous ncid gas, obtained by 
lieitiDg copper wire or foil with sulphuric ncid, until the color is dis- 
durgfid. Pre8er\'e in a glass-stopi)eretl bottle. To 10 cc. of milk, adii 
1 oc of the reagent and let stand ten minutes. Add 2 cc. of strong 
hTdrochloric acid and shake or stir briskly. The color which apijoars 
in the first instance is discharged completely by the acid if no formal- 
dAyde is present ; otherwise, a violet-blue tinge remains. If the amount 
ftfseat is large, the end color will be corres|)ondingiy intense. This 
oeUiod will detect the admixture of 1 part of formalin in 50,000 of 
milk. If the milk be distilled first, and the first part of the distillate 
tnatcd with fuchsine solution, the test is delicate to the extent of re- 
vealing 1 part in 500,000. 

2. Meh-hod by Phloroolucin. — Add to 10 cc. of milk in a teat- 
tobe 2 or 3 cc, of a 0.10 per cent, solution of pliiorogiuciu and 5 to 
10 drops of a 1 per cent, solution of sodium hydmte, and shake. In the 
pnsence of formaldehyde a gradual red coloration appears ; otherwise, no 
nch change is obser\-ed. This test is said to reveal 1 part in 50,000, 
bnt such a claim appears, according to the experience of the author and 
(*here, not to be justified. 

3. Method by Ferric Chloride. — Mix in a porcelain dish 10 
«.«ich of milk and hydrochloric acid (specific gravity 1.200)and 1 drop 
rfferric chloride solution. Heat and stir vigorously. If fonualdehyde 
^ been guided, a violet color will apjiear l»efore the boiling-point is 
Niched, varying in intensity according to the amount present. This 
pfMess is exc^jngly delicate, and will detect 1 part in 600,000 in 
Ihe fresh condition, 

1 Method by Commercial Sulphuric Acid. — This te,*t is ex- 
wdingly delicate and very easily applied. It cannot be jterformcd 
»ith pure sulphuric acid, since the presence of a trace of iron is ncces- 
■fy. If one desires to use a pure acid rather than the ordinary com- 
nnrial grade, the addition of a very small amount of ferric chloride 
wll be sufficient. 

Take about 15 to 20 cc. of milk in a test-tube and jKiur about 5 cc. 
of the acid gently down the side so that it shall pass under, rather than 
■u with, the milk. I^et stand a few minutes, and then note the color 
It the junction of the two litjuids. If formalin is present, even in the 
8Ji|;hteat traces, a violet colonition ai>i>ciirs at the line of junction. In- 
vmnch as pure milk will show a somewhat purplish color when in 
contact with strong sulphuric acid, a color which nuiy readily bo luis- 
takcD at first for that due to formaldehyde, an<l Miu-c also the charring 
iat occurs at the line of junction will often obscure the reaction, the 
jmcesa as originally recommended is somewhat faulty. The "bjwticms 
II* removed, however, by diluting the strong acid with water so that 
to specific gravity is reduced from 1.840 to 1.700. The action of the 



122 



FOODS. 



etrongeracid on pure milk is shown in Plat« VI., Fig. 1, <vhich nhnira 
llic iliirk i'iilt)r line Ui olijirrinf!; anil llio j)urplii>b volor, above ispukcn irf, 
due tu the game cause. 

In Plate VI., Fig. 2, i* «h(iwn tho >i|i]Hnimn<x- of the line urjuiictinu 
of (Hire milk and the diluted acid. It uHll be observed that die color 
prtwhin^d is but a liiiiit yi-lUiw. In I'lutf VI., I'ijpi, :{ uud 4, an- 
flu'wit till- »in(-N ]in«iiiw<l in milk cniitiiining fnrninliftbydc in the jir^t- 
pcinioiit- of I part to 25,(H)0 and 1 t^i ')0,0(H) bv ihi' il*o of the dtliitnl 
a<!iil. As may hv iniV-rrciI, the raiction i« prwhiotnl rallK-r more slowly 
with the weaker ai'Id. It in be»t to allow the i-oiitact to continue at 
Iflasi an hour In't'orc noting ii m^tivi- n.-.-<iilt, 

*). Li'bbert's' .Metiiohiiy I*ot.v**ii;m.Sci,i'Hate. — Place ij prams 
of coarsely powdered jntassitini sul)>liate in a 100 a:, flatik aiin di»- 
tribiiti' (ivCT it 5 c«. oi' milk by mmn« of a pijiettc Then pour care- 
fully down the nlde of the flack 1 cc. of .Holplmrto acid (spc'oitic gravity 
1.810), and allow the whole t'l Htfiiid igiiii-tly. If loriiiultlHiydc h 
prevent, a vJolcl col unit ion of the potassium sulphate occurs withii] 
a low minulei^, and gradniiUy difriisc--* throngh the entii't' litpiid. 
If none i* prewnt, the mixtiin> will at once ansiime a bniwn color, 
whifh rai>idly changes to hiaok. Tliis ti^t iw .seni*ilii'e to ] part in 
250,000. 

Ohromates. — I'n>idovaus ' rectimniends dissolving the nsh of about 
10 CI.', of milk in ii li'w dnijin of iviiler it<'idiibit<.il with nitric- acid nud, 
after neutralizing with ningiie^inn) ctirboiiatc. adding a few dropii of test- 
solution of nitrate of nilver, wberi'by a rcil prn-ijiltitti-, chriim«te of 
silver, is formed. As a control test, be recoinniendB taking up aiMilWr 
portion of i\i<ii with water aeididati-d with snlphnrio acid, nnd addii^ 
little by little tincture of guaiaeuni. In the pretence of ebroniato^ 
nn intense bine color ifc produced, which disapix-nrs ven- qnickly. Tliis 
|)^o(H^ss will di'tcet 1 |virt in .'>0,000. Onerin'' claims greater delicacy 
for the following method : To .') or 10 ec, of milk add '2 drope of a I 
per ifui. solution of sulpluile of c-opper and 2 or 3 drop;" of frtrsbly 
prcjKirdl tinet.ni« of gnaiacum. Pure milk gives a greenish color, while 
milk containing 1 piirt in 100,000 will (jive an intcniH' blue, which 
riin'li'-' il- rti;i\innnii in a few liiiiiiil<-.s. 

Methods of Distin^ishing between Raw and Oooked Milk. — ^To 
determine whether or not milk has l»een wmkwl, Oin^mo' rewmmeniU 
pincing a few tv, of the "jKi-imcn in a porcelain dij*b, adding a few 
drofM of not too old oil of turpentine, wanning gently, «nil then adding 
linctiin- of guaiacimi. If the milk has not bceu boiled, a blue oolor 
iip|H-an«; otlnTWLse. it docB not, 

DuiKHiy* givr.i the following tpsts : 

I, Guaiacol. Equal voInTOc" of milk and a 1 per cent, solution of 
guaincol in ^™lc^ an.' mised and then trcat^-d with hydrogen ix'roxiJe. 

' .Iniimn) of ihe Aiucriran ftiiiiikul ikv'iny, fv\-lvrahtf, 1901, p, (W2. 

* Joiinwi lie Pli3rni]ii-iir ft de (lirmic. 1^91), p. Ivlh 
K » Chcmiltpr ZeiluiiK. 1HH7,1>. 17J. 
■ • (■iiimnlr iti t-'nniuiciii rti Trit-lc, WMi, p. 3". 

* Juutual de Phamincic cl ck Clicuiit, ISI'T. p. 367. 



PLATE VI. 



Fig. 1- 




Fig. a. 




Fifl. 8. 



^rr-l-::^ ^ 



FiH. 4. 



1^ 




MiiiffliiMll 




(■ !■ Coloralion Prodocod by Concsntrotad Sulphuric Aoid. Sp. Gr. 1.840. in 

Coiilnci with Pure Millt. 
'1* Color«iion Produced by Sulphuric Acid of Sp. Gr. i.TOO in Conmoi 

wiih Pure Milk. 
^ ^ Colors Lion Produced by Sulphuric Af^id of Sp. Gr. 1.7O0 in Contnot 

with Milk Containing 1 Part of FormBldehydo in as.OOO. 
"J*. Coloration Produced by Sulphuric Acid of Sp. Gr. 1.700 in Conlaot 
with Milk Containing I Part of Formaldehyde in 50,O0O. 



ANALYSIS OF MILK. 123 

IV immediate production of a yellow color indicates that the specimen 
\es Dot been boiled. 

2. Hj-dro<]uino«e. Three cc, of milk are mixed with 1 cc. of a 
frwh 10 per cent, aqiieoua solution of hydroquinone aod 15 dnip^ of 
hyJn^n peroxide. If the milk has not been boiled, a rose color im- 
neilbtely appears, and in a few minutes green crystals are deposited. 

3. Pyroeatechin. Equal volumes of raw milk and an aqueous 10 
per cent, solution of pyroeatechin are brought together ami treated 
with hydrogen peroxide. With raw milk a yeliowish-browo color is 
pniduced ; with boiled milk no color appears. 

4. a-Naphthol. Raw milk gives with an aqueous solution of 
a-naphthol and hydrogen peroxide a violet-blue color. Boiled milk 
givw none. 

Storeh's method' is as follows: To 10 cc, of milk, add t drop of a 
0.2 per cent, solution of hydrogen peroxide and 2 drops of a 2 per 
cent, mlution of p-phenylenediarain and shake violently. If the milk 
has not been heated to 78° C, {172.4° F.), an immediate blue color 
wi» appear; if it has been heated to 80° C. (178° F.), the bine color 
appears in about a half minute ; and if it has been heated higher than 
this, the bine will not appear at all. Sour milk should be neutralized 
with lime-water. Formaldehyde prevents the change to blue, but 
permits the occurrence of a faint red. The p-phenylenediamin solution 
keeps, in dark glass, about two months. 

Bernstein * proposes the following : To 50 cc. of milk, add 4.5 cc. 
of normal acetic acid, shake gently until copulation occurs, and filter. 
Heat the filtrate. If the miik has not been pasteurized, a heavy pre- 
cipitate of lactalburain will form. The higher the milk has been 
bested, up to 90° C. (194° F,), the smaller will he the precipitate; 
ftnd if it has been heated beyond this^ no precipitate at all will 
fitrin. 

Detection of Oelatiu in Oream. — For the detection of gelatin in 
cream, to which it sometimes ia added to give it body, Stokes* recom- 
mendt^ the following procedure : Dissolve a quantity of mercury in 
twice its weight of strong nitric acid (specific gravity 1.420); dilute 
with water to 25 times its bulk. To about 10 cc, of this solution add 
a like quantity of the cream and about 20 cc. of cold water. Sbiike 
the mixture vigorously, let stand for five minutes, then filter. If 
much gelatin be present, it will be impossible to get a elear filtrate. 
To the filtrate, or to a portion of it, add an equal bulk of a satumteil 
aquenu'4 solution of picric acid. If gelatin lie present, a yellow ])re- 
Hpitate will immediately be produced. The whole operation is performed 
in the cold, and if the mercury mlution is ready, the test will not take 
more tluin ten minutes. Picric acid will show the presence of I part 
of gelatin in 10,000 [larts of water. 

' Zeiinrhrift fur Fnterauchiinc der Nahruns*- i">d IrenuBsniiitel, 1901, p. 898. 
■ZeiUchrif) fiir Fleiscb- und Milchbjgiene, 1900, p. 60. 
■ Tlw Anal^Bt, December, IS97. 



124 



POOLB. 



BUTTER. 

This vnliiable milk pro<][i<>t in iho renult nf vinlent iigitatinn of rnaia 
uutil ite flit i.x«il(*(^'s into j^raiutbir [nirtit'U*, wliioh an- tbi-n M-]nimtc(I 
fnnH the n'sidiial bdtlermilk, " work«l"' to expel a.- much of the latK^r 
iw [Hiwible, ami, with ur witlnnil llit- mlditiuii nf «ilt rthI i'iil«riiifr mat- 
ter, formed uito " prints " *ir '• jtatji." or {lacketl in bulk in l>oxeB ai»d 
tirkin.-*. lu nutiinil citlor vjiri(.'n witli the miifitii, llie laM.'xIk'il Jnna 
butter, made when the cowh from wliuw milk it is proiluce*! are feeding' 
na jrniss, iMiiig lirij;lil vi-llnw, while thai niadr wlu-ii thej- arc :>inIUil, 
luid fwl on hay and other winter Iwfl, I>ciup almuct white. Tlie popu- 
lar deniaiid being for a jt'lKiw artiele the yiwr ronnd, it U enMnnniryJ 
Ut wciire tlii(i «i|iir out of w.iwm by the ailditi»n of aniiatto and othevj 
haruiWi vegetable ef.lnring agents, the use of whieh bas almost uniJ 
versjilly the Minelion of liiw. ' 

The fl;L\'or is inflnenetil mueh by the character of ibe feed, by the 
■lire e.xereii'i.sl in iiminifiielnre, by ibi.' amniinl of tid<kil Milt, br iigc, 
and by the eonditioiis of t>toriige. Like milk, il abwirlw odorj^ veiy 
ivadily, Ixitb tlionc which hripruve nrid lh<L-<<- whieh injjiair its lluvor. 
Taking aihantapc of thij^ fact, it is the cuj^toiii hi ihc valley of the Var 
ami in some otlu-T liMJilitii-s lo jilaw the I'reslily made produet in jiros- 
imily to jsiKtriinc, viuletj', tuberose*, and other llowerinj; pliuit:<, in order 
thai their fi-agrnmi- may be alisorbetl. This jirai-tiee is known as 
" enflourage." The mo»t delictitely fliivored Imller under imtinid enii. 
<lition» i* tb«t lo wlii<'h no nalt has Ix'en addtd, but it has the dUad^i 
vantage that within a sLoit time it ai-fiiiiii* a " cheesy " Hiivor, due to^ 
<leconi|)o:si(ion |in«v.v«'--<. Owing to its laek of keeping (|ualitic» and 
to ibe very geiiei-al jirofereiiee lor a nion- |irinioinieed ta?te, the nddi- 
tiiMi of mil in VMn'ing amountt in the rule. Batter of good (|tialitn 
ha^ but flight otior. but tlmt whieh bii-' niiilergoue the eommon elianjnW^ 
due to Imeti-rbl action lias the eharaeterif^lie fwlor and taste of RiiM'tdity, 
This is dur to d<'(.iim|(i)sition of flic ^alldl aiiionni of curd M'liieh is eii- 
tjiiglei) in the making, and which cannot wholly Ik? cxcludwi. The fat 
itM-if, wlicTi M*})unitrd fmtn the etinl by mdting, kecpi> unehanged for 
long jU'riods. In rancid butter, bufyric and utlier ucidi' arc liberatwl, 
and i>lhen*, a> fnrmie, are formwl by absoqrtion of oxygen, lender 
some unusual condition" not wholly imdcrstood, butler, utthciul lK*nn 
iiig raneid in the Uf-nal sense, undergoes a change to u perfectly whi 
»ubj<t»ti(.v with a niarkitl tallowy odor. 

Butter variciii eonsiderubly in eompo^itiun, but a fair avomge mny 
i^tat<il OK follow>i : 



F«. . 

Wnter 
Cunl . 
SallN . 
IjicIow 



84.00 

I-J.M 

1.00 

2.«> 

0.M 



It may W maile to contain a nitieh higher percentage of water, with 
corrtsjKJiKliiigly less fiit. 




BUTTER. 



125 



Tbf Gkt is compo^ of glj-i-eriilcn of two groupn of fatty acidi^, wliii*h 
liiive Will ni(^'iitioiiv>l in tin- <lc«-ri[>riiiii of milk. Tlmw of i\k iii- 
foliibli' n on- vol.-) I i If acid)', oleic, stearic, ami |uiliiiilic. (.^iii-ititiite altoiil 
ViSi p<-r cttit, I'i" ihc wIioIh; iind itmw iif tin- .■«iliihli- voliilik- .iciiU, 
biilmc, caproic, caprylic, and ciipric, make up tlic rctnaimlcr. It is 
m llie .■^iiitd ^iiip iluit Imtti-r ovvfis iin dinlinetivt? flavor. 

The umouut of water <kpciid» larjjvly upon tlio lli^ntii^rlincKS with 
"liii'h i\tf. Imtu-rmilk in workcil oiii, Iti order that more water may 
I* held, and tlinx a (;i>«ler pn>fil niilixiil, wmn- niakiTs eriiploy )j;clalin 
at an anlnlicrant. One gram of this f^iibstunce will take up about 10 
pva* of M-iiti^T, ami, wlii-ii mixed wirh liutlitr in (Ik- right pro|Hir- 
lioii, will Inld water in the above ratio without iitR-ctin;; the eo^»i^1cnce 
jcnti'lr. Others employ ghicotie both for this purjHk<e and an a 
.tivv. 

The *»lt;« inctmlo thow- nalnral t<i niilk anil ttiose added for the pi-e- 
ivnlinn of mpiti d<.vi>iii|N)iiitii>ii. Thu n^iud additimi I> <Hitnnioii ^dl, 
bill the UHc of iHiric acid and Imrnx i^ extentlin;; gnKliially. 

.A[Kir1. fmni iIm- umc of pn-«iTv;ttivi\- and of :i|rentH lo a^-i.st in relain- 
iiiK water, hotter U not much sidijeci to adnltcnition. cxce|itinfj in thp 
ten* lliitl .4al>-<li[otion of an arlii'h' of lev'* valne wben butter iw adlwl 
tirinaform »f ndultenitioii. This KulHitnle i^ known vuriouslv as 
mtificial hotter, bntlerine, oloumaiiiiiririe, and m!ir;pinne. Under the 
Lnihil Stnbw .'<t:ttiil<r<, all bolK-r or Hidi:ttituli--i llicivfor made to 
irwiable it, coaUiining fiit^ other than crfiain, •ihall l>e known as oleo- 
inat^'jirinc. 

Following the original process, olei)marg!iririe is niiidc (nun frtwh 
fcwf nuel, whicli, after iK'inj; iHNdoil, wjisliiil, uiid cut into ven' fine 
JBCPW by machinery, irt ^nbjeetetl to a teni|»eniture of alKiut 110° K. 
liir«e\-pral honrs, in order to i^[Kinitc the tar from the tissue. It w 
tbentlrawn .iff ami kept for a time at SO" to W F., at which U-m- 
pwatnn' the -iicurin solidtfie.*, mid then is ^'pnralfHl by prcwurc fnmi 
lhe"i>lci»-oil," The laller ts eliririied with milk or with milk and gcn- 
mm- butter, colore<l with annatto, and f.therwise trcarcd liitc bntter. 
M iIm' present time, olcomaiyiiriiie i* made not alooe from lieef ^oct, 
Wlo a much ^r«it*'r extent from " neutiid lai-d," a pnxluel of leaf 
lani. f'i)iton-seed oil is used to some extent, but natnrtdly it is not so 
*p1I ualapD'il to the purpose iis tlie solid fats, 

Okoniar^arine lias lieen. niisrcprcsi-otiil t" lln' public to a frr«it»T 
«lent proU-ibly Iban any otlitT article of ttHid. Fn>m the time of its 
Sm npix-jnmce in the market as a ronifH'tilor of butti>r, Ihcn- has l»ecn 
n oi'iisinni attempt to cniite and foster a prejudice against it a= an 
■iiwhiilcsomc Jirliclc made from unclean K-fnse of various kinds, n 
vwiicle litr dise.'isti gernis, and a dts-ieiiiinator of tji]x'worms and other 
nnwHiiuiM- jtani-iites. [t hiiN bwn said to he made fi-oni -oap trrc-iM-, 
fr'iii the carcasses of animals de.id of dist^nse, from jjreiis*- extnii'te*) 
frt'm j^-wcr sliidp', and fmm a variety of other articles equally nnadfl|)tecl 
toil* Dtanulkclnre. Tlie publication of a great mass of nntnitb cannot 
fill to have at least u [Mrt of iti< lUvirfd cHuct, not solely on the minds 



if^nomnt, but eveo on those ol pereotui or mora 
inttiUif^-rKx'. S) ii prejudice wm (united Sfnunxt lliui valuithk- li»d 
ptixluct, but it i^ iHixiiiiintr ffnuliuiIK' \c»6 pronoun oi-d. 

TliG tTiiili iii>nin-riiiii); iilc'iniar^riui' ix llml it U niudi^ only fmcn At 
fliTiuw't mnCvriiilH in i!r' flwincj't inttftblr niiiniuT; that It 1- ((laillvj" 
U'lioleeiKue as buttt-r ; and that wbeii hoW lor what it is and iii iu 
pi-cilHT price it briiigri Into the lUvtnn' of lho»e who cannot affiiH lh» 
better t:ruilt« of butter an imiwrtutil fnt food nitieli superior in Ouv'ir 
nii<) kii'pinj; pm|MTr_v to ilii- iih<«i|icr jjradtw of hiiltcr, wliirli hriuf » 
[[[■.'liir jirkv. OKiitiiiii^irine cnnnut bv niiiile lW>ni niociO fat. anil in il* 
nuinufucturt- great i-ure luuai be exercised to exclude aay maUiul bow* 
<-ver nliifhtly tiiinlod. 

Oltiinmr^riot? ih not and raiiiiot ht- nmde from fati: lmvin|j a nuiHifd 
or di^'tiiii'tive tiu-le, iind itH fliivnr U dcrivi'd ulmlly fi-i<iti tlir milk"r 
^■niurie butter eniplovnl in it« niaiuitaeture. It l'lmtIlin^, ».> n riiiti 
l<ws water thiiii d(H-M fct-nuiiie butter, uiid eoiwi"(|u<'iit ly uiij' iJifi'en.-m» in 
fiNxl vulue ii<i in ilit &vor. It iindvr|^x« deiv>nip<i8ition niuHi moTF 
slowly, and, iiideetl, «my be ke]»t many iitonthii witliont lni-i.ininKnuiciil. 
Much lia.'< bivii miid coiieeriiiiijr il.-> di>^-^tibilily, ami ulnrnii^l." liii\vpitW 
so far iif t"> claim that il is very iinti;;cstihle, and likely to pntvi- !i |ff»* 
liiie cause of dysptrpnia, ipiiu- for^ciliu^ tliat the nuiteriaU fnini wbiii 
it !« fimde Imvu held a pluee iu the dieturio of all civilize<i [leoph* ^BO) 
lung before butter wua pri>mote<l from its [tofitiioii as an ointineut lolhit 
uf an nrliele of (imhI. Many t^MiiiMimiive Htudie;' luive Ih-ch made on ihis 
|Hiiiit. tind the residlH in eeneral have shown that thei-e is little if mV 
dillerenee, H, Liihrin ' nus proved by euixfiil exjieniuent Urnt 1*^ 
two aiv to all intents and ptiqKiKw exactly alike in poiut of di^R>n* 
bility. 

Oleoma iTpirine ha« be«n the Mibjtct of ii vjmA Htnount of rwlrii-liv« 
le^lation wherever it is iimile or sold. This bus been |>a.->sed in llw 
interest of duiiynicn and iH-aiiise of lite «w; witii which it mar '* 
Mild fraudulently as butter at butter priece. To the practice of bavi 
in Its rrtuil >mle. i« due ver\' hiip'ly the pa^ijrc of ]ioi)iibtlivi> luMt 
nuiny of Mhk'h, however, Imve lieen tkH-liiriil uneiuHtitutiotial. I" 
M.i^NK-luiM-tt^, for exaiiiple, it had ui one tinte n very Inrgi' sule. «o^ '" 
tlK city of Boston alottc were nearly 200 Ikt-niwd (h-alen^. Hul ''" 
unount of fraudulent dinliitg was so gretit that the Legisliilun; )xi^ 
III not |>nkhihitin<; it" «dc if it ixnitwirH-il any iu^nilient enuKia^ il '* 
tcwk like hutliT ; in other worrls, no annatto or other Mibetance wb"^ 
Would cnuHe it to iH'Velkiw ixHiUl Ih- iM-d in its nuinufneturt>. Siitec '^ 
DUturol eolitr is aintost white, and sinew white butter Ami- not ati|H>!ll '^ 
t)»p eye, the restilt wiu* }inirtindly the withdrawal of tlie artiele fyo^ 
t»pc<i mlc. J 

In OemiBny, on iteeouni of fniuduleut praetiees in the ndultemli'" 
'if bum-r wilii olromiirptrim-. ihep^vi-nnnenl pas^^l. iu 18S7.a !>lnli*' 
mpiiring the latter to «>uitain 10 yn-r ivut. of oi] of seeunie, »> th.it a** 
suliscciurnt adniixliire with hiitter Dkay nudily be detnted by Rn*' 

> 2«lUckrift rcr UMMNUobung dcr N»hnnw^ and Gcnawninol, JiuM^ 1690, |>. iS4- 




BUTTER. 127 

dDuio's reaction. This is a red coloration brought about when oil of 
sesame, fiirfurol, and hydrochloric acid are brought tt^ether ; and it is 
sufficieotly delicate to show the adulteration of butter with 2.5 per 
cent, of oleomargarine containing the oil in the proportion stated. 
Eiperiment has shown that butter made from the milk of cows fed on 
usuae does not yield the reaction, but the fkt of the milk of goats ted 
partly on sesame has been found to give it. 

Tbe principal chemical difference between butter and oleomargarine 
lie in the relative amounts of glycerides of the soluble and insoluble 
finy acids. Genuine butter-fat contains nearly 8 per cent, of butyrin, 
apnjin, caprin, and caprylin, while the artificial product contains these 
gij'oerides only a>* they are introduced in the amount of milk or butter 
with which it is churned, for they are not present in suet, lard, and 
MW animal fats. 

Of late years, high-grade butter has found another formidable com- 
petitor in what is known variously as renovated butter, process liutter, 
•nd hash butter. The material from which thb is made Is gathered 
Gwn dairies scattered over a wide expanse of country, and differs 
widely in color, texture, age, and flavor. It is melted, purified of its 
tMcidity by washing, given the desired yellow color, and rechurued. 

Butter as a Oairier of Disease. — Since milk is known to be a car- 
rier of the germs of certain diseases under some conditions, the possi- 
Inlity that butter may act in the same way suggests itself, and the more 
Wnn^ly since, in ordinary creaming of milk, all but a very small pro- 
portion of the bacteria rise with the cream. Ordinary butter contains 
Bullions of bacteria to the gram, but whether the pathc^nic f<irms am 
loi^ survive has not been investigated very extensively, except in the 
<*se of the bacillus of tuberculosis. The bacteria of cholera and 
Uphold fever have been known to survive several days after being 
Iwated in butter, but beyond this we have little knowledge. 

Bmsaferro, in 1891, produced tuberculosis in a rabbit through the 

ajectioa of butter made from the milk of a cow with u tuberculous 

odder. Koth, in 1S94, got similar results, and found, moreover, that 

2 oat of 20 market samples of butter used by him yielded Ix>siti^■e re- 

sdts. Schuchardt got negative results from 42 samples, while Ober- 

ntuller found the bacillus in every sample of Berlin butter used in his 

fet series of experiments. Dr. Lydia Rabinowitsch ' examined 80 

Maples obtained partly in Berlin and partly in Philadelphia, and foun<l 

^niite tubercle bacilli in not a single instance. She did, however, 

wd 1 spurious organism, which produced in guinea-pigs changes which 

"^red very careful examination for the determination of its non- 

ttwcnlous character. It was present in 28.7 per cent, of tlie 

Copies. Petri' found it in 37.2 per cent., the genuine bacillus in 

"■4 per cent., and neither the one nor the other in :!0.4 [kt cent. 

™fflavdler,* using salted butter in a second series, determined that the 

' Ziitschrift fiir Hjpene und InfectirniRkmnkliciten, XXVI., p. 90. 
* Aitniten mas dem Kiiserlichen GeauLidheitumile, IWiti, p. 27. 
' Sfgieaiache BundBchau, 1899, No. 2. 



1S8 



FOODS. 



jnjcrliim of the l)utl«r-fiil itwlf intrmlun'd a cauftf uf irritiilKKi, uid 
UHOcI, lh«ivfbn?, in bU next eel the waterr fltik) w|HiiDlcd fnnu tlie 
huttor by lu-;it and <-c-ii[rtfiifiiiti(tn. FiMir Kiiii)il<t( out <if 10 fmni tlie 
wimf fioiinv Hi' bi* lii>l lot pivc iiniloiibml pvidvticf of llic prewuirt'-f 
Pennine lulM-ivle lieioilli. (hio Korn ' toniid (h^'in in '23J) [ht i^iiL <if 
«uiiiikt4 inirci)ii?^-<l in KnibiirK, iiixl Dr, <_'. Cujrj;i * in only 2 out iif KU 
eamplcii piiR-haHed in Milim, though in a iiumIxT nf them iIh- fjiumia 
oiyaiii.-4m wim [»>'.-^tit. .M<)r)j;<.-nn)th' hnn suhjo'dil <>h*irii.ir)^rinr Im 
tiiiiiliir invcvii^iiion, sjuct.' milk 'ii^ iim^I iii it^ mimiitltc-iun-, and Imftf 
IMirt^l |M>wiriv(- iv^'ullt* I'roiu !f oul (if '2i) muiii>1<-?'. AdiMI' rxiimirn*! 
28 rviinplv* of uloiiniii^iritK.- (1-j from Ik-i-liii mid 13 fruin Liv-eqwil), 
ami llmnd virulwit tidiewle Iiadlli in only 1. 

\V*r Iiiivc iL- yi't IK' I'vidfinf whntovi-r llml tuWiruWiji hap p\-rr UtB 
i^]in'iid ihri'ii^h iho iigcncy of" IhiIUt, Kiit llit* Mibjifl doMTXi'^ nnM 

lhollJ,^lltl'ul <f>ll-i<UM«tioH. 

i^jdysla of Batter. — Owlinarily, the PXHrnination of butter bltm- 
ita^i Ut til'- iK'tcniiiiiiilioii at wln-ihiT or not it ix mix<-il nith or n-jilunj 
liy olcduiiirgTirinc, but titr iho d(! term inn t ion i>l" itt^ RhhI \idiii- il i* 
niivwiiry in ii^ifHsiin tin- )ii'<i)ioriiiiii.-> of fiit iiiid wiitvJ". It l«.-*iii«^ 
timv." of intfit-i't iiImo to dc-tcrmiuc the iimoiinl of alt and thi- pmMnv 
of othfr prcjtpn'iitivpt-. 

BvtonniDation of Water. — Wuigh a gram or two of thf Fain[>U- tWo ' 
jtlatinum di!>h, mii^ an in iiM'd in the anulysi^ of milk, and dn* nt nw 
Htdiit wi-ijjlit OH a wiiti-r-hiith. 

Det«nntiiatlaii of Fat. — Kxtniet tho rc»<idn(' from the ppc«xiiii|; iti" 
t4Tmin:itiiiu with ilhir or fix^'i^hly disiilliil uaphlliii, luring ran-fid unt "■ 
Ifniovtt finy of the pnrticUs of ciird or Hdt. The procww of txtrartini' 
in vi-ry iiim|ili'. ii'iKisting in lUliii)^ iht- dii4i nlMtut lialf fiill of the*'' 
viiit and jilVr ii -ihorl tinit- di'ninting il winfidly into another vit»i'l> 
and n'lKnliug the iijM-nition until nothing ii' extracted. The lolvailt 
or an uliquttt |«in thereof, nmy W- cviiixiniletl in a woigiu^l ifrtikcfi"' 
lilt' ilish iniiv ttgiiin Ih- healetl to a (xnif^iant weight and the fat tii'tf^ 
mitnil by diflfermoo. The ru>iduc now n-im-noiti lh« ttird, lai-tuiw, 
niiner.tl matters. 

ZtotcnaitiatioB of Salt, etc. — Ignite this rrniilne ni »:' lo>v a tt-ni 
tiiri' lis [MMv-ihle, iumI thus burn off the <n^-in itntl hiclo:^% Their vQi 
bitH-d Wright i.- ft!Hvriuin(il by weighing the disli anew. Wlial m 
n-ninin" in the dish i« niinend ni.ttter. iiimprUing tin- «ill« natural 
milk and ih'i-'i' iiddixl. t'oninion Ndt may Ik' iletermint'^l by irrati 
tin- tiniil nr<iduv »ilh water luHdulnti^l with nitrie acid, ami tilnittng S 
tiK- umulI way ^^ilh •^tandai^l i^ilulion of cilver nitniK-, ui*ii)g pubu^Jiq 
fhminati' iin im indiralor. | 

.Vnolhcr nietlmd of ili-temiiniiLg xnll i.n ns fidlnwy : .Shake ii knowi 
weight, r)-|<l gmm<i, of iIh- foimiite with hut u^ter in a stop[tei 

' AKkU nt H7^««r, XXXVI , ,v ^7. 

• Oioratb (MblK. So>4tU luluin- <t'iiw>v, lair, Um, u. 3B. 

• U.t|!i««wb« KuMliriiBU, Itm, No. il. 
' The lAiKvt, Janoarjr 30^ ISOOi 



SUTTER. 129 

m&ig funnel until it is melted cnmpleteiy, let stand until the fat 
^thera on the siu^ace of the water, and then draw o£F the latter through 
the stopcock. Rq>«at the operation with successive portions of al)out 
20-25 cc, of hot water until a few drops of the washings, tested with 
titver nitrate, £ul to show a cloudinegM, due to silver chloride. Allow 
tbe combined washings to cool, iiiid then, in an aliquot jtortion, deter- 
mine the chlorine by standard silver nitrate solution in the usual way. 
IMennination of the Nature of the Fat. — To determine wliether or 
not a .specimen is or contains oleumai^riue, an examination of the 
Qibire of the fat in necessary'. As has been pointed out, genuine butter 
contains a considerable amount of volatile tatty acids, wlnlc the artiti- 
ciil product contains very little ; but, on the other hand, the genuine 
Bticle I* correspondingly poorer in the insoluble non-volatile fatty 
tail'. It is np<m these differences in the two kinds of fat that the 
dettrmination of the que:^tion of genuineness dej[Miuds. The usual 
caunination is limited to tlie determination of the volatile fatty acids 
in a given weight of the melted fat freed frfjm water, curd, and salt. 
IVfat is saponified, the resulting soap is dis.solvod in water and then 
danmposed by means of sulphuric acid, and the volatile fatty acids, 
tfans freetl from combination, are then distilled over, and their amount 
etimated by means of decinormal sodium hy<lnite. Five grams of 
genuine bntter-fat will yield an amount which will require at least 24 
«. of the alkali for complete neutnilization, while an equal weight of 
(4mmar^rine yields so small an amount that, as a rule, less than 1 cc. 
un^uired. Mixtures give results between these limits, and from them 
one can estimate approximately the proportiim of butter present. 

Procesb. — Heat a small pieee of the sample on a water-bath in a 
nitable beaker until it is melted completely, i\nd the contained water, 
■It, and curd have collected at the bottom. Decant a sufficient amount 
tf the supernatant fat into a dry fitter and allow it to pass into a shal- 
low beaker. ^Vhen about 10 grams have been collected, place the 
ketker in a basin containing water and ice, and allow the fat to become 
Wi Place a small filter paper on one of the pans of the balance and 
ttnnterba lance it exactly with weights on the other. Then weigh out 
« rapidly as possible 2.5 grams of the fat, transferring it to the pa[)er 
I7 means of a spatula. Place the paper and fat in a .'iOO cc. Erlen- 
wrer flask, add 10 cc. of a 20 per cent, solution of caustic potasli in 
70 per cent, alcohol, and then place the flask on a water-batli. In a 
ifcort tame, specially with gentle rotation of the flask, the flit becomes 
completely waponified. Continue the heat until tlic alcohol is expelled, 
and remove the last traces of the vapor by blowing into the flask with 
a bellows or by swinging it in the air. Ad<l -50 cc. of hot water, and 
■hen the i*oap is brought completelv into solution, aild 2'") I'C. of 10 
per cent, sulphuric acid. The latter hre:iks up the soap, sotting free 
both the soluble and insoluble fatty acids, the latter in the fimn of 
curds. Connect the flask with a Lieliig condenser, after IntnHliii-ing 
se^'eral pieces of pumice stone to prevent bumjiing, Jinil tlien, with the 
fla:sk supported on a square of wire netting over a Bunsen lani]>, distil 
* 




130 



FOODS. 



1 



bIowIv uutil 50 cc. huve heen voWceted. Titniti- llir dutillutc will 
diviuonunl nxliimi hydrate, iihiiig phGiioIplithaJeiD as an itHlicaloQ 
With the jiirnjuiH nf Iht lulci'ii, iil Uii.-'t I'i n: nf iIk* iilkiili will hi 
pei]uired for nfiitnilintiioii, if tlie spix'ini«i i* p.'ii(iiuc butter. 

-Miiiij' iiniil_v.-i.- ]ir> I'lT to t'liijiliiv ."i (grains iit' fat ajicl i-<>m«[ion<liu)^]| 
lar^r volumes of natt-r, iiikI to ilietill 1 10 rv., wIwudI* 100 is litmtcu 
Some prefer iil*> to carrj- mi ilie |ti''>cess of impxiiilicutioa iii a nMinA 
bottonitii fljiisk iituK-r prt.-wiirf. Sum.- iiK^iMiri' lln- Ittiiil fiU rlirt^rtlv iiitt 
a it'dghed tliLuk from a pi|X'ltf, itiid atrCGruiiu the ninnunt tHkeu \iv to 
wcighiiiji; iit'ti T till- fol ha.* wn>K?iI itml Miliilitit^il. The MiixtiiifyJiij; Uf:«-iil 
is applied in different fomu;, aud muny other variations in dduil an 
reefiiimiciidcd, hiii the end renull is praeiioflll)' the winie. I'ho pruocd 
(kf^cribed \iai- been foiinil In tbe ex|^)crienee of tJie author to be mot 
aatiBfat'toPi. 

The Leirnmuii-Beaiii [troevvs bus niiieli to r»»tiiueDd it, purtietilarlj 
in the ttaving of lime. The Hiponifying agent U pre|Kired by roixi: 
20 w. of .jil iKT ivni. niiiKtic i-odi Mihititin tind 180 v. of pure coimtB' 
trat«l glyeeriu. To -i gi-anis of fat in an Erlenmeyer Hafk ad<l ^<l 
of lliin Milution, iim) ilun ticul over ii Kunxcn flMiiie until Mijioiiifii^itii 
is eom])Iele, This require!- Wit u few minuter; the euniptetion of 1 
proceaa is .ibown by the elenr ennditimi of (he mixture. The samp ■ 
diluted witb 13.j w. of Iw)^^! water, stdded at fir^t in very small uniounte 
to prevent foaming. TliMi ii ee, of dilnle -.nljilunie aeid (2(10 ee, in 
1000) an; added, and tlie pre|>iinitioii in rmdy for innmirnite ili;>tillii- 
tion. Distil IKt ee., mix ihorouglily, and [kls!* thnjiigh a dry filter, 
titrate 100 cc., aud to the result wid ^g for the veiimiTiiiig 10 vc 

I f one wiHlK^ to ileterniine the amoimt of inj^oluble fatty aeids, it tuay 
be done in the following manner, hnl it nhonUI l>e ;<itd lliat the pniiieM!' 
rtipiin? mueh more time, »nd lliat tJie resulb' are not alwavt^ Niti»lae- 
toiy, fiiuee the up)wr limit in Ihe i-aiv nf butter is mi mar the lower 
limit in that of rtlemargarine that samples yielding nvulte dosr to the 
dividing line may ne^^^l further ainilyMii< before an nuqunlified opiuioo 
of the nature of tbe liiK-eimen eiin be given. A mixture of )^-nuine 
butter and oleomiirgnriue may give n^ultn well within the normal limits 
of butter. 

pR(H-KsK. — Iniii a weiglii>d beaker decani a few grama of the fat, and, 
when the latter lm>^ eonUil, iiseertoin the iiniouni taken by reweighing. 
Sajwinifv as almve deaerilied, evajjorate the aleohol, di.'^siOve llie MMip 
in water, an<1 iks.imi|Hi<e it by ihe addition of an exee^ of acid. Heat 
until tbe precipitated inmluble acid« are melted, tlieti allow tlie whole 
to cool, when llw fiitty layer has aiwumed the cbaraeter of a wiUd 
cnijst, break a nuiall hole thrrmgb it at a point on it« ein-unifcrenee and 
another on the op[M>^ite r-ide. Weigh a funnel and a drii'd tilter of 
suitable >rw, gibiv the latter within the fornn-r, wei it thoroughly, and 
then tiller the litjuid from beneath the eru^l. Itreuk up tlit- eru.M, add 
boiling water, and tRiiti'f<'r tin- whole to the filter. Wash reijeatedly 
with boiling water uutil the wa^'hinps' have n') longer an iwid n^iiciion, 
tbcD let drain until no more water is discbat]g«d. The filter-paper 



BUTTER. 131 

'et, the melted fatty acids do not pass through with the wash- 
Place the funnel and itu contents in the beaker and dry in an 
I at 100° C. to constant weight. The increase in the comhioed 

of the beaker, funnel, and paper represents the amount of to- 
tatty acids in the amount of fat taken, 
dnatioii of Fat by Ueans of the Butyro-Tefractometer. — A sim- 

quick method of ascertaining the nature of butter-fat with- 
Hiree to chemical analysis is that by means of the hu tyro-refract- 
or other instrument designed for the purpose of meai^uring the 
,-e index. The instrument is shown in Fig. 4, with the prism 

Fia.4 




Zeis* bulrro-refrarlomcter, 

ride open, It« application requires so little time that, after a 
fittctice, a person working alone can examine readily 1;") or 20 

in an hour. The method of use is as follows : Tht' surface A 
t to which it ia opposed when the prism casing is closed should 
cleaned by means of a soft piece of linen moistened with alcohol 
r. Place the- instrument so that the surface of the prism R is 
al, then apply 2 or 3 drops of the <'lear fat, best from a small 
per held between the fingers. Goi^c the prism msing and fiusten 
eans of the pin C. The surfaces of the two prisms arc now 
d from each other only by the very thin layer of fiit. With 
niment in its original position, the mirnir I) a<liusted so as to 
,te the field clearly, and the upper part of tlic oeular so adjusted 

scale within ia mrest clearly definc<l, r«id off ut what point of 
e the line between light and shade falls. Since the degree of 



182 



FOODS. 



refrucltuii iif ii)fluciiwtl by tlw tominTntiiix-, it Is nwwwn,- to hnvpfocM 
mmnii of flfltermining at-curattly ihe tcniponiturv of the Hpn-ioin 
brtwwii ilic |)i-Uiii». Thi.i is Mfim-cl in iIk- fullowiii^ Duiiitiir : A nir- 
rent of warm water in cinuliit'tol by niuiiw iif a nibbcr liib^- cwiiHTlid 
witli ibf inirt K iiitii tlic prLim cabling, thence tiimu^i the nibUf 
IhIk' /■' U' the tipiK-r jNirt, fnnn wbioh it ei^aiixM thnmpli l\w «mil« f'. 
Till- Imlb of a ilicrnuiiiicter jirnjeciii into the i-iirrept nf wiiter. Tlw 
^lull'lIl^ll twiiiR-nUiirt- ii>v i>b*Hrviuioii.-« with lliis iiiMnmiint U 'J-V ('., 
ami at this tem|MT.iturp natural butter, wiiii-li haa a refractive imlKi of 
l.4''i!f-l.-l<!2, will givi? u riH(li»)r of fn»m ■llt.5 to 64 on the 'itSf, 
while uleomurgariiic, which lut» a rrfnu-tive index n{ 1.46''>-1,4"( 
will iihow 5H.li to (it).), ami mixliirt'." of tlu- oiic with tht- oilier wi 
give frotn 64 upward, iu.-c^)rdiii|; to the ix-rcmbige of olconim^ne 
|)rft-('iit. 

vVouurding to Wolliiy. to wlmni tLe invention of the inetnunvnt it 
lai^y duo, any ii])eeiuien which nt a teniiieratiire of 2S* C. p»w i 
liil^flicr rtJidiuf; than ■'il will invariably be found mi chciiiiwd aiinlvflJ 
to be adolUTjIed ; hut he !'u^');(»l-' that, in order to remove all e\iaoft 
of iidulti^rnKcil l)utt<^'r i'»<iipint; (k-t«i-linii, ihii> limit Ik- ntliiMHl tuo^-'v 
and that all samples giving the latter reii<ling lie cxiuiiine<l chemintlK- 

With lorn |>em III res other limn "I'l" ('., it is inxw-^ry to make «^ 
n-clions of IJ.oo of a scale division for eiich decree (.'. The followi') 
bilili- nhowM the iiinximuni renrlitig for pure liultera at dilleKnt U0>- 
{Kjiatiireii : 



Tmr. 


aadl*. 


Tmp. 


8e.dl*. 


Temp. 


Padlv. 


Temp 


te«f- 


45' 


63.6 


31" 


49.3 


370 


4M 


43" 


oi 


» 


61.9 


33 


48.0 


36 


4&3 


44 


m 


S7 


01.4 


33 


48.1 


' a» 


44J 


46 


4l,E 


S» 


50.8 


M 


47.6 


40 


44.S 






S0 


60.3 


36 


47.0 


41 


4a.T 






30 


i9j6 


88 


48.4 


42 


48.1 




- 



Then- are other prooesse^ for the inveE^tigation of the diaracirr "i 
butter-fat, iiK-tudin^ tlie rlet<nTiiiiati<in of the siH>cifii- giiivily, luelti"' 
jMiint, i'xlinf absorption nunilier, and ^nponificstion (tpiiviilcnt ; but 
nil pinctioil pnrpoJM.-* thi- dftermiimtion of the ivfractive index "T 
■the volatile fatty acids is or<liunrily Hufficieut^ aiid tli« oUicr dci 
natiouK an lui-rely <«»mil)orativi>. 



CHEESE. 

Pnr thoimands of yearn, cheese hnn lieeii known af n voiy valuak 
food, and iiiueh ntteiitioo h»s hn-n priid to differ<-nt melhodi< of mat 
fnctnrc. At the prew-ut time, many vnrictio' are tnnde, llwir nat 
di')»eti(liiig upon tliat of the mw material, the tnetbod of produciu^ 
cillxl, the proiHUtiotiH of the si-\-iTid constituents, and tin- motliiNl 
t-i|ii-uing. Mo^t vikfieties arc nmde from c»w.<.' milk; some are 
IVoni tlmt of cvn», iumI others front that of gontii. 



CHEESE. 133 

Tbe milk is used either id its Qatural condition, or skimmed, or with 
lie addition of cream. Generally, it is used in its natural condition, 
ntutever the kind, the following is the general process of manufact- 
ure. The milk, with or without coloring matter as desired, is heated 
to 80" F. or above, and then curdled by means of rennet or by the 
acids formed by the ordinary milk bacteria. Usually, rennet is em- 
ployed; sometimes, sour whey. The coagulation should be complete 
m from forty minutes to an hour. Too rapid coagulation causes the 
raid to be hard, tough, and unsuitable for tbe subsequent manipuk- 
tioD ; too slow action produces a soft curd difficult to work and not 
imiTonn in character. After tbe process of coagulation is complete, the 
cord is cut or broken into small pieces, and the whey is drawn off. 
Then tbe curd is gathered into a heap and covered, and allowed to 
itand for an hour or longer, during which time its increasing acidity 
usists in it^ hardening and promotes the separation of tbe remaining 
■hey. When the curd has attained the proper consistence, it is placed 
in a cheese press and subjected to gradually increasing pressure, and 
tfto- this process is completed it is removed to the curiug place. For 
tbe proper ripening of cheese, it is essential that the curd be of the 
pR^ consistence throughout, and that only the favorable organisms 
be present, and these in not too great abundance. 

The curd produced by the action of sour whey is highly acid and 
iiclmed to be greasy. Owing to its high degree of acidity, it is not a 
&vorable ground for the growth of many of the bacteria to which 
is due the production of the different kinds of flavor, and so the 
nnmber of varieties possible of manufacture by sour whey is limited. 
Beonet, on the other hand, produces a curd which is elastic and not 
pfm- or sticky, and which is a good culture medium for the bacteria 
*bo(ie assistance is needed. It acts best in milk which is slightly acid. 
Sir if the milk is neutral or only very slightly acid, the coaguhitiou 
pnxeeds verj' slowly and the curd will uot contract sufficiently to exjiel 
lie whey ; if the milk is too acid, the process of coagulation is too 
Ipid and the product too tough. A soft curd retains too mucli whey, 
•lid the fermentation of the milk sugar of the whey causes " huffing," 
* swelling, for the prevention of which, preservatives smnetinies are 
onployed. The bacteria concerned in the process of ripening exist in 
tiieoriginal milk or in tbe air of tbe place of nianufa(-ture. Sometimes 
tile rarieties which produce cheese " faults " gjiin a fcxrthold on the 
vemises, and can be eradicated only by means of thorough cleaning 
lod disinfection. The ripening process is carried on at about 70° F. 
t is essentially a process of dea»m posit ion, in \ihich cnKymes, bacteria, 
ad moulds are concenic<l ; and for the pnxluclion of the same kind 
f cheese the same varieties of organisms must be jiresent, and the 
uticular variety producing a particular flavor must find the conditiima 
icfa as are tavorabie to its predominance. It is not |>os.sible to start 
rth milk that is entirely sterile, and then to incxiulate with the par- 
nlar ^-arieties wanted, since to sterilize milk completely requires the 
iplication of auoh a degree of heat as will produce changes in tlie 




cssein, intorfrrc with tlio |)ru|K'r iictioii nf tlic reoDet, ii^urc iIk wd- 
siatence of the curd, and destroy the enxymes. 

Ki|»ciii[ii; diRw imt [imi'i*'*! sarisfaoiorily when the curd fans bcrn 
|jivh1(ic("<1 tlirmigh the aclioii of iicidt. In ontinar}' ripening, tt»o cveiD 
In iitln<-i«il liy I lie iii'(r.iiii'*iHS pri'M'iit, ami ammonia, leucin, tyroein, am) 
several kinds of f^itty acid^ aiv produofd. TIk- Intu-r iinilr witli ihp 
lime >a]u, whieh up to thiii jwint have been in conibiuatioQ with the 
ciu>cin. The acid" fbniied iiichide hntyrie iind VHWriaiiic- From (he 
lactose, we have, in adililitm, laelicacid. Tlie pruees-i giies nn at differ- 
ent nites u'itli dilU'rviil lunds cif ehi-cwe, and il miiv \k' n\nin or long. 
In the pn_idiietion of ceriuiu furm^ of Americun and Kugliiih cfaccsee, 
the inillvidiial t<j>eoiment< are ttealed heniietieally in tin h»x(« and kept 
at a iiiviiniblf (eni[>cralurc for as lonp as four ymrs, the Intxtw being 
tuninl i-a'-h diiy. The ordinnn.- j,'rades of che<«e, however, undergo 
eom]mnilivi-ly shr.rl jHTimlw uf riiR'ning. 

Composition of Cheese. — The eomiKisition of chcftse vAiiea v«j- 
niuoh aot'ording to tfie iwUnrc of the raw mat^-riiid mid lh<! |)roc«« 
of mannfiicturt.'. Tlie fal show?) the greatest variation in amount, 
aceordiiit; ax the ohce.'^e ik niiidc fnun wVioh- milli, nkimmcil milk, »r 
milk enrielii'd with eivani. The nio>?t comnion Anierifiui chtt**- w 
made fioili wliolt^ milk, as are alwi the lending varieties of English 
chcow, as Clie<ld(ir and Clie«hirc, The familiar KtUim (Dnitrh) vJm'cw 
is madt- fmm partially skimmed milk. English Siilton le a tyi»e of 
cheese' made from milk eiiri.licd wiih i-iisini. The cliiisi- riehpst of all 
in Kit i.» what we know an erearn ehti-se, but, strictly (■iH'aking, this is 
not ehee^ie at all, being nnipty i'nt-U cnrd very rieh in fwl and not iiub- 
jwt^'d til any proire.ts of ripening. The cheeses jioorcst in fat an? those 
made from skimmed milk. They are tongli, dry, and of but liille flavor, 
and snob a.- tiiev iuM'e is ineline<I to Ih- miplea>iint. Ameriwin elicv*cs 
of g<H>d <]nnlity may be siid in general to enntnin about -itl [larts of fat, 
30 of pmieids, 'M of water, and the remainder sjdts. 'I'iie iMuliii]; 
KngliAli I'liwiiie*, exwpliiig Siilton, contain rather more water (sbout 35 
per cent.), and correspond ingly lefo. );it. Swifw elK-e-^e h.is piiictically the 
fume (>omjMMilion, bill eoiUaiiis miher more pnUeids and eorrespttud- 
iuply less fat. Skimmed milk elicew* are imrticnlarly rich in proteids, 
containing often as bi;:h a.i .^0 per cent. With the execption of thoK^ 
nuide fnim >kimiiK'd milk, il may be sriid in gi-neral terms that cheese 
i* about one-third fat and one-third pi-oleidi;. 

Wthe many varii-lii-i of rbiiv put ap in small bulk, mostly for use 
an n relLvh rather than sis a substantiiil article of did, the Ibllowing 
may l>e mentioned : HiHjuefort is made fnim the pjirily skimmwl milk 
of ewe*; it doL-s not var\' mncb in its ix-reennige of fat and proteida 
frtjra Amcricnn and English cheeses. Gorgonxola is very >intihir lo 
Ro(|iM*fon in iijiiipiiiiition and also in llic nietliod of mannfacture. 
Hilh are ripened wilh the as'iistaiice of moulds, which are mixed with 
the curd with tlio jKiwden'd Iin-jid crunil>s on which they have been «il- 
ti\:ali^l, imd (be ehetwcj' arc iiiotnilatod alwii after Ix'ing fihapeil. I^rm<-H«ii 
dM«sr is trade from partly skimmed goats' milk ; it is veiy rich in 



J 



AAA LYSIS OF ClIEKSIi. 



I3& 



, wmiains only about half a^ much 6t as Amencan eheme. 
chcwM." i)! « «>l't (■liwj*t (■■iiitiiiiiiiig rjiliii-i' iuchv tliiiii .Id per 
atot. i>f water au<l nt»tui '£*) per i-ciit. etich of iiit and proteids. It U 
npfncd Uy a pcciiiiiir {>iik-i.-.-«< wliicli giw.i it ii iiiuoli iimiv proitouii<.>cd 
ami ]>eniHntiug odor than ulniofit any other known vurioly, 

idnlteratioD of Cheese. — At iJie fir^wnt time, tlit- only cstt'tmivc 
frirmol" adultemtinii of <'lit'i-sf cotiniwl" in llw fubsliliiliini nf liinl fitr 
11)1- iiMiiil iiixl iirvijMT kind of tai, I.!iii] mid -kimmed milk iijIhiihI 
wilii unnatto an? niJxtd togi-thw, Iiuitcd lo iilHUir Nil' F. in t;|]ik7^, 
iml uniulMnnixHl with tlie assistance of appTOpriatt- niacbiuon- ; the 
ttflCD u (.Mil 1^ 1 1 ill IS 1 in the luimc way n.-< in llie iinliii:irv priH^rn^ 
diptjio. Siiih rhci'sp i>i de*i[^iatttl in tlv I'liitnl Statea 
^Utiititf it-i "filliil i-hiy-<i'," (vliirh in<'!ntU--H "all mado of milk nr 
^iimmed milk wilh the admixUirc of bnltw, itnimiil oiU or fiit?', vcpe- 
ttb^' iif any nlhcr nil)^ or corn|)onn<ls foreign to such milk." 

Adecree promnlpitwl in Bcljiinm nn Si'iitcnilH-r 21, ISflJt, defimw 

ebeae an a priMlm-t ohuiiiuil fiv>in \nive milk, ^kininutl milk, milk co- 

I tgnlukil l>y the aid of n-nnct. or iK-idilloition, or any ntlicr invuliict 

nbtaiiiod t>y healing milk mixed or ntit with eoluriQ}; lUitlU'r, i<idt, iiud 

f^itiK*, niid sii)ijti:Ti«>d ro j)i-i'w<nri' and fiiruicnttttion. It forhidti tht! piale, 

m when properly lahelleil in "iich way a*? In reveal its tnie nature, 

(ihww iiintahiiii(; any othtT ?<nl)sian<v timn lliost^ nicittiotu^l, ^m-h 

ffl oldoniar^nriuc or other fonij^n Int, |>iit«t<>et, and hiwid. An exeep- 

fiun is m»do, hnwi-vcr, in lavor of [{oi|nclort, in which hr<^ul cnnniw 

an; |>n'»ent, not a^ an adnltemtion, hut for the jrcrving of a usefiil piir- 

Thc sale of ('hci^w?* mixed with niinend nialU'r other thiin «ilt 

I with antiwiitit^ in pcnenil is forhiildcn. 

In some parti of Germany, bi-an meal and |n>lafon* arc iisi-d to 

wme e?clcnt w adiiltcnintx, and there imtl olwwliere a great variety of 

rali^tancefi are said to have been u«ed to a gnater or hws cxti^nt in 

tim&t pme hv. In gi-nenil, it may Iw- siiid llml, a.-iide fiMni laiv! and 

whiT fopeigii fats, the only adulteration of any importanee eon.-i!«[-- in 

liie admixture •>{ pri.*i^rva fives. These an- addiil more «>mmonly to 

Itkiiiinied milk choi:'s.e* tlinn to those of good (|uulity. 



Analysis of Cheese. 

AetenmnatioB of Water. — Cut the »pei-inien into small biu or 

sUee^. Weigh out about 5 grams in a plnlinnui di.-<h coniiiining 

mxt i«r ii."b'>t'i- liiier, iithI drv (n connlnnt weight, 

OettmUDatiOn of Ash. — Ignite the ilried re>iidue at an low a leni- 

B|NTamrt! as jKH-'ililc, iiml, aflcr I'ording, note thi> incrtaiw iu weight over 

■ihiit of the dish and it-i original wntent;*. 

Detennination of Pat. — 'rriiumte about 2'> grnm« of the specimen 
in a mortnr irith an e(]nal hulk of fine K-Jieh »an<l. Tmn'fer the whole 
Ii> n Soxblet extractor, and prwved iu the mana«r described umk-r Uic 
Aiulym of Milk. 



136 




Determination of Proteids. — l*nK'«e<l ui the maiiDer ^veh under 
A»:iKsi.s I)!' Milk, ii^'iii;; iilmiil ■_' j;r.iiii- >if tin- Kim|>lc. 

Determination of the Natare of the Fat. — Fur the detcctioD of 
('(iri'ijrii fath, th*" nunluK! nf |irocoHmv l-- (Up fame as df-scritxtl unili-r 
till- Atialyi^w uf liiitu-r, uikr ot>tiiitiiii); (lio liii in u pure i-ondition. 
The r«.iduf obliiiiicti in tlie detenu iuaiimi of tlw amount of fat will 
serve lor ihii* jnirpiM;. 

Cheese as a Cause of PoisoDing. 

Knr nianv veil's, L-liocse has btL-n known to bf an tux-aHonal can?* of 
xinj^iv und niiiiti]ilc iitx'^i of jioisiiiiin^, iitkI viiriou.i lliiiini.'» tsiniTrniug 
the nature of the poisonouw aKtmi liavc beiui [»ronml gated. It was not 
titilil lSS-1 timt liii' niiiM' w;u-* rcvi-iiliil l»y Pmliswflir V. C. Vniit;hi»ii, 
wliiisf uttJL'UMoii »V!p. ilr.iwn to onthiViLks in Michigan during I^IS.J and 
1HK4, in which mure ihau ;i()0 [n-i-huiis wcn» iifli^-twl. Ho trii<t-d the 
wliolf Ininblf to iwclvi- liifll-rcnt cbcoce, from wvtral of which lie 
iuolatetl the poisonous priueiplc, a ptomain, to whioh he gavp Ihe name 
" (ynitoxiium." Tlit? ni'mjitom.-i oliwrvcit in the r.iiithreak« rcfiTnil in 
iudndi.ll voniiliutf, di:irrhn>:i. alHlominiil pain, dniK^i^u and nin'trietioo 
of tho thixml, fpi'blf and irn-yridiir pulse, iind nurkcd I'viiniwi^ in 
muR' cuKei;, vomiting nnd diarrhuu were followed b^ marked aervou« 
jiroatnitioii. In winie tho pnpilx wen.- <lilitt(<d. 

W'ithin a hhort time afler Vaughan's diw^tven', the poii^ou wiie found 
by \Viill;ic(- ' in wniK- (^hi-i'M- ibjil wn.- the eanm- uf |M>iMiniug of not I(^<s« 
tliiin ')() iMTBons out of abrmt IJn who had tatoi of il. Hie onset ]ip|>«ired 
in from two to four lioui-is. 'I'lic nn»l constunl and nevcre syniplonis 
were vomiting and eiuUs. Thew were KUweeded by severe e]>ig»stric 
jMtin, cnmiiw in ihe Irp" and fi.i-l, jmrging itnd uripirig, rnutdini'?>8 t^^n- 
cially niiirkwl in the legs, and veiy marked proMnilion. Vomiting niid 
diiiiThii'!i In.-tc<I fn>in Iwn to ivv<'lvf hourh ; ebillfl and cramjiH fnira one 
to two hour*. No deathrr ooeurreil, and nil rceovervtl within ihrre days. 
The -lieverity of tho ^yniptonis [kik no relation to tlie amount eaieii; 
some of (be rn-vcrc*! <;iv*w witc of pi'i-^tiii* who iile l"it spiirinply. 

Tyroto.xi<:on han been found h^- otheis in eheese, milk, and iee cream. 

So liir lu-" i^ known, ehi.twe iI'mw not ni'l ii> ihc i-jirrier of piitbogtiiie 
Ixicteria. Ex|»erimenl* have shown that the ordinary |«vthogeiiie forms 
wbt-n inlmdurt-d into ohw.-e retain vitality for but a short time. 



I 

I 

I 

I 



Section 4. VEGETABLE FOODS. 

Tlie vi^etublc food« may conveniently be divided into several cUiueflJ 
&» follows : 

1. FurinucMuiii tvohi : 

{a) CereaKi ; (b) I.ie;gunie& 

2. Fnrinni'tiiiis pre|)anitioni^ 

3. Fatty t^vA- (miU). 

4. Vegetablf! futs. 
■ MixlinI NVmv Jalj IC, ISAl, ^ 00. 



WHEAT. 137 

5. Tubers and roote. 

6. Herbaceous articles (" v^etables "). 

7. Fruits used as " vegetables." 

8. Fruits in the narrower seu:^. 

9. Edible fungi. 
14. Soooharine preparations. 
Tie wonls fruit and vegetable are capable alike of broad and narrow 

Ofaninp'. In the strict sense, the cereals, legumes, nuts, and many of 
llie articles commonly called vegetables are fruits ; but popular usage 
iu» narrowed the Iatt«r term to include the pulpy substance enclosing 
lie seeds of various treca and plants, and only such as are pleasant to 
tile taste and edible in the raw staf*, with the single exception of t!ie 
quince, which is edible only when cooked. Vegetables in the ordi- 
luy sense include any part of herl)aceou8 plants, as the stem, root, 
leives, and fruity products itsed commonly in the cooked state or 
in the form of Halads. Thus, in the popular usage of the terms, 
Sjiiasbes and melons, which are the fruits of plants of the same family, 
ire classed respectively as vegetables and fruits, and the cereals and 
Bate are classified under neither head. 

First in importance of vt^table foods are the farinaceous seeds ; 
tlwy are of very high nutritive value and easily digested. 

1. Farinaceous Seeds. 

(») 0EKEAX.8. 

The cereals include wheat, rye, barley, oats, com, buckwheat, and 
We. They are very largely starchy, and agree iu general composition ; 
bat they differ in the proportions iu which their several constituents are 
ptwnt. These include prateids, carboliydrates, ether extnictives, 
■"iwal matter, and moisture. The proteids include a large uumlnT of 
^ly related compounds, as yet only imperfectly studied, which will 
« meotioned in the consideration of each member of the gronji. The 
orbohvdmtes include those which are soluble, sugar and dextrin, and 
™se which are insoluble, starch, cellidose, |»entosans, and getnctans 
(H. W, Wiley). The ether extractives include fats, resins, chlorophyll, 
ttd volatile oil "which constitutes the source of the odorous qimlity 
IM««s«ed by the grain " (Wiley). The mineral mutters are chiefly 
phjisphates of calcium, and magnesium, silica, and salts of sodium and 
fUastium. The cereals contain also certain ferments, the most imjior- 
tuit of which, and the only one which has licen studied with any 
tlioroughness, is diastase. This acts ujion starch, converting it into 
ngar. The others include some which act u|>on the proteids. 

Wheat. 

Wheat is classed very properly as the most useful of the \eget;iblo 
foods. The grain consists of a hard outside layer which is iniH- 
^e<tible and useless as food, and the cortex, softer and more friabli', 



ise 



FOODS. 



wliii'li vii'liJi' flour n* mj^li niifntivi- vnliii\ TIh' hjinl oiiI.ikIi- I.iver, 
U'liii'li onii'-tituU'H ihi- greater jiiiri of l)r3n, irritiitet^ the idinieutaT^* 
<!iiiinl, mill, whilr iiK<rnl Id ^^tmc ojtU-iit in r«>ii(litinns of imbitiuil <-i<i)— 
rii{>atiDti, ffaoiikl be avuklotl in ;i]l irrituble Minditioii^ of the bowel. 
Ic itiii(*» waste liy iitidiiK' pmniotiiig jjerist^lnih, so that miirh of Ih^ 
iiiitriiivc |Hirlim) is liiirrkil iiloiijf iti an iiiKlip'.'j't«Ii'<iiiiiiiiini. 

TIte jiroii>i<ln of wheat im-lmie, acwirdiiij; to OslKiriie aiiJ Voorliecs,*] 
II i^loliiilii), iin ]ill>iiniiii, a [initi'imf, ^liiuliii, anil ffliiU.-niii. 'Die 
lu^l-nieiitioiKtl «>ni-titiitP between 1*0 aitd ilO per cent, of the whole j] 
in (he jirc^^'nct' of wfitcr tlii'V uiiiti- tn (iirm tin- vvt\ im{H>rtiiiit >nK-<tniMT« 
gluten, !"j ewicntial in the (inversion of flour into brcntl. Aeconlin^ 
to Wilev, tlit'V nitil*' in iilniosl Mjiml pi^)i«)rlirniH; Ixii in tJic npinion 
of E. Klourfiit,^ the rlwwr l\w com]HH;itioD of gluten upproaches the 
relation of 2^ ]ini'ln of gluteuin to 7JJ of gliHciiii, the more valiuihic 
lln' fldiir- 

The en rhohvd rates eonstitute the ^retiler |iart of wheat an well :ui of 
Uk' othei- (iTittils. TlicA' ini.-liidt- Ktiirtii, by fur the niwi intivurtunt, 
cellulose, t^iigar*, dextrin, and a number of otlier compounds of enm- 
iwrative nnimiKiriancc. The «tjin'-h pr.niuhi* nre excvitlingly vnriiible ■ 
in "izf, nitipnji from aljout 0.0(12 to 0.0'» mm. in diameter. T1m?_V are f 
cirenlar and Hat, .lud niiiny of Ihi-m show n iviicnil hiluni and eon- 
wiKrk' rinfp. The hitter appear with greater diMinetue;* in flour thai 
baa been .luhjiwted to heat, tut, for inptunix*, )ii (he Imking of eraeker^ ■ 
The wide varlatiims in wne are i^u^t^ate^^ in I'latc VII,, Fig. I. Th*- I 
other earlniliydrales exist in lint very .-malt piip|H.ilionfi^ ^ 

OompOBitiOD of Wheat. — The vast numlMT of umdvHC:^ (>f wheat 
show imjHirtant v:iriulk>n^ in the pereenlap? of its several oonstjtuenls, 
fur its quality is influenced winwdeniWy by elimate, rlmnictt'r of tlw; I 
soil, ami other conditions, Aeooniinp to 11, W, Wiley,* a typical 
Amerieiiu whwit of the bwt <pi;ility shiinld yield iippnixiiimiely ihe 
following residte : 

Mnidiin' WXflO 

Pn.H-i.l- lia-i 

H ElliiT CXI rare 1-75 

■ Cimk fil«T 2.-W 

■ 8l»n.-h, vU: . - TLSt 

H Ask ..-- 1.76 

■ IO0.IW 

Thcsi' fifTiin-^ ilo not vary mat<Tiiilly from ihe averages of n tni^ 
tiiiniber of amdypas of samples of miscellaneous orljinii oonipil<^^l by 
KiViiig, I'xoi-ptiiig in l)ie prtiixirtion^ of inoii<tiin> and starch, in which 
resiieet" Wiley's typical sjieeimen shows suiKiior \'uluc, being Jcs« rich 
in tiie one anil rii-hi-r in ilie other >>onstiti]eat. 

'Arocrican ('licmirjO Jniininl, XV.. p. 392. 

'C(iiii|>tii' temliiH, 1I4!>^, f. V2ti. 

* U. B. DpiiBrlmviit vf A^ik-iilliuv, IKvigiioii of Chuniurr, Bull IS, Pkrt 9^ pi llftk 




Wheal Siarch. X 28B. 




Rye Siarch. X 283. 



WHEAT FLOUR. 139 

Wheat Flonr. 

In the manufactuFe of flour, the wheat kernels are subjected first t<> 
I pnx.«8s of thorough cleaning, and then arc cracked, crumbed, ami 
ftnuud until the required state of finenesis is attained, the bran and 
MlxTiindeitirable portiona being removed by bolting. All flour ia by 
Ln means the same in composition and quality ; in fcct, several gradea 
nf fldur may be made from the same wheat by the employment of 
different processes of manufacture. Flours are graded according to 
ctJor or apjxsirance, those which make the whitest bread ranking high- 
(si, alihougli not equal in nutritive value to those classed as low grade. 
The flours of the several grades are known commercially as " patent," 
"feraily," " bakers'," and other uames which to the public have no 
sptml sign ilicsi nee. Typical flours of the grades k^o^yn as " high- 
pde patent" and "bakers'" should have, according to Wiley, 
^pnwiniately the following composition : 

Uoltlure. Protelds. Ellier t^ilract. Carbohrdnttes. Asb. 

htea 12.75 10.50 1.00 7fi.25 0.50 

BiW 11.75 12.30 1.30 74.05 0.0(1 

Ttie average composition of 210 samples of wheat flour of high and 
ttfJium grades and of grades not indicated is, as given by Atwater 
•oi Bijant, as follows : 

Moisture. 12.00 

ProteidB ., 11.40 

E(hwc«met 1.00 

Oirhohyd rates 75.10 

A?h OJi O 

100.00 
Iiiirteen samples of low grade averaged aa follows : 

Moisture 12.00 

Proteidg 14.00 

Ether extract 1.90 

Carbohydrate* 71.20 

Ash _ 0.90 

lOOAK) 

It will be noticed that the high grade flours are poorer in proteids 

*" 6t, and correspondingly richer in starch. Other gradea ()f flnnr 

■"elude those known as graham and entire wheat. Graham flour is 

■wferstood generally to be a product containing all of the constituents 

« the original grain io their same proportions. When it aime firpit 

nio use, such, indeed, it was j but at the present time it is an unboltcdj 

w partially bolted product of thoroughly cleane<l and dusted whciit. 

Entire whcsit flonr is understood also to contJiin all of the original ci>n- 

Miiueata of the grain, but is, in fact, made from wheat deprived of its 

miter coverings. It makes a somewhat dark-colored breati wliiih is 

verr palatable. 

Farnithetically, it may not be out of place tii refer here to the 
ibmird views maintained by a large part of the comnmnity as to 



140 



I-^OOl/^i. 



th« ini})crinrily, rrom » hrgtrak- ^taiirlpittnl, of foodit wnlainiu); nil «! 
lliv niiMitiKiilJ' of tlie i-crtiili' from which tbry atv jirppotvi). Il il 
(lifticiill lo uiMloTs(ai>d how llic iiiirritivt' vuliM* of iiny fixiil intt W 
in<'ixvL-a'<l liy ihf rt-ri'iitiim of inuttiT): whii-h urv oomplett'ly iiidip-»iil»le 
und to u <'ertain extent irritating to ibe di{rt<^tivv Inu'l. It 'w iitjiati 
ihut nti iilUM'iH- (.>(iit«>r nuulo ulimt, fur fxanipk', in tJie fonu in whi'tl 
We »<■ il, nnii tluit it iii not lor ti!^ I<> ntt(!ni|)t to improve it, si^ viv lliink, 
by <liMiii-()iii^ lh(- ouior Itiy^-nt. Hut tiits H>rt of reatonin^ ini);lii Ic 
cxtoiukil Ml U.1 to Givor the fon»iiRi|>tiun of the ]hh-J of uniii}^?', ^h^ 
bi>ner< nf (i^h, the f(atht.'rs of \nnU, aiid otlic-r innutritions nnil un(llR<t^ 
ubKr Wii-itc piifKhlrtw, 

FreparatioQS of Wheat Flour. — Bread. — Kir»t in ini[N>rtimrr of 
|)k- |ii'(-[itirutiouM uf wliuit ttdtir U hrifid. In th«' broud ncn^, htnA 
iiii'bidf-s idl fomiH of bakt^l flour, wbi-ihcr kwvun-d or unh^ivi-nol ; 
ill the roiiiinon u^e of the term, it inekuIeK only thiiw in whk'h Iiavm- 
iii^ iijifC'nts an- ui^cd, tb« otlier fnniiH being (livignated ns )>ik>4 htai, 
(■nieJ(i'P», biM.-uit'<, etc. 

The !ula|tlability of wheat flour for brmd-ninkin^ \f- diw to its ^uM 
oiiilriit. This Kiilintiuiee, by reason of itJ- teiianty, ic «'n|iiibU- I'f m- 
tant;)iii)f the gjw generated in tlie proeerts, and by n«K>D of iti* wdiiM- 
vntion by biiit, fiiniishi's a jmrtMis or t^JwiiK)" prmluri uu-ily jM-nrtrelrt 
and acted upon by tlie gufitric- juice. Xol all ivrcak are camblf <<f 
being umde into bri'sid, r^iniv, n» will be xe«n, in niiMt of ukw ibb 
vexy efweniia] agent is lacking. 

For the |in-]iinntion of brwid of goo«l tpinlily, the flour slioiild ««i- 
tain not nnieb tii cxei^iw of the avcmgc iinioiint of nioit'tnrc, nixl iJiniita 
\m fto mhesivi- tbut, nfier l>eiiig eoni])n-N^Hf in the Imnd, it will kwji iw 
ohape on being rcb-aMiI, 

In the ni^kin^ ijf bixsid, the flonr is niixMl with warm water or mil'if 
Mill, and ywint, knt-aded into a i'lifl' iknigh, imd .*et aside hi ii ^raf" 

Cee. The yeast attaoks the (iugar and splits il into aleohul aiid ff' 
lir- iH^d gn^; the hitler by il» evohition and ex|ianHk>n oiiiit«B ^ 
dough to iK-eonie porous and lo " ri"*'." The fernieiitiilivc pn*"* 
given ri.-*c idt«t to variidile amounts of hielie and aeelie aeitlK Tli* 
niisdl dough w then Ixiked in Mitinble paiix, ami it;; [iof\m» i-hiind"* 
y inoiVAMd by the fiiriher expansion of tlie gas by bent and i;^ iiiai' 

rnmiiinent by the milklitinition of the ghiien by lhi> Hitnie inflmin 
f the lernientntion is nut alluwc<l to proceed Eir enough, the iwulti* 
Imnd will !»■ wggj' or " liwvv "; if toti liir. it will be N>ur, 

III plac« of yeust a« a kvivening ngriil, bH-arbonitt*- of midiuin, cool 
ntonly known in tlte hmt^liold :is .'odenilits, an*) hakuig |Hiwder>' ni 
Hn|ihiye<l veiy extensively. For the evolutimi of wirln«iie lu-id \gl 
fi^iin MHlium biitirlHUinle. the presence of un ueid is neces-arv, aiu) tlil^ 
is Mt'iired by tW iw of mwt milk. First, tin- flour U mixtd lliott 
(Higlily with the liii-artxHiiite mid ihm mtnle into « dungh with tliv uiillB 
Ilreatl muile hv (his pntev^^i \r^ rarely of good ijualit^', i^inee it is iliflkul 
f > detertuine the pi>>]H-r nnionnts of llic two np-nt-i for tli«- Uvt n^llll 
and any cxo-w of thv bieurtMitiate iiiiii>i-» di^iwlunitiun and dhiagrceabi 



noS 

iofl 



WBEAT FLOUR. 141 

flavor. A better plan is to employ baking powder, which cousisbi of 
aodium bicarbonate and an acXA salt combined in rtuch proportion:^ that 
lUof the available gas in set free from the alkaline salt and no unplea^- 
intly tasting residue is left. The only advantage possessed by baking 
povders is the saving of time and labor ; the resulting bread is dis- 
tinctly inferior to that oiude with yeast. The comjwsition of the vari- 
«tB classes of baking pow<ler8 will be stated farther on. 

Another process of securing leavening is that of spontaneous fermen- 
tition brought about by the enzyuies present normally in Hour. This 
prooe»4, known as " salt risiug," is not in common use, requires much 
owre manipulation than any other, possesses no advantages, and, there- 
(tre, deserves no further mention. 

Freshly baked bread is much less digestible than that which has 
bem kept a day or two. Its softness favors its clo^ng during mas- 
tication into a close mass which Is attacked less easily by the gastric 
jaice. In this country, however, it is the almost universal custom 
n eat bread, particularly in the form of breakfast mils, not only in 
4e fresh cimdition, but also hot fmm the oven. When bread is kept 
fcc a day, it loses pjirt of its moisture and acquires increased firraness 
iBd friability, whioh help maintain its porosity during mastication. 

Bread may acquire unwholesome properties on keeping, due to changes 

brought about in the presence of moisture by micro-organisms. Good 

bread is only slightly acid ; but if kept in a moist state, it is likely t^i 

Wnme markedly so, and then may cause gastric derangement and 

diirrbcea in those not habituated to its use. Bread in this condition is 

ndei^iing fermentative changes that are hastened by the body tem- 

pmture, with consequent evolution of gaseous products which cause 

htalence and discomfort, and of irritating compounds which induce 

^minal pain and diarrhoea. Bread made from old and partially 

^ed flour is likely to have a distinctly sour taste and to be unwhole- 

Knie in the manner above described. Mouldy bread also is likely to 

bet cause of digestive derangement. 

OoupoBinos OF Wheat Bread. — Since wheat flour itself is of vari- 

j tbl* composition, and since in the domestic manufacture of any article 

rf food the processes employed are subject to slight or considerable 

ttiations, analyses of wheat bread necessarily must show great differ- 

■ees in the proportions of the several constituents. Averages obtained 

W examination of samples of all sorts aud of miscellaneous origin 

M hardly represent the composition of bread of gcxxl average or high 

l»lity. Wiley gives the following as the approximate composition of 

'"typical American high-grade yeast bread made with the best flour 

«d in the most approved manner :" 







Proteida 








Aoli 




Hber 





(krbohjrdTatca, other than fiber -'i4.45 

"100.60 



FCOM. 



Fwm analyses of bread nmdc from three sorts of flour t'pom tb<s 
!«aiu« Uit of wlnfit, imiiU'ly, "ifmlium," "i-nlin.- wliwit," mitl "ixitwil," 
Professor II. .Snyder ' i^bows that tlie Diiro^n ounietu is higlxsit in 
^raliiiiii iiml tiinisit ill jniU^iit Hmir ; liiit hi.- dijiivtiiiii cvgH-raiirDl-- 
prove tliivt till' littler ha^ tlie hi^he-l propurttoti of digetlible (available) 
]Hroteiu. The lowtr digft*tibility of the jirot<'in of tin.* otiwo is dm- ti» 
tliv fact thul liolh have n (T»L#id(Tuhk' |iru|Mjrtiuii tif that rouf^titudit id 
tlie eoarser piinicles (braii), and tliiit tbi-iit- ivsist thi* a^ti^m of the 
digtwt^ve juii'i^s iiiid eHi-ii}»f dig(^«tiuu, to that the i>y«teni derive* Ie» 
enerRj- therefi-om. 

Tout. — III ihi! |>r(MN.i** of t<jiutiii>;, 11 laiTJt' jiail of Ibc iiioistiin- is 
ilriveii otl', the n^urfaecs are soiii-lied. ^'attT Aruiiie'H U actjuired, iind 
tlie jiniiluct U mitre eiL->ily dl^vlihle. Ciood I<hl«1 miiiiioI lie iiiiide fmm 
perleetly I'nvU bivad, mi aeomiit of tbe iiioi^iure prvseut. wliich catUKV 
Hog^finerv ; it laii Ik- iiukIc ciidy t'liitii bruu) ut li^^u^t ii <l»v old. The 
!<Jioi~' Nbuidd not be thick, bUice then, vvhih* llie surlhoe is seorclivd, iIk 
iuterior aeouire-* inoiiiL-nl .-uiftne.-s under tlio action of heat and be- 
eonuTi li'.-w dijrt^'libli- thuii the orifjhia] bi"wi<l. 

Rosks are niiicli like tii;i»^l. luMi-ud of beiii^ »iibjected to the du*ecl 
m!ii<jii of hot ciiali*, the browl shees^ wre btd(ed tor a lime in a nKMlerBtt-ly 
hot uveQ. 

PiiU«d Bread i^ the nniiiib of OeHhly biiked loaves pulled oiit in snioll 
lua^-^ei^ and Ixike^l nj^iin like nii^ki^. 

Cnckisn, or bUcuits, ;in- jingmratKni-H inndc from iinlnix'encd dough 
and linked so dry jl- to Uv brittle-. They keep well fur a long tiim; 
without busing their gHiLiliibility. If not |in>j«rly .''tored and Rii«d for, 
Ihey may. of eimrse. beeonie diimp, uiiiftty, and mouldy. In oonijiotti- 
t.itin they vary but liiih- from .the lionr of uhieh they are made ; tliey 
are drier, ami what tliey lack in moi^tniv they inaki' ngi in fiit, whieli, 
in the tin-jii of butter or lurd, is added to prevent tbem from beoomitig 
too hnnl and dry. 

Other pr<'|iiir.i[ioiiB of wheal fli>ur inelude eakei;, whieh, on luvonnt 
of the coiitjiiiiicl liiiiti'i-, ty3£>, and Miptir, jin- rieher than bread ; [laeliy, 
whieh, on iieniunt "f its voatout of hird. i* more diffienll of digvslion ; 
and Hour pudiliiijri, which, beinii very "elorte," rci|nire mueh time for 
dig(7!tioi> and olWn cnu^c t^msiition of weigJit and ogiprBHsion. 

Macarooi, spagbettl. and vermkeUi ai-e prepanitions niade with liard 
wheiil rii-lj ill |.<^tMteii. Thi- Hour i.-> niiiile into a al'ift {note with Imt 
water, and the eomfxumd then ik pi¥-«ie>il through holes or moithls in a 
iiiciai plutv and driitl. They an> exeeeditigly niitritioiia, but they are 
not as eapy of iligewtion iw other girejianitionM of wheal, im n«vmnt of 
llieir eld-n-mw^. They wei-e fin-t made on a small hmIc in Sielly, but 
now are proiliK-ed in enormous anionnl^ in Ifalv, Kr.inee, Oermnny, and 
other eouiitries. In their nianiifju-liire, Amerimn wbcabi are not held 
iti lii(rh ewt^rrii, i.vintainin)r uoi sufficient gluten and trti> nmeh starch. 
The best wheat for the piirgxwe oonnw from h [HirtieulMr di^trkit in 

' DiillctiQ No. 101,01Gl-v al Exiwrunnnt Stations l*-H D»imrtiii«irt of Afcrfcnlluiv. 
1»01. 



I 




WHEAT FLOUR. 



143 



Lii.'ob and fnini Al^ria. I-'omicrly, ii gniin from tmiitheni Ilnly wii« 
rt^jrilwl iLv ilw nnH ■'iiiiubli'. 

Adulteration of Flour. — I'p to within comparatively Te*.\-M yeant, 

floor Iw* not Ijwii miifli iMibjwjl in ailiilU-ruti'in. Oawjsiymilly, ctrHiin 

mlnt-nil subsliiows, as majfiie-iuni earbonatf, )iy|)8um, and g^i^uml chalk, 

\javr \>evn n-p<.>rt<Hl m Kiinipciiii »iuii|ili'.'< ; but !>\w\i luivo Ih-cii I'lnplnvul 

|8.i aJiilu'Tstniii very rurc-ly, if, iodcotJ, at uH in ADient'Uit doiii>. Alum 

bwii uiMihI ^•iiiii-tini(!> in fl'iur of inferior <jiuilily lo imjirovc ii« 

or to check bcgimiiii}; tlu-umi Munition. Whelhi-r lhii« iidditioii 

ItiJijn-tioiiiilili- fiiHa a hygienic nIiUul|M)inl i.-. ji suhj^ci over wliicli there 

i«>)o?iilnl dir^i^reemeut. It ifi Ix-Ik-veil by suiiK- ihiil the iniioiint of 

alum added U .Hiiltieiwii to exert an iajuriouH effei-t on the digestive tract 

tiaauniunt of ibt astriugvut action, uiul to briii^ alioiit c-mniifuitioii mid 

•it^pepna ; otJiPra believ*- that it am <lo no luirtu whiitcvcr, either to ihe 

|iim<iiincr or to the nutritive viihie of tJie fiMrtI ; and ntill othcis liuld 
ihm, while it \^ not injurious to health, it le^i^eus the uiitritivc vuliic of 
ik Sour by tiinning tiL'<olnI)h- ahuniniiui |ih<in)>hale, and thu> de]iriving 
ihc gystein of the plio-'phiite'' which otherwiM! wouhl lie iilixirbed. It 
'» a fai^i tiuii Hour, trttitiil uicli iilnin ifii luseonnt of iK^iouiuK deterlom- 
li"H, lia!« cjiii^-d uiitoWTirfl eirccf*. but it would be inijH>>.-'iblf l4> delwr- 
luiue how inuuh inflneni-c ^h<iidd be aiicrilie<l lo the aluiu aiul how much 
to iIk' piwlucts foniied bv the feriiieiiiii(ivei>mtH^t»(s< in ii|>(>riiiion belore 
till' uddit ion. The weight i*f evidtmce. however. Is in favor of the view 
thai ahim !.-> not tiuiijKihli- of prodndiig injury when takm into the 
Vfiteta liahitually in ^mall amount.^, mid tliat it should be excluded 
finiu all urlii'kv of fiHHl iotrmU-iI lor num. 
On acooutit of the growing tenilency to mix other mill pi-o<luctfi of 

Iioferior value with wIrmI flonr, -"ueh, for itislanee, as lye aii<l i-tira 
flour, a law ui«s passed by Congress in June, 189S, to meet the evil, 
aiid iniidentallv to make it a somi-e of n'venne, .All adulterated flour 
if.liy the:!!-! ivferrwl to, def<i);iiate<l ii» " iiiixwl Hour," whieh term "filinll 
be under<itood to mean the f<t<Kl pi-oduet made from whcLLt mixed or 
I'icnded in whole or in [Mirt with any other ^liii nr other m:iteriiil, or 
[tli«rnanuliietun?d pro<luet of any otiier graiu or otlier material than 
*haL" Under the jirovi-tions of tin- law, all jKiixoiin injpigi'"! in the 
nnem of making mLxed flour are required to pay a <-|HriaI annual 
['hj, everj' paeka^> Hui>t lie lal>elled plaiidy, the names of tlie ingred- 
»llt» being mtI forth, and upon ever\' package of I flli |MiundN u tux of t 
c»nl« sliali lie paid. Under the n-gnlations of the Treusun-, the term 
"mixtil tluur" li hehl not t<) inelnde "liie milling pnHluet fmm com, 
n-e, biickwhi'at, riee, or other <*ii>al'* than wlieat put upon the mnrket 
H> the Soiir or nicwl dcriveil fnim .•ueh cereaU, although the produet 
^lay contuin a iwrcentage of wliesit flour." 

The detection of other een'jiL- and starehes in wheat flour is aceom- 
tdiiluxl l>P«t by means of the mierowHjjic, sinw, ii.-' will ap|H-ar, iiic-li 
m» its eharacterii-tic appeju'unef-. Aecording to Vogel, "i) |m?i' cent, 
alcohiil eofilH tiling .'> \tvf eeni, of iiyilrtM'hJoric aeid n^mains colorlesa 
being used to estrac* pure wheat or rye, turuis iwie yellow 



if liariey or oats be present, aiicl orangc-jellow if mixed witli pvik 
Hour. 

In vxtcnial fi|>{K-iiTiitic«, ire preiciil.'' a cloiw resemhlaaoe to wbnU, 
Itiit [lie kernok an> darker ii] color and flimllor in »!»-. It iii by no 
iiii-iiii-v fij ijtijMHliini as whmt a^ an artide of food in diis coiinin.', tnit 
ill Kuniv [urts vf Europe it oonistitulcs the uuiii food »up])h' of ibo 
peasantry 

AwHinling to \Vil«y, u typi<Ml Amtn-icaii ryv «bould have uppros* 
imatcly the following oorapoiation : 

Moiatutv. , . 10.50 

PmliiiU . . \Z2a 

EilitT t'^tiai'l . .- l.ft<> 

Lrutlc lihve. .... i ...... 2.10 

Wiarch, i-'U-. . .. "1.75 

Ash l.W) 

lod.w 

AniiTJi'un rvi' i^ Kiniilkr tbiiii tliiiL gn>wn alimad, and contains ]esa 
moi)4tiirc Tbc proteids of ryt- arc luorc likf tbow of wbtwt tbiiii those 
of jiiiy "tber oei«il, and in itniwipicnct- ryo stands next to wbeat in 
iKliipInbilily for brciwl-mjikitip, Tbc yield of (jbitwi U inferior in 
ainouni to Uiat obtainable ti-oni \(lit'al. 

Tlic j'tJiR'b of lyc i>^ iTiucb like ibiit of wbmt. The grannW are 
rather more variable in nine, the smalleet of cjich kind beinp alxtut 
e<)Uat, but the lui^wt of rj'c sunicwlisil siiq «■.■<.■<! iiff llio.'^' of ultoul. 
Tin-re is bnt one jKiint of difti rcnee in iiiieros«ipic apptiiruncc which 
has nay value in detfctinjr the admixture nf rye wiib ubeat, nanwly, 
tiiiit II eerlaiii fair proi>ortion of the hirgcr si/etl Rninuk<)^ of rye ]ir«wiit 
irn^ular cmiiecj* or fnntiin-f, Tlii.- i.-" ilbiftnitwl in Plate VII., Fig. 2. 

Hiiiid niiidc from rye flour ic l)Ut little inferior in nutritive vahie to 
lliat from wlieiit, linl it i.- le.-x* plntnin^ to the eye, lieing of a brownish 
tint, and it ban a peculiar wjur ta«tc, not iiltopellier iigrecable on first 
uecpi.-iinlaiKV. Not uncommonly, it« use by one not babituiitnl to it 
causes a teudenev to diarrlioni, Hbieh, however, is soon overcotne. 



I 



Barley. 

TTiis important wi-eal is used mainly in the matiulaeture of beer, and 
but to a limited extent iin » fi^xl. Deprived of its busk anil n)uride<l 
and polished by attrition, it is known «> " |K!irl liarley," and in this 
fom> is* HM.1.1 more or l<»» in tlic prcjMi-alion of Irarle^'-wattT, a drink 
for invalids In it*: composition, barley w %'ery ."iniilar to wheat and 
lye, bnt a.* iis prr>teid.-i yiokl no gluten, it cannot be nifidc into hnml. 
It i* mixed wm*-tinic» witb wiicMt Hour fur ]iiirjHi.*es of brcad-nuiking. 
but the product is less palatable and lees digestible tbiui onliuar^' 
bread. 

Wiley gives the folloning nn the uppmxinmtv compo^tion of a typi- 
cal .'Vniorii'sn unhulUtl barley : 



PLATE VIII. 

Fig. I. 







^sv 





Barley Starch. X 28B. 



Fig. 2. 




Oats Starch. X 288. 




i 



0^75 14/J 



Uobtun- 10.86 

VixAAk 11^ 

EUicrrsmcl. Ufi 

CnrfeftWr S.85 

Soreli, tw 69-'Sa 

Atfa , ■ 2.W 

ICMXOO 

The proteids include, hh in nil eeixvils, u numlxT of complex tnb- 
ataiMirw, I'JiH-f ot' wliieli U hfirdein. The starch graniilefi are like tliose 
of whcnt, but are less viiriuhk- in »iw. {ikv I'liiU- \'ll[., tlj;, 1.) In 
the iitai) It fulfil If of niall li-oni barlcv for brewing, a peculiar niirogo 
t«>ii* product, tliiittta^c, is tuniivtl, which has llio pii)]>crlv of converting 
stsreh to sugar. 

Oats. 

Oatu nn- niiich uaed as hiirnaii ('"wd iti the form of oatmeal, which in 
the prothict "f jrrintlinn tlic kilii-ilricil siitln dcpriviil of tlit' hunk. 
The mtal \ul^ a pMniliar ta'^H', whitli in both sweet and hitler. 

The nxnpoHitiuD of uiibiiUcd Aiucricvu uiil^ as pvea by Wilej, 
is as folhiWA : 

HoitfnK 10.00 

Pmtid» liM 

Rlhrrvitncl 4JW 

t-nulc fiber 1100 

ituivh, «ic caoo 

Aih __3M 

100.00 



The mean oompotution of natnieal, aocordin^ to Birth,' in aa follows : 

MoiMniw 12.03 

Pruieid* ....• 11.73 

Fkt <1.04 

Butu 2.S! 

Dniria and inun ZfH 

Slarel. 61.17 

Rbcr 10.8a 

Aah 8.0S 

100.00 



^V lite proteids of oats yield no jclutt^u, and hence thin artic^Ie of did 
^B cannot he mailc iut4> bnnil, though with water it mn be mailc into thin 
^P cakw, wliioh arc most palatable. Fat Li present i^ grtater nbiindiinoo 
^^ than in any oilier it-rml. The sliircli unitiuUv ur- vcrv firuiU jmly- 
hiflra which slmw neither liihim iinr concentric rings. Thev tend to 
aidherv logcther in in!U«ses of vnriiililc di/c. which are dii^inli^miiil 
viixilv hv iritiimt.ion in a mortar. The suigle gniuule^ are shown in 
Phite VIII., Fig. 2. 

OiUnral i;* a vi-n- nutritious article of diet, used liir^rly ii» a brcnk- 
fiuct Ebod in the form of porritl;^-. It Im.-* a .-"onu'what laxative action, 
and, therefore, should not Im eaten in irritable conditi<niK of the bi>wei. 
It if aW likely to disagn^ with some dysp^tics, because of ita ten- 
dency to raiL^M^ nciility and himrtlnim. 

* Food*: Their CoiiipiMilion swl Aoalj^ i^ad<m, Hm, p. 2ia 
1» 




HG 



FOODS. 



Ooiu. 

Ill the vViiiericfiii iisige of the wonl, ooru inrluiW the several varie- 
ties of Indiiii) ci^m or maixe. In Kn^land, the tomi U ajiplinj gt-iirr- 
nlly to whwit, rvt, wjit«, ami hiirV-v, ud<I tiiort- Rivft-ifiwillv to wheat; Itt 
SootlaDcl, it coiuDioiilv iiRiniF< outfi. lu the l.iiiief] Hlaiei', cnni in in 
iiiiiiiy wiiVH thi- iiiiHt iiii|H>rUiiit of tJn; iitmil.s iiMiMtitiiliiit; in Ntntir 
[Mtrtfi of tile couutn' the- chief breiid food, und bcinji; the Diain eourn^ 
uf -Htaiv.li and glur^ine, 

Thp chief varictJiK arc dt-nt coni, »hi)wiiig n dcpi'craiun id the outer 
end iif tlip koriicJ ; flint wtrn, Iwving a hiii-d smooth fxtcrior; nwwrt 
iKirn, rich in Ktij^iir and ^'hrivi.'llinj,' wIicm ripe: and |u>p-c<.ini, n ^~crv 
llint>- variety with smuU kernelfi. wliich contain n coDtiiderahle amount 
of oil, which, iu the proiv.-v of roiL:<tiii^, explode.-* ami euti!>4^« the cxtni- 
^uti of the ^turchy interior iu the form m> uuiverr^illy familiar. Tlie 
variety in niont common U!h-, from which llic several kind<« of nipol, 
hominy, and wiinp an- <ierive(i. is the fhnt corn. Hominy U the prod- 
uct obtained by j!;rindin;j coaist-ly the kenn-ln dcprivt^ of the hull hy 
tunii'wg. iSainp is ih? whole, or pnietiwiUy tlie whole, of the kcnt?l 
minus the germ and hnll. Indian meal, or corn meal, is tlie pivwluct 
ol>lnin<*il by firindinfj tlic kernel." lictW'ecii -'lones or by oihcr pnHivx* 
of inilliug, and removiii); more or lead of tlie bran by wifting or bolt- 
ing. At-eordiiig lo the pit«v»n employol, we liiive i^iarse und fine, and 
white ami yellow meul. I'ri'ixired wHthont removal of the perm, which is 
rieli hi oil, the jinKlii<:t is jumiic to bewimi- niiicld and nionkly on keeping. 

From a targe number of aiuilyw*, Wiley deducee the following as 
the uppmximate Ooniixisillou of lypie»l Indian iiom : 



4 



I 



MuiFtliire ■ tQ.i5 

Protcids lOuDO 

Elhpr cxinct U5 

fniili- fihpr I.T5 

auTdi.M- Tl.T* 

AkU \M 

loaoo 

The avcrtgc of 19 niutlyHttf of mnipl«a of sweet corn by Cliflord 
Riobardfion, quoted by Wiley, shows : 



Moixturc . , , 
PnileiiU . . . 
Etlitr uxinol 
Crad« fiber. 

SUTCh, MR . 

Aab . . - 




The compoeition of iii» meal is ^nven by Wiley as followe : 

MmslinT ..,-,. ... - , , . 19.67 

IVnifid. ... 7.ia 

Eili.T .'iTract 1.33 

T'lUil mrbubydrali^ 78.S8 

A«h ._ 0.61 

100.00 




corn Siarrh. -• 2S*- 



FVfl. o- 




Bloe Siaix-h. X SSS>. 



The lowvrwJ ptTrtiititj^ of protoitU utui fate huro sliown nn- duo to 
the removal of U»e germ, rich ia tul, and of the finer envelnpes, rich 
ill [►nUtiil*. ^ 

The proleids of corn, as tictermincil bv Cliittenrleii ami Oslxinif, are 
in:t<)o up (tf ^ovt'nil iflubiilinf, inrUijIinK myofini' iind viu-IUiie, two 
cliiwMW nf allumiMi?', uuil two i>f wiiir*. Till- "tjirch j{rutiiilc? nn- pulv- 
hedral wiih munded angles, and hnvo a punctjform, sometimes stellated, 
hiliiiH. They iiro niin'li liu)^-r iluiii thoHc of iulls wbi(-h they r<.'iN>iiihl« 
miniewltat in fomi. They are shown in I'late IX., FiR. I. 

On atxiMitil nf iti« (li'liei«'ney in ghiten, <i>i'n mad h noi \vo\i aiJiijrted 
to (he malving of leuveneil hrcad, btit i( if ii>seil in ruuiiy forms vt' »iib- 
i4ilui(ra thi-refnr. It is mixed with salt and water, iwnietimeH with the 
addition of milk or vf^, ami lisiUwl inio not over-Uiick cnkc.*, which, 
aceordlQ;; to the metliod of prepiiralioit and baking, are known as 
johnriviukc, ooni di."ilip.>r. <iini |iiinr, iind i-nrii lirf-ad. StiniHinu-s, yeast 
simI baking powder are employed. tVim niL'ul is ii^fl extcu'^ivfly in 
the form of ha.«ty ])ndding, or mm nittsh, and of Indian pudding. In 
^H whatever lorm ttscd, corn meal is a moot nutritiuus and wboltKorni' lood. 

' Ri(xt is tht- princigrd fijod of a vt-ry Ijirjji* part, ustrninted at ;il«iut a 

^^ third, of the human luee. Being, a* will be seen, too ixior in proteids, 
^B Cil, and niini>ra1 matter to .lati^fy alone tlie n«cdH of tiie IxKly, the <1^ 
^^ ficiencies are met by otlier vq^etable products, a« beans and peas, wliiili 

I are rieti in the*- eoiHtilueni.-^ 
The form in which ri*t i^ seen in (he liotisebold Is the resnlt of a 
polisliing piooeiia which reniovn^ the ^(^ddinh euliolt- wliitOi tlie i^rniin 
ehowH uii n-movul of thu liii«k, Wiley's figures, reprownttng the i«m- 
poMtioD of typiml polished rice, are as follows : 
MwrtiB* UW 
PmwiiU 7JS0 
V EUi«r I'XtiacI . - - - 0.40 
■ Ctwlo fiber a.40 
■ 8l««h,«c 78.80 
■ A>h 0.M 
" ioo.m 

Rice is the rielit^t of the ei'rcnU in olaroli. arnJ the poorest in all other 
mfpeds. The pn>tciiU have not yet Iki>ii htiidi«l sysleniaticfllly. Its 
starch is very t^-ily di^^-.lihli-, Hnd h very n.-if'nl in nil disonk-rcd i-on- 
^^ dilion" of the dige-'*lt%c iract when other solid footU cannot be borne. 
^B Under the microscope, the starch granuW an^ »evu U* Ite nnich like 
^"^ llM»e of «in», hiit are nuich smaller and huve sbar|MT anglfs. They 
I are Ke|inmtecl less easily fi-om one another, and ai-e conononly in givnips 
^K of variable siw. Tiny an- sh.iwti hi Phite 1 X., Fi{^. 2. 
^m K'uv cannot be matle into bmid, bnt sometimes is mixed with wheat 
flour, in order to give whiteiiei<>> to thv. hrtud. It' i« nM><l most com- 
moaly in the freirbly boiled eondidon or in the (brm of puddingi^ The 



148 "^^^H FOODS. 

most ajiprovc^ nH-lli<Ml of mokitiK it in stfamiag. This biu* Hk- ndvnn- 
tnp- ijf nut tiikia^; away any of ttio alrwuly dHii-it-nl pnrtciilis ami <«ilis, 
which lo mnu: cstcnt an' cxlraclwl iii ImiUiu^, anti alcu that it l«-:iVP--i 
llip kcriK-Iji (lii4tjiii.-t in thciiiwlvtw. mid not iijrjjnifrntifl in the fomi of u 
mggy niuah, such as U prtxliicwi ofteu by improper boiling. 

Bnckwheat. 

Thi.* viiltiflblv ccn-jil is iiiMii vury i-xlwiiivoly in lliij^ trtrintPi' a* a 
bniikfiisl forwl in the form of jMiucakes eaton hot mth syrup ur «i(ii 
butter and .nngnr. A» it ia d«void of Klntcn, it cannot bi- made into 
hitsul. 

The com|KMition of ^'pioal American Imcknlimt in given ax fullnw^: 

MMMiirr ..-..- . ...... 12,00 

PnjWlds 10.7.'. 

Ether cxtmct iOO 

Cnido fiber. . Ki.TA 

Srnitli.tU', 62.TS 

Aih . . . l.TJi 

iW.m 

The onule fiber k removed veiy Largely in the tnillin^, and if almoet 
wholly iilipii-tit from llie while flour, a Anniple of which, analyzed by 
Wiliy, had the Ibllowing t'omp<>sition : 

Moiirtiire 11.89 

Prolekic .... ....,...'........... 8.TIV 

Kihcr vKcncI ■ IM 

{'radc fiber, . . OM 

Stanb, PW. 7h.il 

Ait l.»ft 

100.00 

Bii(-l(wh<mt I!! the iiiwt wtpensivc of tlie ocrrals, and eonniijncutly i." 
the most subject to Hdnlteraiion with the cheaper nioinbors of the e1a«s. 
Th<' iidtiiixtiire Ls deteetwl naidily by the niierofleojN?, riinee the starch 
pranuleK liave u \e.ry cbanicterit^tio apiHtimnec, bi'in({ Mniall and euiku- H 
lar, and of nearly unifonn nijte. f)rdin!irily ihev are seen in fairly lar^p' 
mn«M<w wliieh iiiv not di^ntqjRitwl in tiic ]iroce«« of niillin)i>. Tlic 
starch is shown in Plat« X., Fig. 1. ^ 

(6) LEaUMES. ^^M 

Thi» KTuiip coniprii^uAi iieas, beans, and lentils. It w chanirterizcd fl 
by richness in proieids, whieh may bi- po-.*i>nt in more than double ibe 
amount fcmiui in wlwit. The eluef pnjteid is Iciriiuiin, whicli much 
rw?embl«f «i»ein, and is known eomnioiilv as vegetable caseitL Aeri>rd- 
ing to K. Fh-nrent,,' Ihe pnit<!id;< i)f tlii« irniup cunj^iBl of v<^table 
«twein, ruin|X)wtl of legumin and gliitenin, and vegetable fibrin, im- 
posed of albumin and gliadin. Tiius: 

> CompU'K iv.ndiiR, 189S. 



PLATE X. 



Fig. 1. 




Buckwheat Starch, x 28B. 



Fig. a. 




Pea Starch, x 288. 



PEAS. 149 

veg«.bi.fibri»{gx'. :;:::::::::::::_iS 

100.00 

"i«r high conteot of proteids makes them more satisfyiog than other 

'(^ible foods, and enables them to act as a fair substitute.' for animal 

W. The milliona of rice-eaters who, by reason of poverty or religious 

wuples, are denied the use of animal food, depend upon the legumes 

to supply the demand:) of the body for nitrogen. Tlie East Indiiin, 

^r instance, has no difficulty in sutLsfying his bodily netids with a hand- 

(ill of beans added to his daily ration of rice. While legumes possess a 

Krv high nutritive value, they must be ranked as much more difficult 

I of dijfestion thiin the cereals. They require prolonged boiling when 

rooked whole, but are prepared more quickly and digested more com- 

pktely when ground into meal and cooked with milk. Even under 

Ihe most favorable conditions, a lar^ part of the proteids is lost in the 

excreta. Rubner has shown that a fifth to a third is not digested and 

tiktorbed, whereas in the case of bread the proteid loss is less than a 

seventh. 

^me individuals are obliged to forego the use of peas and beans, on 
icatunt uf flatulence due to the formation of sulphuretted hydrogen 
from the sulphur in the legumin. This objection does not apply to len- 
iL", -since they contain no sulphur. 



Peas. 

The average of 61 analyses of peas, compiled by Konig, is as follows : 

MoiHiure liM 

Proteids HM 

F«t 1.79 

Crude fiber !>AS 

Starch, etc 52.:!6 

AJi ..^'ia 

loo.mt 

A\'beii dried peas become old, no amount of boiling will make them 
oft, and they should then be soaked and crushed und c<><)ke<l in 
ome other way. The immature pea, so highly pri7:ed as a spring and 
ammer vegetable, has a very ditferent composition. Five analyses, 
ompiled by Atwater and Bryant,' yielded the following average results : 

.MoiMure 74.6 

Proteids 7.0 

Fat 0.5 

Carbobjrdrttes, including fiber 16.11 

Atb 1.0 

'160.0 
' Loco citato. 



150 FOODS. 

The canned pea appears to contain considerably less nutriment. Of 
88 samples reported by the same autboritits, none contained less than 
77.5 per cent, of water, and some contained as much as 92.7. Their 
average composition was as follows : 

MoiBture 85.3 

Proleida 3.6 

Fal 0.2 

Carbohydrates 9.8 

Ash 1.1 

100.0 

The starch granules of peas are represented in Plate X., Fig. 2. 

Bflans. 

There are many varieties of beans belonging to the two large groups, 
the broad l)eans and the kidney beans, but their comjKtsitiuu is in gen- 
eral iiiiite similar. Forty-one analyses of broad l)eans and 10 of kid- 
ney beans compiled by Konig give the following averages : 

Broad. Kidney. 

Moislure 14.76 13.74 

Proleids 24.27 23.21 

Fat 1.61 2.14 

Crude fiber 7.09 3.69 

Starch, etc 49.01 53.67 

Xxh _3-18 _3..M 

100.00 100.CI0 

Eleven analyses compiled from American sources by Atwater and 
Brjaiit yield averages not materially different. 

Five analyser- of string Ikmiis in the fresh state and 29 of canned 
^amplc.-i yiehl the following averages, showing, aa in the case of peas, 
that the canned variety is less nutritious : 

Fresh. Canued. 

MoJHtnre 89.2 93.7 

1'rolei.ls 2.3 1.1 

Fill 0.3 0.1 

Ti.t.il cnrbohvdnit«s 7.4 3.8 

Asii . . , -" aa 1.3 

100.0 100.0 

The Soja bean, which has been recommende<l highly in some qua rfer.'i 
Hfi a suitable flwl for diabetics, is ivmarkablc for its high wmtent of 
fat, and contains, in addition, so larfie an amount of starch as to make 
it (|nitc nnsniled to the dietari- of the dialx'tic. Konig has compiled 
Ul analyses from all sources, an<[ Jenkins and AVinton' have collected 
10 more from Araericjin sources. The two gr<ni[>s give the following 
averages : 

' Experiment vStalion Biillplin, No. 11, Wo^^hington, 1892. 




Arrowroot Stareli. x 283. 



TAPIOCA. 151 



JenklDi 
and Wlnton. 



Moiatore 9.61 10.80 

Pro«eids 33.41 33.88 

Fat 17.19 36,85 

tVude fiber 4.71 4.79 

Survh, etc 29.89 28.89 

.\ah ■ 5.19 4.69 

100.00 100.00 

.Bean starch is shown m Plate XI., Fig. 1. 

Lentils. 

X-^^Qtils are the moat nutritious of the legumes, but are not a popular 
•<1 in this country, excepting amoug certain of the foreign-born 
(xilation. Their use is, however, on the increase. The averages of 
awialvi^es compiled by Konig are as follows: 

Moisture 12.34 

PruUide 25,70 

Fat 1.89 

tVude fiber 3.57 

Surcb, etc 63.46 

AA 3.04 

100.00 

2. rarinaceoitB PreparatlonB. 

XJnder this head are included sago, tapioca, and arrowroot 

aAQO. 

^^agn is derived from the pith of the stems of a uiimber of species 

^' palras. The pith is extracted and ground to a powder, which then 

*^ wised with water and strained. The starch granules pass through 

^'^ the water, and are deposited as a sediment, which constitutes the 

^< flmir. From the flour, made into a paste, the various forme of 

P^nutated sago are prepared. 

^ ia an important starch preparation, and serves as a light and 
^^ible food for invalids and dyspeptics, but its use is not restricted 
li'ibffle alone. It absorbs the liquid in which it is cooked, and becomes 
""ft and transparent, but retains its original form. 

TAPIOCA. 

Tapioca is derived from a thick fleshy tuberons root called " mani- 
ha." The starch, which is extracted by a method similar to that em- 
p/ored in the preparation of sago, is heated in a moist state on hot 
plates and stirred with iron rods, and thus forms irregular mas.«eH of 
Iran.^pareDt granules. In the process of heating, many of the starch 

j^nnules become ruptured, and are then partially soluble in cold water. 

Tapioca, like sago, is useful for both sick and well. 



162 



FOODS. 



AEROWROOT. 

Arrowroot l« a pure fomi of stanJi From tlic tiiljenHw root of the 
maniiit:!. It)? mime U ciprivo<l fiiim tlic fact thai the maranta nH>t U 
U'liiviil to iimntcraot tho eft'cctf ••( iirnnv )H)i.'u>ii. It i> iiwil flik-fly 
H» a liliirid Jirtiflv of f"o<l iii tlif ciok-nMiiii in the form of light ptitWing 
or other ilenwrts, but may be coDibinecl with other staivh ffHHin iiikI 
iritwio iiifi lirtful. Tbcrt! itrc .-<rvi-nil viiiiciitw, tliv !>«( of which come 
fnmi Ik'n]iu<la and Janmiea. Corii ritareb U employed fnx|iieflt]y ».■< a 
lair i>utN>titiitv. ArmwrfHrt nturcii i?^ ^liowii in Phitc XI., Fig. 2. 



3. Fatty Seeds (Nuts). 



Niits art! ri«h in fut mid |initcid», but contuin mi rturcb. They are 
of high nutritive value, but <)n aec<uint of their richness in fiii itiey arc 
not earfly digestwl, c-vcn wlicu riHlmt-d lo a finely divided slate. 



4 



ALMONDS. 



Ill (he iiinntri<s where tlicv are iiiiMhieKl, llie nlnnmd i« <flten bot 
in the green an<l dry conditionis The rijie kernel has a *^kin, «'ith a 
bitter disiiyrceiible tasic. When thi^ in nunnvi-d l)y Hiakiiij; foni (iiiie 
in warm water, the uliiiond \i- known iis "blanchc'd." 

There .ire two vaiietie;. of almond, the swwH ami the bitter, Iwitli of 
which contain more than 'M iw cent, of oil, dboHt half tw much pro- 
teid material, t!""'i ''")?"'r <i"<' I'nide tWx-r. liolli eont;iin emnl;<in^ a 
eub&tanec which, in the presence of water, act)! u(K)n the gluoo«ide 
amygdiilin, present only in the bitter v.iriety, to form hydrocyanic acid, 
glHCi>He. and Ijcnwiie uldehytle. On account of tbii' reaction, the biltcr 
almond is not always sale, and fatal results have oecurred from ilA 
ingi'-it ion. 

AVhen almonds are baked, they are inaJe more brittle, and are re- 
duced more («*ily t<> a jmwdpr. 



d 



C0C0ANUT8. 



4 



The fleshy white kernel of the «i«Minnt contains about 70 per cent, 
of fat. The milky interior is chiefly water, but contains ncurly 7 iicr 
vent, of »ugur. 

WALNUTS. 

AH of the trees of the genus Jnghm yield nuts classed a* waloiitK. 
The dillercnt varieties, though varying in outw.inl apjHwronce and in 
tuste, have practically the same composition. Tliey ctintain alHiiit 60 
per cent., of (iit, about 16 pi-r n-nl. of proleids, and alKiut 7 per cent, 
of sugjir and gum. The Ikix.cI nut, winch belongs to the oak family 
baa almut the same composition. 




OLIVE OIL. 153 

PEAinrrs. 

Tbe peanut, known ak(o us ground out and goober, is less rich in fat, 
lw( richer in proteids than other nuts. It contains about 45 per cent. 
of the former and about SO per cent, of the latter. 

OHESTNUTS. 

Tbe chestnut is not of this class, but for convenience will be con- 
sidered here rather than with the farinaceous seed^, in which class it 
properly belongs. It contains but little fat and proteids, about lo per 
OHiL of sugar, about 25 per cent, of starch, and about 50 per ceut. of 
rooiature. It is very indigestible in the raw Htate, and even when 
otohed is very trying to the digestion of those with weak stomachi*. 
It is used very extensively as a food by the French, Spanish, and Ital- 
iaii peasantry in various cooked forms, and laigely in the form of bread. 

4. Vegetable Fats. 

The v^etable fats include tbe oils derived from the olive, cotton- 
seed, peanut, and other seeds. They are used in the preparation of 
nlada and for frying. The most important are the two first mentioned. 

OLIVE on.. 

Olive oil is a bland fixed oil derived from the fniit of the many 

■rarieties of the olive tree. It is known by various namet^ which desig- 

oate tbe grade, but is sold for the most part as virgin oil, wiiich is the 

dwcest grade of all and not extensively marketed. Vii^in oil is made 

fiwn the choicest olives, about three-fourths ri]xi, which are Ijnii.sed unly 

d^htly in the mill, so that only the olive pulp, and not the stone, is 

wwbed. The crushed ma.ss is gathered in a heap, and the oil is 

»Bowed to drain away without pressure or other influence of any kind. 

ibe product has a greenish tint and a far more delicate taste than that 

"""fe in the manner to be described. 

Id the manu&cture of the grades oi-dinarily seen In the market, the 
«ivw, both pulp and stones, are ground into an oily paste, which is 
foetal into bags made of woven grass. These arc placed in piles antl 
•"ojected to pressure. As the oil drains away, boiling water is apiiUccl 
•"the bags to keep up the flow, and that which is thns obUiiiicil con- 
"•Wes the lower grade. Sometimes, the pressed pulp is thrown into 
JJler and separated from the broken kernels, which sink to the bottom. 
'* pulp is then gathered up and pressed again. 

f)n account of the cost of pure olive oil, adultcratiou witli otlicr 
|*»feroils is practised very extensively. The principal jultiltcRint 
""xtton-seed oil, which is exported from this country in large cjuaiitities 
"Hus and other purposes. Much of the oil sold in this country- as 
"''eoil is ootton-wied oil put up in the cheapest kinds of bottles, 
""TBed with gaudy labels bearing inscriptions often not remarkable for 
"Wncy in the use of the French language. The author has seen, for 



1S4 



FOODS. 



t'jcnniplc, in)x>Iii which iiulirahtl thai the contents of the bottW bad 
hceii ■• virgioatiHl." 

Aiiiiltcratioii of olive nil to only a slight extent with the cheaper 
oiU is hy no niiiniiT^ uu-^y of <li.'lwtiiiii, lnil «liwi iJic fraud is (airly i-x- 
teiiMVe it njav be shown by chemiwJ tceta and by the use of the re- 
fViirliiiiiekT, tile ref'nii-livc index of oUvv oil being lest< than that of 
the rheaper f-uhMtituIeii. Tlie iodine number ami kuk >nifie«tion e«juiv- 
iili'iii of olive oil (in- l»itli ltrr<s than ihoK' nf its adulicninls. The l»c- 
hiivior of olive oil in wntaei with iiilrie iieiil t>T with slvoholie ^utioit 
of niintf* of silvor U nuirketlly dittereiit fistni that of the eheaiwr oiK 
Thus, ei|iml voIuhk'^ of rtrorit; nitric ueiil nud wIJvo oil^ niixttl togi-tbt-r 
and agitated in a fla^k, give a ](ri«luei which him either a greeiiisli tiojee 
oral in<»l one iiieliniii^ to oraiip-, and uo niurkeil ehiiripc w |K-rerr|)tiblc 
on standing for live or ten niiuuies ; whereas cotton-«eed oil similarly 
iruiteil yicld.s almost iin met I lately a rt^ildixh t^olor, which shortly darkens 
and beeorncii dark brown or almost blaek. 

A^in, if 12 v<: of ii nnHiHt-ied ^tinipk- are inisttd in a («'st tnbe with 
5 ee. of a 2.S per cent, solution of nitrate of silver in il-j pi-r cnuL 
alcohol, and jdneitl in a iK-aker of boiling water, the ronlting change 
of color gives inilieatioQs i\s follows : If olive oil, the color i* grwiiiiih ; 
if eotton-seed nil, if bcifitncs black ; if wsanie oil, it is dark reddish- 
bniwii : if pennnt oil. it Is at lir^I ri-ildish brown, then gref-nish urn) 
turliid ; if jiopjiy oil, it in grivniwh yellow. For fiu-ther details of 
chemical to*!*, the reader is referred to the standard work;* on tlte 
adnllernlion of foods. 

COTTONSEED OIL. 

Thi» very important »nd olicaii vq^-tnble litt i« o perfivtJy wholft* 
some and desirable article of food. It is much used imder itH own 
uaine a.-< :i siibstiintc fur lurd and olive oil ti>r fi^'ing, and in phue of 
the latter as au ingredient of dre^ings for Kuladis It lacks the finv 
flavor of olive oil, hut ilw snh^itiiiion in drwwhigscan be deteetefl only 
by till- cihicjiled {>idate. From ii liypienie '^tanIl|M>int, there iH «l)*f- 
hitely no nhjeeiion to it** use in the pre|i!iration of fi.wds. The eame 
may U* sntd of the other cheap vt^-tablc oils. 

G. Tnbers and Roots. 

In the ef)oking of tul»ers, roots, and other vegetables, the albumitks 
and globulins are eoupilnied, the tibnais mntterx in the cell walU ai» 
«ilU-nc<i and rnptiired, the starch granules swell and burst, the starch 
itself beeonies .toniewhal rhanp-d in eharm-ter, and the whole nuu« Li 
made mure dig<-KlibIe, When boiling Is the jirotw* employc'l, [Kirl nf 
the mineral matter arid ntore or lew of thi' other iinlnble subxtaaoes, 
including certatD i>riitei<i material, are extracted and lost. 

POTATOES. 

'Hie ]Kitato is the most inipoHjint member of this group. It was intro- 
duced into Spain from IVrii alxmt ihc middle of the Kixtcenlh eentiuy, 



< 



i 



i 




^^^^^^^■H^ POTATOKS. ^^Wr \5-'i 

Vn<l laUT, in IM-^, into Trcbinrl trtim Vii^nia, bv SirW'altor Raloifrli, 
xvho. ID tlie rollowin^ yvar, iTitr<»liK-r<l it nl>«> into Euglaml. Pmr to 
tliat linn-, iiinl <-vt-n later, what wa.- known in Kngland as ttii^ poiHtti 
^anil liie •'crtmnion potatii" nifiitiiniol liy (ii-ninl in litis HcHiiil (l-^WTj, 
[wpf »w<«t jtotalocs, " haiata," introtim'fil t'iMm Spain. 

TIm- itvvragei of l-'tK nniilvsi'.-* (Ainuiciiii ,'^iii|>1('h) (.'iinijtilijd tiy 
.Atwaler and Brj'aut are im fullow.; : 

Uawtniw - 78.3 

Protslds - 2.2 

I-lit 0.1 

ToUl GutxibTdnilei IM 

A«h 1.0 

100.0 

Thew fignrpH ditfer hwt slightJy from die averages of 178 analyses 

' The pruleitb) ol tbe potato are ehicfly in the nllinniinoun jiiice be- 

tivrri aitd ill (Ik- wII.-s MuHt iif rhi.' miiK-nil mHtlcr U xtiha ol' [Mitiis- 

f'^'iim, and thiis too, u almoat wtiolly in tlie juice. Tlie ^lan-li wiui 4li;!i- 
doveml bv I^nbcn iind (Jwirgicwsky lo lie m-tiHl u|iiiii niiu^h iiior« 
fMdily by the ralivarj" enzyme tlian any of the cercsd sfiii-ciiwt. Tii« 
tfirch granul^^ are nim-h larger and inoii- iiregiilar in )ilm|ie than any 
»f Ibfw: thus far jihown. The hiliini and winci-nlrii- rlnp" arc ijnito 
■liiflinct. (See Plate XII.} 

In the pnx-eis^ of cooking, thv lillnuniuous juiov in ouu);t]Iut<.-d ami its 
yiiery piut in ahsorlxKl hy the .■•tjin-h gi-aimln*, which swell and eon- 
Wjuwilly diKti'iid the eell» in wliicti llk'y are IwIrwI. Tfic eohereuce 
of the cells is redutwd, and then they are separattnl eat<ily iiifn a nnuly 
tn. If tin- wnlerv |iiirt ftf llir jiiir*- is not wholly aliwirlRtl, tlii' ivlls 
tfrjHinitcd with inure or lew diHiculty. the jtotalo ix'nmin?- tinu in.->ti-ad 
'if b«eoiiiing tni<si)y. and i^ then .-iiHiki-n of iw rkwc, waxy, or witm'. 
In llii« ittatc it is ili^wKnl much less eaj^ily, and may, indeetl, be veiy 
ttyin^ lo tlie fttoniaoii. The xuiie cuidilion i.» noticed in tin- etw of 
IKitni'M-." whifh have Ikwi frown ; they are veiy watery and of inferior 
Ihvi.r howevtr they are <i)okwL 

AcennltnfT to Bulland,' the nicnly condition is dnc not, »» »np|KiM?<l, 
li ail espeeiiilly high content of .xtareli, but to u low iKTcentaee of aU 
"uniin, for a potato rieh in Ihiii Hnhi^tantv kt'e|>s iti* "liiiiie and iicitlKT 
CTwk* nor frdU apart. Hi' alw points out that Wnt^th the skin there 
«f« three well -defined liiyerH, nhich may rcsiiiily Ir- wi.>n by Imldiiig a 
Mik cn>!M-:4ceCion »|;aiDsl a strong light. The outermost is richwt in 
Mtarch nod poorest in protoid^, but in the innernio^t these conditions are 
"''I'lfrsed ; the mid<llc lnver rcpreseiitjf ihc moan ooinpo^'ition of tin- 
*holp. 

Tho liMu which occur* on boiling is much kw wh«i the !"kin.< arc 

»ft iiitart tlian when removed ; the greatest loss occurs when the 

potaloea are |>eele<l first and then wMikf-fl in cold WHt<'r. When ivfoked 

I "7 *teamin{;, then- is no lotw whnt«ver. The material lost iii boiling 

■ JournnI dc Phamiiicic cl dc Clicmif, IS9T, VI. 



iM 



FiiOIiS. 




a, flb«r. pMioM. bi. tM- : ft, nAti-albtunlnoM ttllio- 

rumui niMinr; •■. atliunlnolil ntU«f«nMw aMier; 
mlDcml miticr. Tlic h>iclic<l ponlon wpwoaiM 



has been delennined by H. ShvcUt ' ux fullowe : SkiDs remornl, nwkol 

3 lioun'; loul nitniKCD. 4i) per wni. ; ash, 4.'>.6 [n-r cvat. Skin? a- 

tnovvd, not !<ak«(l : total uiinjgvu, Itj.y |>tT wDt. ; uAi, 17,9 ya iwil. 

8k ins nut reniovnl -. tulnl ui- 

Fiu. & Uii}^-ii, 1 piT ccut. ; mil, i^i 

per «iit. 

The (v>ni]Mi»ition of tlie 

putau> and (lie Iww cif nutti- 

entt) vrhcQ Uiilcd witli lb" 

tikin rmtovoJ an- fihuvii by 

Suvder by a dniuini;, wLirli 

w Ihtc n-pr()du»<I. (^' 

Fig. 5.) 

Potatoes are m dcficicot in 

nitrngen tltat alone lhi?y it) 

not oonstitiito n pn>{xr re- 

tion, but with Cwxi^ rich in proteid^ eiich as Dieats, beans, or fitt, 

tbey are valuable and ecounoiical. 

Tli« jiiiov of the potato <<oiitniii8 dine ucid and citraiu* of potawtuin, 

Mxliniti, and ctilojum, wliic-h fact accounts lor the antt:acorbutic vaht uf 

thin vt-|fflnblc. 

Attention lias often iK-eii called to (he fact that tlie ^mliilo lulnnp^l" 

a |Kiirtiin<iu.-< lHi(iini<!iil tiiniily, which incUid<.t> bclluiloiina, >tiTiiuoi]iiini, 

liyoscyiunuH, and tobacco, ull ]Miwerful narcotic plante ; end it liiwbnn 

|>oint«-<l out a.-, ti jninidox that tliin valitalde ft««l |y>K*twsi-s no ]Kiinwi0Ui 

pn>|iertics. TlAi-, however, in nol Inie, fur tlie (Miliito hui^ lain iltiff*- 

4piei)t «mw of niort- or lef** extensive ouihrraks of poiM>i)iti);< nw' " 

ha^ loni; been known timt ihu nomml |H>tnto auituiiiK about U.OSpCl 

cent, nl' solaiiSn, nnd that, when sprouting, tlie eolanin content i> B>' | 

|fri;dly iner<iw«I, Ik-lwwn I Sfl2 and 1 8!»8, niiiny olllh^^tlk^ i>f |«rti"n- 

inir oci-nnvd in the I'lth ((iernian) Army Corjii^, whieh were inic**] V 

Sfhnii(iifbiT|r :ind .Meyer- to witniiiii in -jiiiuitin(r or wniplelcly rip* 

potutocn. Sc^hniietli'lR>rg's lUisertiou (hat Milaiiin loniiiilioii in |K>lalot^ 

is »iuse<l by buclcriu Iiiis bwn proved by R, Weil,* who dtononstmli^ 

that at l«wl two organ is nil-, JSti cirri urn mltiM/rrtim WHi-oo/cm'"" 

and Bicterium *r>lunifii'»m nJmvliilr, have the jiroperty of prixluuDf 

Holanin from jinhsfiinw" n<)rriiully prcwnt. 

A noteworthy iiistanix- of {Hitato-]ioL4onin^ is tbnt recorded by I*fiibl.'| 

Fiily-iiix Boldiers of a company of the Ocinmn Army were m-bwHl wiAl 

fvmptoms of acute (:Hstro-('nteriiiA. Tlic i^iekuciK hcf^in with cht1U,J 

fever, luiuhiohe, colii-, vomiting, iiiiil diarrliceii. In a i)un)lH''r of 

thire wiis olliipse, witli more or lew jaundice. None of (he i-hm* endc 

liitally, tifir were there any relapses or siipidie, Investigsition hbowf 

lliat the nini bad «iten sprout inj; ^Hitutocf, ;i Miniple oi' wbieli yidc 

O.yS per cent, of solaiiin, and that, therefore, those who had eaten theii 

' llcpariniiiii u( Ajirii'iiliijn-, cl|Ii>H- <'r K\|n.-i-imi.-i)i Siiiiiimii, BuHfIId No. 43, 1($9T. 
' Afehi* for (-x|iL-riDiviilfll(' I'aiiinlrii-ic imil l'lmi-Diiiki)loj[ic, 18B6. 

• Arrhiv fiir IlTKipnc XX.WIH. ( IWKIk j.. :i:!0. 

* I>eulsclie iimilciiilwlie Wui'livUH'tirid, lt^|<t). \>. To3, 



ROOTS. 



157 



^ 



iaH portion of tVi* v<^(nW« had inge«t«l alxwt 0.3 frram of the poison, 
a quantity which may t-asiiy imlinv nitkiiis i>yii)pt'ini.< 

SWEET POTATOES. 
TTw avenige cx>DipK)iiti<>Ti ol" Awct-t potatoes' (i)-^ aniilyj**:*) i,-* givi"!! hjr 
Alvurr and Brvant as follows : 



Mobture 0»,0 

Prota-itto 1.8 

Fm 0.7 

Toul (wbohTdratw . ■ 27.4 

A*b __U 

100.0 



the 



JU Mm 

^B Stircb ooDi;ti(ut«s much the )^ruitcr jnirt of the uiriwhydntti.^ ; 
^npainder is mainly eugar. 

V A&TICHOKES. 

V The .lenitalem artichoke is so nanu^J. not after the city of Jerumt- 
Irm, hul from a oorniption of the Ituliim word r/litmole, iu»iuiiig .luii- 
flouer, to which fatuily the plant Iwlotigfi. Tliif tuhor is ipiitf rwvKl 
ta tlitr la:(t<% l)iit it in ni»t so ugnn-iihti- u.- the potat4>. p,,,, u. 
It coDtainif no starc-h, biit yieldf- iihoiit l.** [kt crnt. 
of riigiir. It is ahont twice a.-* ri<:h in proteids as the 
jaitalo. W'lK-n wiokol, it becomes soft and wiitcry. 

ROOTS. 
The carrot, beet, ]>3r^ni]i, liirnip. oyster plant, and 
ladUli agrii- in ii iri'iii.T.il way in oumjx tuition, iitid 
may he t-nnsidereil together. Tlioy are very poor 
in proteidn, and I'onlain l>iit a .■<inii!l iimininl of oilior 
nutrients. .VII of thcni are vahitible on aocouiit of 
llieir aotii^oorhuiic (nni|K;riitti, for imiviiling variety 
m the liiift, iLoil (or Havoririg other f'wds. Tiifir 
average composition, acconling to At waiter and 
iJifyaiit, i» net fortii iii the IVilluwiiig lablv: 



> ■ ■ 










Ctrtto- 








Water. 


ProMiki 


IM. 


brdiatw 

Incluil- 

lii( tCber. 


Alb. 


BMk . . . 


« 


87.S 


lAl 


0.1 


9.7 


l.t 


Onm. . . 


la 


«8.3 


I.l 


0.4 


».3 


1.0 


0»ii*rpl«m' 


1 


80.4 


1.0 


0.6 


17.) 


I.« 


rimiipt 


3 


sao 


1.6 


0.A 


13.S 


1.4 


RidbdiH . . 


4 


dU 


U 


0.1 


ft^ 


3,0 


1 


1« 


W.0 


W 


0.S 


81 


0.9 




Snyder r©pn?seiits ^Jiik^niniiTrntipallv tli*- conipo- 



a. flTwr. RiifTh, rut, 

cip, ; b. iniiHr; f, nan- 
■lbiimint>lilTti[n>iri-iiotiK 
mmu^r '. if aitii)in)Ti'>iil 

liUroi:ciioun rjjot(<.'r. e, 
inlm'rul mMUf. TIjc 

.tf thi. <^rrot and the lo« of niitricnt« when Ji;;;;i;;,n,*';;'V;'S 
tl. (See Fig. I).) On aeooiml of thi- ji<'n<;ral re- •«il<^ lAftnrssciDix.i 
semblance in ooni]H>KitioD, ti>i« (lia)>Tum may be taken fitirlv to n^prea'nt 
^wbolc group. 

' Tbe HpiTM for ojrtltn plant nrr laken from Konig. 




1fi8 



FOODS. 



6. Herbaceous Articles. 

Thesp inrlude varimw Uuvch, ctiiii!-, ariil stK>rtl.< "Wtvy »ini»iii biit 
litltf iitilriimiit, but »w valuabk- for llit'ir silt*, utid I'ur tht \*ariety 
wliidi thc>- give to the diet. It is to be doImI, however, thai in pro- m 
tcids thpy are, as a dasn, iiiiml or iiii[i('rior to i!h* tiilH-rs* hihI root^ 
TIh'V wmtiiin iiiitiii|)).irt:iiil iimoiiiit^ ol' tiit and •'iisar. The cijbh<itff and 
iillii'd pbntM are nut eii_Hih- dij.t'Slwl, and on accnuiil of (i>ntiihiii))r 
more or le.-w .■•iilniiiir, nuiv give rise to diwipri'cable fliitulenee, and are 
not suited to weak digestioiic Spinach is regarded as alighUv lAxn(i\-c. m 
CfUfg \n not ixi.-iily tli^wti^d in ihc niw *\aXn, hot is Ht]<ily Ixinic when 
sttWMl. Ixifiurc, fV'r««w, and (Similar anicles for niIihIs are wholft-onte 
and ilige.'itibh-, A-tji'iriifiti*, while i-onltuninu; hiil lillU- iiiitrinH-ril, \» 
]iriz<il (Kirtifiiliirlj- for it* deliwite Havor. fMions atn\ Irrke, iK-ing 
Diodifiecl stents, lieloug in tliis j[:ronji. They eontain volatile oilx which S 
a<'l lis (reiilli- iitiiiudiLnlj^. 

The l<)llowuig table, ei>n)[iile<l from Atwater and Br>-at)t, gives the 
conipiviition of the niejiibe» of thii< ^^iip: 



CAbboKC ■ 
Cauliflower 
Bpruuta . - 
C«l«y . . 
LMnioe. ■ 
8pin»ch 

Itmt top* , 

Duiilvlioua 
Lecln . . 
Onion* . . 



I K0.i>r 



3 

16 

a 
1 

6 

8 
S 
I 

1 

1 

16 



WitMr. 



!I1.G 
91.5 
M2.3 
88^ 

M.7 
&2.8 
«!).& 
61.4 
91.8 
87.6 



FidMiU. Vml. , rarlxr. 



2.1 
1.0 
1.8 
4.7 
1.1 
1.2 
S.1 
2.2 
2.4 
1.2 
U 



JUfa. 



0.S 
0.5 
IJ 

o,s 

0.3 
3.4 
1.0 
0.6 
0.S 



2.2 
6.ft 
4.7 
4.9 
S.3 
2.9 
3.3 
3.2 
10.A 
&.S 
9.9 



0« 
1.0 

a? 

1.7 

1.0 

a9 

2.1 
1.7 
4.S 
0.7 
OLft 



Fio. 7. 




a, lUrcb , niEKt, Sbwt. <kc. tic- ■ b.naiinltitiiiilnuiil iiiinvcnoQii mklter: r. alLumlnoid KllcnfM- 
ona mHttet: (LmlnnNl malWr. Tin* liaudiod purtiun rrrinnnta tb* iMt. |AflarSMTi>aJ 

'n>C c(wti|>osilion of the eahbiige and the low* incuiTC<l thron^li 
boiting ape ghown in the neivmijmnying figure (Kig. 7), by Snyder. 




APPLES. 



168 



rk » gcuenil w»j- it nmy bt- aou-ptiti as representing tlie entire 
Ifdip. 
7. Fruit Products Used as Vegetables. 
"Pira- incliKlu till.- limi'itii, c'lii-iimtRT, iiqiuLali, ]mTii|ilcIii. o^-plant, 
ml tegcialile uiurn«v. The lonuilo is cousua)i.Hj larj^Jy in llit' raw 
■otft as a wlad, niul ill r^veral im)kt!«I tiirniK. li ciulaiiiK !«■» tlmn 
6[ier ncnt. of ^>li(] Diiittvr. iiiifl in thii' n?i^)x<ct bus about the aatne 
■utrilive valiH- as wleri- and li>riuw, lis i-hici' Militt nuiilor in i^iif^. 
lt» mineral (i^nstilin-ut-'" niv fni- i'ltmi cartliv wilts. Tin- (■"•••inilirr in 
tiie mw §tatc, iu wliioli fomlilion it i*. cattn iiiowt pumnnuily, is not cuajr 
iif ■lip.'Htii'ii ; l>iit wIk-ii i^ti-wctl, im Viglil, wliiiInxtiiM^ iinil ttgnH.-uhlc. As 
1 DUtrimeiit il ^luwU even lou-or tli:in t\w prti^tilin;;. «>nt}iiiuii^ less 
liiNii .'i jxrr (■(?iil. of :«)li(l tiuttti-r. Tlii- fijumJi, puutjtkiit, itt/itrjl,te 
Morroir, and lyfi-pfanl Imve iiliudt «(iuil iiiilritivf value. Tticy con- 
tain abnui yo per wnt. of wat«-r, arc wry [Hxir in proteids — le* tliao 
1 per crni. — but are fairly ricli in carbohyilrali')^. 



I 



8. Prnit*. 

A* •tutv)) iiIkivo, tbp word Jntifii is lisiii licw in it» narrower wuse 
todE^i^rnate those produeis Hliicli, bein^ of an ii);i%eable ta.stf in the 
nv !4aii-, anMiiitiililvfoniKoiL'!) dt-sM-rt, 'Hie nfrr«-«ble ta»te tlependit 
upon the relative prt){>ortionR of pwlin, sngiir, (jimii and.-*, nnd otiier 
nnstiluent''. Some fruit>< with hut u hiiiiU [x-n^-ntufre of su^r and 
emdderable neid have a fwwter last*- than oilier!* richer in anpw and 
willi tK> itmrt- acid, Ikswium^ of the intiskin^ of ihe frw acid by the gum 
■nil pectin. Thnti, the |»each. for iii-tiiniv, is- eitinparativclv |«>f>r in 
n^BT, hut il.-4 eonlcnt ftf netd in pn*vriiteil from hi.-iiig pvoinincnt bv the 
\trpe runtent of ^m and pectin. .Some friiitx contain UMially but little 
of llK«t' cna-ititiu-nts, 

Fniiln iiiiiiHin but little pn^>tcid luMIer, and their chief food value 
lies in cbe stigar, Aalt^ and ve^etiihlc iicids nhioh ihi-y (iinuiin. F.iitcn 
in UKNleraiioii, llicy vwri a iiivurable influence on the i^y-iteni, bill when 
Ulu-n in undue proportion to other fiKKln, and (vptMnally in unripe or 
loo ripe iitatei, may mux- dt);(»liv« (ler[ii>t>;enientK. On uwonnl i>f 
their ricbnew in vepetrible adds and their pa\U. which in the ■ivstem 
ire decomiMMed and oonverted to ciirboiialo^, thvy UmiX to (lirniiii>h the 
acidity of lln; iiriue. 

APPLES. 

In the niw state, appl&i are not very easy of digestion, but when 
eooked ibej- atn miirh moix- mt, and when luikol arc n-pulcd to be 
■lightly Iiixativc ami, thcrefon?. iiwfiil in habitiml <xjn>^lipation, but not 
citable in the revcrsp condition. Fmni the many aualy.'^w which have 
been compiled by vnriuux aiitJiorities it may be i^utcd tlmt tJii.* fruit 
mntnine about %b per cent, of ivat«r, !.'> per cenl. of sugar, 1 of malic 



IfiO 



FOODS. 



a«i(l, 0.4 of a'ih, lie«idp)> vnrinhle nmnimte of pnliD, pectose, fiber, and 
other iniittfn>. 

PEAfiS. 

I'eaiv are somewhat richer thaii applet in au^r and poorer in nuilic 
aciid. They are tkirlv rii'h in |K-4^tiH. 



PEA0EB8. 

ill thi» f'niit, the i^iigu- U compamtively low, but the peotoUA mnlU'r 
is es«])tionally high iiud lovfm thi' iicidity. Pvu('l>es coiitain u«irlj 
1 jHT (x'lit. uf iiuklic avid. 

APBIC0T3. 

The mi^r cxinteut of apricots id alHiiit ngiial tn ttml of peftRbt9<. 
TIk' pi't'loiiti ninltfir in nlm abtiul Uifsainv iu umount, but tbe acidity 

is hi}|[hfr. 

PUJMS. 

Plums contaiu, an a rule, Ic'ih »iig»r and p(!<^n nnd mon- nialiv acid 
lliaii an- frnuid in in-Jichi;' iiikI ii|inootji. The)' art- much more likely 
tbiui 1111)^1 other tVuitii to diaagi-ee and produoe deniiigcmi'iit at' digi.'T'tion. 

I 
CHEKBIES. 

Cherries ai"e uolublc for their lai-pr conteut of siigur, over 10 per 
pent., siir|ws.Mii{; in thi^i r«s|jeet nil nf tho fon^nng. They contain 
«omewh!i( leM- than 1 [ler t-vnt, "f Diiilie JieJd and lire lnw in ])cctin. 
The [Kijiidar idea tlint, even in ripe, sound eondition, tiny are a danger- 
onx article of ft.xid if euten in roiiiniiclirui with milk, liiis tin foimilntioii 
ii] faet ; but when nnripe or unsound, they have a tendency to cause 
disordiT "f the bowels. 

The averaf,'c composition of the fort^ing fruitH is ebown in the fol- 
lowing titbit, compiled from Konig : 





WkUr. 


Sagu. 


Add. 


t^MUIl. 


Pectin, etc. 


Fiber. 


tA 




sa.Te 


1 "2 


o.b; 


0.36 


6£l 


I.S1 


0.49 


Pm». . ..... 


SS.03 


S,2S 


0,20 


0.36 


3.S4 


4.S0 


<L3t 




80.03 


4.48 


as-j 


0.C5 


:.17 


6,06 


0.69 


AprioilM . , - . . 

PllID- 


81.22 


4.69 


1.16 


049 


6.35 


6,ST 


tja 


84.!)l> 


3,6« 


].50 


0.40 


4.GS 


4.S4 


<LM 


(.'h«TriM .... 


79,82 


10,34 


a9i 


0.07 


1,66 


6m 


o.n 






a&A 


lNQES. 











I 



The orange contains ncnrly 2.o \kv cent, of citric add and uboiit 4.5 
of sugar. The juice in iMiilJeiilarly a^'i^ble in almost any oonditioa 
of bmltb or .'^okneN', and i* extrt-invly unlikely to anise any di^turi 
of the system. 



litioa ■ 
i»nc« I 



MELONS. 161 

The average compoaitioa of ontDges (23 analyses), according to 
Atwaler and Bryant, is as follows : 

Wtter 86.9 

Proteidi 0.8 

Ftt 0.2 

Told carbohjd rates, iDcluding fiber 11.6 

Aih 0. 5 

100.0 

aSAFEB. 

The juicy pulp of the grape ia wholesome and refrigerant, and when 
oKd in large amoimts exerts a gentle lajcative action. Since the num- 
Wof varieties reaches into the thousands, it follows that wide varia- 
twi in composition must occur. 

Twelve analyses compiled by Konig yield the following averages : 

Water 78.17 

Sugar 14.36 

Free acid 0.79 

Proleids O.-W 

Ptduiu matWr 1.96 

Tiber 3.60 

Ash _ 0.53 

100.00 

Five analyses compiled by Atwater and Bryant yield averages which 
vc expressed somewhat dt£ferently, as follows : 

W«tet 77.4 

Proteids 1.3 

Fat 1.6 

Total carbohjdrales, including fiber 19.2 

Ash 0.6 

Wlien dried in the sun or in ovens, the product is rawiiw. Those 
wifd in the sun are the better. Raisins are less digestible than grapes, 
ttiA are not infrequently the cause of derangement of the intestinal 
I ooi], 

' What are known commonly as dried cxirrantx are raisins made from 

Vttll seedless grapes. They come from the Levant, and are shipped 

bom Corinth, whence their name in a corrupted form. They are ex- 

esedingly indigestible, and are likely to traverse the entire digestive tract 

witlMMit undergoing change. 

HZLONS, 

The edible portion of melons is very waten, but the pmall amount 
of nutriment contained is not unlikely to cause in many persons di- 
fBrtive disturbances accompanied by annoying t-nictjitions. Not many 
malyses have been recorded. Storcr,' <iuoted by Konip, has reported 
tfarae analyses, which give the following averages : 

' Report of Connecticut Enpeiiment Station, 1879, p. 159. 
11 



162 



FOOD& 



Wster .' ^ «M(n 



i'roipiilii . 
F»t , . . 

Suipir, «i\ 
Fiber . . 

Aj>b. 



0.92 
0.18 

1.(H 

0.73 

100.<io 

Two «iialyH<» of wati'mivlonri iiot«d by Atwnter and Bnraiil givi* the 
foUowiug averages : 

W«tor 92.1 

Pmuuila , 0.4 

Fui 0,2 

Tula! cwboliTdiatof, indwling fiber 0.7 

Ash ■ • . . . . 0.3 

loao 

BANANAS. 

BHnatiu:< aoii ))Uiii1nuii^ w* nmoi)^ ihc mfist nutritious of fnutK ; in 
nmnv |kiits of the tr^ipirs, they roiiiititiitc tlio chit'f food of those who 
nn- toil Iiuy to ]MTform iiiiy kind of riiaminl lalmr. The wlililc |iiirt 
yit'ltis about 20 per cent, of supir (witif and invert), ubotit 2 of pro- 
teids, 0..5 of fttni-cli, and rathpr more of taL 



FIGS. 



iJ 



Tlio f!^ in tho fn:?<)i i'UiU' ih about iijim! lo the liananft in nntritivr 
pmpcrti<«. Ill iKith thi? fretfh and driitl fonns, it i^ esti-enifd highly an 
a mild laxative. Tlio ilrit-il llji I'liiitiiiiic alMiUl 30 ]kt wnt. of water, 
J>0 of .iu^r, 4 nf proteids, and -l oi' a*h ; the remaiudpr is chiefly ee«ds 
and liber. 

BERRIES. 

The \'arioiis berries are notable for their tsmteiit of frw aeidif aod 
-tugjtr. Tw<^> kitid.'i, the eraiibirry and the harbeiTv, are too soiir to be 
eateu niw, and must be cookeii wilb .Mipir in onli-r to be made [lalala- 
ble. The eomjinHition of the iieveral membere of this group is set forth 
in liie follnwing tabli.', amipih-d friitii K("iii)|f : 



BlavkbcniM 
('ruiiWrrioB . . 

f'lirnuitii . . . 

Hiu-kli-liprricB 

Kii"|>l".'rriM . . 
Straw licrrioi 



WMot. 


Sugar, 


Ftm 
wid. 


mtoUft 


FIbar. 
.ptcUn. elo- 


86.41 


4.44 


1.19 


Oi51 


IJ.B7 


80LG9 


1.53 


S.34 


0.13 


ii,37 


B4.77 


6..t8 


2.1.S 


0.^1 


!>A7 


85.74 


7.0S 


1.42 


0.47 


4.92 


78^ 


5.02 


l.RtS 


0.78 


13.16 


S4.T1 


0.19 


1.86 


0.96 


a22 


85,74 


SM 


1.42 


0.40 


&10 


S7.6S 


6.a8 


0.93 


LOT 


9.26 



Aab. 



CAXE SUGAR. 



163 



9. Edible Fungi. 

MtlSHROOMS. 

MiLibrootoK are reputed to be istiviiitly rich in nitrogen and other 
murifiitn, untl ui^<)i>rdiiigly l\n:y are reuiniiiiendttl hh ii viiltmhle lixHl 
■Ucrial. It i« trui.- ttuU tluy are wiiucwlmt ricli in tiitmgen, but it 
Ahilil l«' !^id iliat a laiyc pi-*>)H)riion of thi.- I'leiuent |nT';<uiii in in coni* 
Hiiatious (luiiidu <^iniiK>iiiiiUj wliidi niv uwl*** u.« ('xxl. A« a mutter 
iif kcl, the ItJial suliil ijialttT ul" mushroomB avera^p* iibiiiit 1 2 j»er cent., 
BD^ is largely woody mutter. Mushroiims uri; mtiier ililtiniit ol' ilifiw^ 
lion, and are not at all adaptwl to wtak litouuick'. They have hfen 
lull'.'il "llic piKir iiiiiii'i' iiKitt," iitxl iniii-li ItiLi Int-ii liuim to eiu'oiira^ 
liw poor to se^k for them in tlii^ fieldri iind woixlt-, in order to add to the 
Wi-r. InuMtinch :t? ilie market prit'e of muidirooiii>> tiir the tahhis uf 
the rich is generally high, and sjnfo their food value is deddwlly ovcr^ 
ntal, it would np|tnir that, where ihi-m i^ a market tor them, the yuMt 
nu ilo much better for their nutrition by di^ixisini; of their lindiii)^ 
indiunverting th<; prix-oedn into oheaper, more dig(«lil>le, more uniii- 
li"ii», unit k^w cloyinj; artiele?' of foixl. 
TrufBes eonUiin more nitnigcn than is found in miwhrooms, but ther 

Ter}- rnneh more wihkIv, imd eiiu hiinlly 1>c lookLtl njMni u» vahuhle 
the point of view of nutrition, 

10. Saccharine Preparatlong. 

Siipir waif kni)wn to the ancient (_irceks and Itonmni, and its mann- 
fjTlure lia." h»*n conduetrtl by the Chine.se -"inoe the ciirli^nt tiiiR-«. It 
if virrv siihible and dittii.iihie, anr], tlierefon-, in iligesled eacilv, Dex- 
tmv is ready for as^imihitiou. bnt sueiviae, maltoHe, and liwtow' inurt 
Bndfrgo fintt u splitting pniee-v within tlie digv!<tivc- traet. 




CASE 8U0AB. 

CWno »ugar Ik obtuiiMxl from the sugar cane, sugar beet, sorghnm, 

sugar niapte. It is \fry solnblf! iu wati-r, but (jiiiti- in'Uilnble in 

Jtitc iiWhol. EU^iletl witli ilihit** minemi sicids or with eitric atrid, 

I EpIiU into dextrorse and Iwvulose, anil then is known ok invert --iiigar 

rtm llw fiiet ihul the jKihirinilion bet-imx-ii inverted. Cane Migar 

[mtat4!» the plane of polnrizeil light to the right; the two siibslaneiw 

into whtch it is -plit, deslniHe and lii'Vnlow, iiitnte ivsjMx-tively to the 

Il^t and leH, but the notion of IkvuIom' is so mueh the stronger that 
he mixture givm left polari7.ation. 
HkiUiI uljove ISO" {",, »ngnr yield» eiininiel, wliirh !*= not a simple 
lulifitanee, hut a complex mixture of hiinvn produi'tf^ of detivdnitioii. 
It is iweil as ii mlorinjr (or low-pnMl<> milk ami other articles of food, 
and <mmewhnt as a flavoi'tng. 

Cane sugar is sold in \'ari<ius fornis : out or tiHtf sugar, gnmulutod, 
powdered. Tlw ehc^aiwr gnidiif, known from iheir color as " brown 



164 



FOODS. 



»i]g»n^" (.'Oiitiiiri variable uniotmti; of in\'ert Hii)i;ur, gummy maltcra^^ 
and other inipiiritJett. 

Snpir in iiiit much .*iibjc<-l ly ;i<liilU'iiitioi), tliutigb thtrf ic » popular 
klcJi tUat fflumix iind Hiud an- i-oniiiioii iidniixKirvs. It U pmlmbli- 
lliul sitid i» ai^ rare an aUiiItt-niiu nf nugiir :in oliiilk im of milk. Glu- 
I'lisf niii-ly is niixLHl wiiii stijpir, btit in u«d ^\ln^idlTably a^ » miIk 
stituio liir it ill the niaDHfainuri- nf rhf!!)! ji-llifr, Jaiu.'^ niitl t-xindiiv. 
Hiipirn I kit iin- .■•niiiculiiit "off oilur " iiiv tri'utwl sjiuelimes witJi llltia> 
nmrhie in the final imxvs^cs of nianuliicrtiirc. Tliis wnvcto tlic fault 
aiid make^ the |inHhii't whili-. (Vi-nMnnnlly, tlie aiiiouut iidded is .suffi- 
cient to (Siuw nr«it idiLrm iii the houMciiold wh<-u liityi- i|iiiiiititif'' nf 
aujjar ari! made mm nyrii|) witli hut wiitt-r id the jux-panition of preserves 
and jcllitv^. Tiie blue material eonies to the suriaoe an a m-iiid, him) it* 
uiilookwi-for appearance give.- i-ise to iiiiriiiicioi] ui' poison. 



IIAPU: SUQAB. 

This form of oine »ug»r i* pri/eil highly for its agr«?able flavor. It 
is !i nineb nioi-e ex|>enBi*e ailifle tlian ordinaiy siipir iind is tiMtl ition- 
a,t 11 col I fit Ition. In the fonii of *>nip, Jl is ti*ed vcrj' extensively on 
buekwIiKit viikix and with other oereal breakfast foods. It U inucbfl 
snbjcct to adulteration miil MibKtiliition. A large ]uirt of the *vnip in 
the market is H'bolly artilieial, being made of oitlinarj" sugar or glu- 
<ttse, np]im|)nalely iiilonil, and eiTivedy tbivoi'i'd bv mi-:ot^ nf extract 
of hiekort* bark. The siigiir ilM?lf is imitated in the .'«nie way. btii one 
not infrecjuently necs ^im^iinerix whicli are abw>hitoJy devoid of any flavor 
Nive that of hiy)wn sugar. The »iub«lituiIon In- flavoivd tane !>ugar is 
pnielicnllv iniixi^Miblc to jiriive bv I'heniicjil niean.% although ihe Kolubic 
]ioriion of the a-ih of the genuine artiele is aluio^l whujly [lotas^ium 
carlKiiialei while tliat of crude cane ^ugnr U lar^Jy iioiliuni nalT.-<. 'Htc 
pn-senoe of onlinary brown Higitr or mviasfen niny be detected by tlie 
yield of retbieing sugar, since ])ure maple sugar eontains veiy little 
of thi.> Kiibniance. 'Hie pwsenec 'd' gluwjw U n.-vudi'd by the behavior 
of the specimen under polariscopic analyeifl. 



4 



GLUCOSE. DEXTROSE. 

Dottnise, or grape sugar, is inferior in fiwcctvnirig power lo cam? 
sugar, and is not cry stall i/jible to the .sime extent. It is much U'ss ■ 
soluble in water, but is ndublc in givcerin and in altuhol of ortliniiTy I 
strength. It is found in grajies and in many other fruits and vegp- 
tublcs, hnt alway.H a.-woeialtii with Inviilo-e. Hy fi-niientation with 
yeiist, it splits into earlMjnie aeid an<l alcohol ; in the presence of fer- 
ments which disorganize proteids, it yields lartie aeid. It exerts a 
strong retliicing ](ower on Feldiiig's soUition. 

Commercial glucoii^ is obtained bv heating s larch, usually com 
starch, with diiiHlnse or dilute Mulphiirie acid. Bi-fiin- the final piv>o««s 
of concentration of the solution, the acid is neutralized wtmpletcly by 
the ajiplitiition of marble dust, and l)w resulting sulpliatp of calcium 



I 



tTOXEY. 



les 



ud iW exc«s» of tho otMitmliziii^ ii^-»l nn- rciiioviil. Tlic product 
ahmvs conlainn coiwiderable projMtriions of malhMc and dpxirin, and its 
roIatcHT power i>. I In re lore, much gn-alrr than iJml iif pure gliidusp, 
aiifh >!< id olttutiudile Iriirii drnW'tic iiriiio. 

GltiTOt>c U priMliKi-d iti ('iiiinaini,'> qimiititieii Ixtlh in tho solid I'orru 
tod aki a thick cwlorlc-^ pvrup. It ib iistil in the miniitfiictiiri' of chetip 
nnJic!*, jimi", mid pn'-wTvcn, in ilu' Un-wiiig of Iwev, and as an adiil- 
iPi-jflt of moloaseM aud lioncv (fw uudiT Bt'ei'J. 



MOLASSSS. 



kMitliLHM^ U a thick, vi.4cid, dark-ocilorui liqiik), which dmiiis away in 
tbppmc*-** iif the uinniifiu'tiiiv of siiKiir. It ('iinlain.« fifim Go to 72 
per c«nt, of sugar, j>art of which is sucrose anti |«irt. fruit su^r, vari- 
riii» sdli», frniiiiny iiiiitM-ro, i'Xtrai'tiv»«, ami water. It is pradwl 
KcoTding to color fmni the eheiijHwI, ultinKft Ijliick iirliele known iwi 
"btack slnip," In ihi; fiiiesi, whi(?h is li(:ht yellowish bnjwn. When 

^ leaned, it a brilliunt and trun^piiR'nt, and if known as syrup. 

B AH grades, but osju^'ially (he hiirher, are ndultenited cxtciiHively 
will pluw>«»' wynip. This nthiecs ilic swM'It-ninj!; )«fiwfr, Init givis 
Wy and a finer a])pearancc. The fraud iw delected rcsnlily by the 

B wr i>f the [HilariMKiitc, siniu' the aiiiilteratcd iinicle gives a miieh 

™ teller rcuding, and on inversion, inj-lcad of k'^''"K 'i'*^ p'l'irinitiim, 
CDMiniivH fo givr u ix<ndin^ to ihe right almost as high as Iwfnre. 
Another, and, fmm a sanitarv point of view, a more imjiortHnt iidul- 
teraai of mola^srs, U rht- pn.turhloride of tin, known also as '■ tin 

IiTvsIal " and '■ salts of tin." Thi-r is athkil for t!ie |)iir|Misc of mincing 
^annmrit of wilor, ihiis giving a fieiiiions nddwl value. It combines 
"illi part of the coloring mutter*, imil ihc nwiiltirig coiniMiniid wimnin-s 
ntiil lend^ to degxtsit. Thus a large pro|>ortion of the amount addtil 
Uia liii^hciid rimv Ih; foiniil in tin* " f'<Hil," (ir Migar sixlimenl, which is 
wJ (juile eomnionly in llie niuking of i-lieap oiiidics, such ii» cwoannt 
talPf, Only a part, howi-vi'r, is dejxHiuMl, aiul henee a specimen thus 
I'iiilln'utcil will vield notnbk' Imccs of the sfdl on ini'iiu'mlion and 
aialysis. It is nselcss to attempt to •'epurate the tin in the oniinary 
iray witboni prt'vicius ine-inenilinn, since the 'n'gimie matters prt'stiiit 
pri'V«Dl precipitation of the sulphide. TnitsnmcJi a* the pnitocliloriilc 

■ rftin U itn irritant |(oison, sind since its addition can serve no legiii- 
ntilc ti>«ful pur}io*'e, lhi;> form of adiiltci':]ti<)n should be prohibilinl and 
pnish(-d. SomeciniCf tin is present in molasses, not as an adutteront, 
Lia iHiL-aiiiK* of n prjH-tice, t'olloweil hv -nine makers of enide sugar, of 
trmling their pitxliict wilh this agent to impnive its ctdor before it liaivw 

Ithen-nirtfugid niiu-hinin, and lliiis it finds its way into the by-product. 
H0NE7. 

Honey is classed sometime* as an aiiimal fb'sl, since il is a product 

florei) np by l>w», but it i»n liai-dly be Mieousidere<l,sinceit ia obtain ttt 

HAum the nedariefi of flowon^, although during ils Ktornge in the bee'9 



lAe 



FWiDS. 



onip il iimt^rjEOei i^mt- ctwiiijrf. Afit-r (hi.-" iilNT»t!<Mi liy ilic m^-rim^ 
of till- crop, it is iV\'-)^'T)iv\\ !iml <l'j">Mt«l iu lli*- ci-ll >'f iW (iiiiK^-<»'mU 

lltiney is a «^)n«-iitralecl noliitiim of siij^tri, chiefly deslntt- sn^ 
lli>vijliK>i', will) -'•tiiiill uniiiuiitf* of .^iicrimc hih) iiisiiiiiitv, (imuiiumg ikii 
Hiiiiill luiiouule of wax, orpinic Bc-iilb, pnitcidii, mini-Ril mntier, pulltn, 
aii<l Diloo'iis :iti<) otiii-r priix- !)>!<«•. 1*lii' fliivor, »>l<)r, and mIuf van 
iitri'inliii'; !■> tlic mitnrc nf tlic lic.wfr* from wlnoh tho honoy U liiAaitu^. 
S>niL-tituP«, when derivwl fmin |ioiBrttii>u(i plants, it h«.-< toxlo pnip- 
wtii-^; lliip iiti^ liac bitii iiotwl l»y lioth aiicKnl nml ummKtii wriMK 
Xi-no]>h<>i), for example, hiu) reoortlcd niitrt scrimLa symptoms of inhiti- 
niti'ii) >hu- to iu in^^ttori, iind » iiiirnii<T <if kidiiII milhra^Lks n^iuiilio); 
pl<>rM.'iin-|)itiM>i)in;; liJivc Ix-cii n-iwirlcd l>y retfiit wnU-i> in tliit ixjutiiri, 
Afiio|itiiiii ' oavfi: "As hi (■iin-r thiii^ hvrc, liicri' wiis noihine M 
wliich llicy were tnirpri^'il ; but the numlter «!' iM-thivw wac nin- 
ordinary, and all «f the soldier!* iluit ate of tin- i<«>ml)(4 Iticl ihwr sra^ 
voTiiiii-d, mill "iTi- iiRV-cIhI willi |mrRinKt «iid nut "ih- of tlnni na.-'»!il<' 
til utuiid iii>rij;ht ; riiicli ai* lm<l mti^n only a little wvrv like men f.'n^ilK 
inloxieiih'i), mid Mich iih hiid <iiten miirh were like tninlnicn, mid nmt 
like |H-rK>n8 at the point nf d<>uth. Tlie^' lay u[Hm the f!r<iiind, in niii- 
f)c({iienre. In (fiv-at nnndicrs, iw if then- had hca-n a rlcfiiit ; au'l iIim^ 
wiUH f^'iti nil ilfjerliiiii. The next <iiiy not <mv of thcni »iiw f(ini»i Awl; 
a[ii] iliey niviM-nil llieir m-iiMi* ai)ont (he same lionr tln-y lod lo-i iKtm 
on till' pii>.'(ilin(; day ; and on the third und iVmrlli tlayit liwy got upu 
if artcr havinji taken ]>hyHir," ■ 

DioHiytrides kjkiiIch of a kiinl of Iinncy tlint niudc tluKM' tliat alv it 
mad, and iwcrilH* its iHiiMinnii!' pitjjHrticn to the f^^^ail alinmhiiH* "f 
iiw(-liiim-l mid oltu-r siiniliir pnisonous plantM. Stral«> siKsikn of Immipv 
thiil made men wtupid iiiid nichinehnly ; iind I>imlorii>, of a oiTbiiii kiiw 
in Coli'hos which prcKliictfl hucIi profound w<akne>w in lln>* thaliHt'i' 
" tlint llicy apiwjiRil for a whole tiny tojp-thcr like di.wd men." 

Honey lW«n the rtowers of the yellow ja-^inine hue lieen known U' 
priHliicc ix-riiiiiH and even lattil rcMilts, and that dcrivnl from a sjxintf 
(if rhoilod4'n4ln)n ^iwing iu thp neip^hlKirliood of the niack Svn ini hoi 
iMt'n nttif^iiKril an ]M>iwiiioiin. 

The flower of tioiiey to exert n mwUciiml iiiflucnco b* wcmiflini* 
llirnett to k*""! nciininl. Tlui.-, in AhyMninia, where the flowers <if tho 
Piifwt tiw arc- llie univerwd r»-ni(iiy for t!i|><'Wonn iind (L-«':iriiks, witJ 
wliich u liirp- pn»iiorlion of the |Hipiil;itiou in afflietwi. I'WiiriUf' (»f V 
nn* kept by onlcr of Kin^ Mtiieiek in pircli'iL-i wlttrv no trthcr pliiiil i 
t'nltivittisl, and llie honey which they i^tore luis U-eii liiiind to liMt- 3tl 
tile ftio-l ip)itliiie.-< of iIm- <lnif; with n<nv of ib« unpahtability or un 
plen.-ninl ctlivlis «iieli iw nniwn and voiniciii};. 

By mieniMvipie exam iiuit ion, which will show ntnncruiti- noUi 
irmiiis <^>e <^i (kteninnc msily from uliiil bind of flow«?r u hoiM 
wib» KRltien-d. 

llotiey iHHiinin' altoni 7!l per wiit. of noipir. In ron.-«|Ucmv 

the pn-jHindenmi iiiRiHitiv of ilte tievnl««i- oil tlw tuimion of tl 

> AiiBtMWs Buok IV.. <-|u>i>. S. 



COSFECTIOXER Y. 



167 



ffaoF of politnMtl lif;hl ihi- |Hil]iri>c<)]H.- n«din}; nf n pure ii»mj)li> is 
iJnKfci alw-aj-s to the left ; when not to tltc left, tlie reading is not 
monr ihau & fi*w <l(.-gn?vri to thft rijrlit. The piri^ciita)^ iif wiit«r 
nvn^s nbout 18 or 19; oocacionullv »^>eci[nen» urc fuiind tu contiiiu 
i^ luilHi XU^ '1'). 

Huuev ib au in)|H>rtiiiit ^uptr fixxl ; it i» vcr%' ii;rni'iililt- to the li»*lc 
guil m.<ily nssiniiialeJ. On aiximnt of it.- eoiu para lively high price, 
it is very Mibjeet to iwliillersition with glutiwe nnil nine ftugnr. That 
wWh in n>l<I in the comb, the <;i>nil> !^lill in it8 frime, Ik iilniu^t invari- 
iJ)|t }!Vtniine. The cxtniHiii honc^.'* .■uihl iti iMtllli'.-. jmd tiniil)h'r» jim 
vm- cMnmonly niixtiii'e> of the genuine iirtiele witJi ghittiw or wint' 
.•iqpir, »uil often iiinlHin no honey wiiatevw. In ordej to wmvoy the 
irlca of genuincneK-, it is a poinmon prat-lice to im^-rt a mtiuII pieee nf 
oiiuli. Al ViMtl one infci'iii'iun Jiihncat'ir of ghieose-honey law been 
ioiimn to add to esieh tnniltlcr of hi- piiNlnel ii iltiid Ijce, In MTve ti» a 
.'tlrnt fiiliic wiliK^- of iin nrij^in. 

Tlie dclcctjoo of iiilulteralion with ghioo,*!' or i-nne ^iiigiir b* an eaw 
nratlCT, .-tinee all samples !»o made give a strong reading tu the riglu oti 
(i^nKnipii; ex ami mil ion. On inversion of thi" naniple, the right- 
luwled miding per^L-l^ if the adnllerant iri glueiiK-, and i" elutngi^il to 
ibf L'ft if tiiiie NiifTiir. 1 1 is «ii<l ihul inverliii iiini- -ng;ir sometimes is 
mixnl in pnijHT pro|n>rtion to make an artifieiid h<iuey wldeh will give 
llie normal iJolariKv>pie test of the geiniinc art iele ; and that tn imitate 
till- latter >'t!]l farther, hj that miemseopicid examination also may 
uie^ ilii gtnniineneKH, fxillen grains are aildin] in siitKcienl amounts. 
Tlie n»li of Mich a pr<Khirt alone will reveal the fraud, since it will 
maiain no phosjihorie iii'i<l, while genuine honey eontainn alxiut 0.03 
ptT eeiiL of that ^substance. 

00K7E0TI0NERT. 

Candies are preparations made of r^iig-ai-s or snh^taneet eontnining 
iJk'ni, r^neh us ninliisM.-H-' iinii honev, with or without the admixture of 
Mber foixl material, f-ni'h as nnl^, fruits, and elinonlatc, stanches and 
bin to give ImhIv and en nstnter ■(■<-, and flavoring and iiiloring itg(.'nt.H. 
Tin- iiddition of <iub^tnnee& which serve no legitimate iwfnl pur|w>se, 
b art lerra nltia, which Lh ^id m be adde<l somcliiiKis to lend weight, 
i»f injuriiiuif color* im<I flavors, may properly Ix- rigiirdeil a» 
ailiilleration ; but tlie use of gineose sng.ir, eoeoa bnttcr, and olher 
Milmtanii?* of u liiinnleHH nature, anil jHi'vsfu'itig vahn' iih niilriment, 
(unnot be so regnnled. Many, Mime say ino«t, of the chi^iper «indie«, 
ilaiu variiible iiinonnt" of ghieiwc and Kian-h, but nothing ix to bo 
ill agHin<'t tlie uw? of theee substanec on the m«jn' of \4 lioliw^nicnc^as. 
The ii'e of lerra allui is supjuiscd |iopidarlv |o he veiy common, hut 
nuuiemiv utudv^-* bv manv chcmiKlK thrcnighont the connlry show 
that this suliistanee is an exceedingly uncotomon ingredient of even 
the verj' etK^i|)n>t I'lindie-s. 

The flavoring agents coinnioidy employed are, a» a nile, harnilu<», 



i::^' 






168 



FOODS. 



Tlie colon* ii«n1, howc^-cP, arc not iufn'qiicully of n potimnoiu ualiire, 
C6]>ecially in those Suites which have no la^^■s ii^iinitl food adulteratiim, 
ur whii-h, liiivinji tht-iii, niiikc no [inivi.iinn fiir their (.■nfoni-mi-nl. Thc^ 
iniuriuii« (^jlorfii;; iipi'Uts int-hiik- tire i-liromiitt* of ]x>tii«>iuin and lia<l, 
tin iakpB, and iiTlaiii itf iht- i.i«tl-tar jinHlui;^, Mic;h m MjirtiiL" _vfllii«, 
dinitroL-ix'Kol, nnd >linJtroi^)-n'm>r<.'iiiol. l^e employment of chroniate | 
of lend an<l of chruniate itf jwitawiiiin is fret^iiwitly dmiisl, hnl ili««' 
Wllwlunct-!", iifvi rllicir«>, mv ii^cil not iiiKoiitmonly, and luivf lx*n 
iletwtcd Ijy the author in many !fi»i.'inienH of y<^l]i'W siifpirs iim^ for 
de>!<>iiitin^ mkiw, und in vdliiw cuindi«.9 nmdc iu the sbajK' of Ixiinit. 
The mujoritj' of the colors used are, however, a( a bannle«> natiu-e. 

JELLIES AND JAMS. 

JollieH nre senii-^ulid iflntJiK'UM [)rc[)anttioii« nifulc by bijilin^ fruit 
jtiiciw with 8iiipir and idlowin); to <iool ; jams are iMtmewhat similar 
pri'pdnuioiin, wliich inchidc the iiiilj) nf tlif I'mit nis wvll tv iIr* juicv. 

Many of the jellies found in the sliope are made with glucone «'rup, 
vrniv sutriii'i }^-liitiii, nrtilii-ial flavorin)>> and color;*, nnd (•xlmcL'^ uuidf 
by hoiling tin.* refuse •>( eiiimin); estuhh»^hniente. ■laniii. likeut^-, are 
larjci'ly lijctili(iu>, iK-iiijr iiiiidc with (ihii'OM- !>yni[>. fluvirinp*, colorings, 
vnrions kiuiU of seed-, and nearly tit^lekiw vcgetuhlt tisstuw, fucb as 
summer Ai]imsb and boiled white turnips. 

Section 6. BEVERAGES. 
Stimulant Beverages OontaUung Alkaloids. 

Thf.'t^ include tcu, cuUee, and cotxiii, and cevtuiu olherif not used to 
any hirpe cxtpiit in ihl" couiitiy. The alkaloi<k f>f these products are 
known, i^siHViively. :vf tlieliK- nml t^rtViiie, which arc chemicKlly itlcu- 
ticttl, and [hoii>ri>niinc, which in very ela'<ely re]ate<I. 



TEA. 

The virtues of ten wcrf discovcrwl, iicoording t*i ChiiKwc tnidition, 
more than 2700 yeore before the Christian era. It wa* uw^l firvt in 
Gn^laml in the M-vcnti-cnlh iwnlnry (»l>out I l>Ti7), nnd came there into 
gt^neral use about I'JTo. It win- introduced into Amcrii,« in 171 1. 

T™ i» the driitl h-sif of u slinib, Tlmi (^InniKin, iudi^tenous to China 
and other part* of Afia, and ciiltivattil in Indi^i, Juiniii, ami O-ylon. 
l*'"n[HTly, the varieties of the plant jiroiliieiHl by <Iifferait method* of 
long cultivaljiin were iK'licved to Ik- distinct ^ptviw, nnd weiv kn^>»^l 
as T. Jiohrrt, T. vln(tl», etc. The dift'erenees in the varielic* fi>iitid in 
ooinmerw di']H'i)d U[><>n the aye nf the Iciivcs when gnl.hcrcd and their 
position on the stem, and ii|kiu sjMX-ial methods of tlryiug and prc[Miniig 
ihcm for the Rurket. The dioicest VHricti<«>, for example, are thow? 
which iiiolndc only tiic Icriniiial Icjivc^. iin<I the ]xiorc*t thow inmk- up 
of the largest and coarsest leaves fn>m the lowei- end of the twig. 




V T«s K cla^twd oommoiily a^ grt-cn >>r bliii-k. Both kinds cwiup fram 

^ !«mi' sliruh, Imt are difftTfiii in ix>int of age. and ai-o iiirtnl in dil- 

feiTfit wHvs. (.Jrwii t«i is iiiiiiii.- Iruni vinmjj li'rtvi';', wliirii tin- hwLMiiI 

i|(i)ckl_v shortly aftor beiiijc giilherpd. ami tint) nillfd om! ii^piiii lYiaf^tt-d, 

Bi.irlc itfi i> Inmi iddi-r li'iiviw, wliicli iiiv alloweil lo wilt, and llii'ii are 

I £all>er«l into hca\in and left wittimit fiirllRT Minni|in]iitiiin Cm- nhiml ti 

H Ltif (liiv, diiriu)^ wlii<'h lin»* they undt^rjf" a liTrucntative ])itH*a.n and 

W ekmge color. Xcxi. llwy iirv rulkt) l>y liiind niid iht'U licitU-d, and 

il»* pmrt^iB*-.* inity' Ih' ivpeatod wvenil tiinei* alternately. Finally, 

ibcy are dried »-lovrly over burning Hiinvnul. 

The conipo>iii()n ol' tea in very varial>k', and it is impntwihle to gWtt 

■ figures wliich may be .Txi-ptwl iis indieiiting tlie Hpiuiixirnale cnn-itilu- 

W tion of a t_\-})ic.i] Hi>ecinien. Kiinig liai* colk'CttHl Hi nnalysc*. whifli 

give the fi)ll')win(^ in'i'rti^fts* : 

MoiMuro ll.*9 

NitrntionniM tiwtUirs - - 21. £1 

TlifirH- 1.36 

VoUiileoi]. 0.fi7 

I'M. (win, etc. . . 3.IJ2 

QniB, ilfitriii, UK. 7.13 

Tannin 12.30 

Other cxtnictiTu 10.76 

Fibw 20,30 

Ai*l> ■■■■II 

100,00 

nt it sh'Hibl bo said tfinl llii.< variation'' in the ninnniK.-' of individual 
miutituents of ihew Hi ^peeinieiis are verv widt : for tii<itanee, water, 
ia»to 16.06 ; ttimc, 0.40 to4.i)-l; tannin, 4.10 to 20.88 ; tilicr, l-i.tl 
to 25.06. Drajjcndorff found, in '23 speeiniens. from 1.36 to 3.09 per 
«aLof tlieine, 7.10 to ri.flC of moiritui-e, and from 24.80 to 44. oO 
piTccnt. of total miIiiMi? con-^titneiit:*- 'Hip !wli of pure Urn is lairly 

■ nsL<(ani in anwmut, and almont never reacheiK as high iia 7 [>er cent.; 
unmlly, lM-tw«i'n 5 iind d |nt c*Mit. 
T(a ^IiouM be uw?donly in llie form of an infusion, niadc by )Kiiii'ing 
Wliiip walt-r upon tin- reipii-niti- ;imonnt of Icjivt^. tuid allowin); it lo 
k-H.imt a shnit ivlnit to "draw." It is uueil not inK^^mmi ndy in iho f'>rm 
df a dei^ietion ; that in, by iMilinj;. Thi.- prnei'.-w U obiit-tionablc in two 
nj"*: firet, iht* delicat*; uroina is IokI by the e.\pnl<ion of the very 
■Tolatile essential oil ; and second, the Itaves are made to yield all ihiir 
Lfennia an<l oIIht I'Xlractive-t, wbi(4i tend In bring iibont, suoni-r or 
Iter, derangement of llie dige!=tivo fnnt'lion and a catarrlial condition 
Hk slonineli. The line.«t and m<i>i delieatv poriicm of an inliisioti 
that wbidi is ]toure«l otf within three or four minutes, for in thia 
be found a maximum of flavor with a minimum of bittenicJ'H nnil 
a»lTing»iM^". The i-xiTllctn'c of .-in infusion is inflni'neeil eoiisi<ler!ibIv 

R(y the ehaivicter of the water, which, if \'erv hard, i-' ■'low in extraoling 
be dcnindde loluble eonstitiient.-*, while, if very ^ol't, it extracts uut 
only tluTise, but far too nipidly the les* dci^inible prinoiple*, 

\Vh<« properly mad«, tea in moderation in a wholesir)me, ngiTMible, 



170 



FOODS. 



■ltd rffnwdiiip Miniiiliitil Iwvcmp;, ictrtioiilarly grawfiil Id wmilitior*.-* 
of mtiitHl or |>))y!^u3tl w«iriiii>*. l'««-<l in vxniKi, it i'Xcrt.-> a kirmfii/ 
inHii«fH'o upon tbe iM^n-o<i!i t^VHti^i, aod in a too stmo^ form iojurc^ tlic 
digvMtivv (rnrt iiml ruiKlioii. 

1*be abuse of t»i a» a Itcrverugv leads, anv*n]iiig tu Biillitn:!,' tu ring- 
iiij; ill lJ«; ««r>i, intiior, m-rvoii.-m-w, h<-:i>)iirl)i-, iK-tinil^ia, hv^terb, 
irr*T;:iil:«rily of tlw heart, iK>|inoii, lly^|K-]l-i», ami <i>n>ti|>ati<in. 

I>r. Hny««, the An-tiT exjilonT, has l4«<tili(xl u> the valii4^ of t«i »ml 
ciiftVv in t-iiuhliiiK milt to i^itilurc iiilil ami luin]iJii|) of all sorts U 
In-ill); eipw-ially s*i>thing at ihe einl of a luinl day's work. 

Whilf tim liy itni-lf itiii Imnlly lir looWl ii|h>» iis iin urtirlc ■.i!^<in\- 
itif; any itn|Mirt»iit amount of iiiilrimvut, Af' <-onmiouly ixktiMiii'ni il 
M>r\'i^ iiM a vfhii-]*- for utiier t>iihi<taitns, as M^r, milk, and cnoui, 
linviti^ lit<rh iintritivf vnluc. 

Adulteration of Tea. — It u commonly etata) and gtdionllv l>e- 
lttv.ll tliiit t<-.i i* iidiiltiT.iIvil fXttoMvi-Iy witli i.tl»-r kind!- of Imh*^ 
iiirliiili»]f ilii>-c of the Im'('o)i, hUh; willow, and liiiwUioni ; l>itt it tlir 
jiri't^-iit tinu-, it in irxtn-nii-ly ini)ir<iliitl>l<- lluil xui-li iidultciimfi e\-crsR 
tnixcil with t«i known to bt* int<.>ndt.>d for export to thif> nuiDirY. 
Wliaii'Vi-r ilio (!i)iii1Iiion-' niny hnvc Imiii prior to tho onaotniMit<if ll* 
iixtiori.-d Iiiw fTovcniiiig lea inii>iii1ntioii, lln- Ih-t now is tlmt imrWa 
wipjdy is {iniriiciilly frrv fnmi thih fonii of ndiil((.-rniion. Thiilrtw 
tion of 8]>liriouK Imi k«ivcs would be nn «i»y miilt^-r, wiiKf thi- jfiiimn'' 
liave a vory fhuraoteristio api»«?aTaii<* which can hardly hv <vii)fiwl 
"wiili iliat of miy of liic jiowiliU' niik-iiniliw ; and t-veu wheii limktii 
into >'iimll bite, tliv chjiracteriwlic difllrtiu'ps in venation and ^ttraliiai. 
un<i in llic sloniiilii iis wi^'ll, an- jilnitdy diwemilile. 

More probable fonntt of adnltcratioo inflmlc t\w udniixloit of 
wholly or jnrriiilly cKhtmHtH l«ivcs ; the addition of nstrinp-iil m»l- 
tt-rw, MH'h a* catfihn. to li-nd cidoruiid iijijiiin-nt Mwiiglli in thi- infiHon; 
iho jirewuM' of foi'i-iirn mincntl iiiatltr ; and the [>iwtt<t- of " facing- 

'I'lii- (iri-.-tt-nif of any lurj^ jnii|iorlioii of i-xImtiHU'd kwves na b* 
drt«i!t«t by thp low amount of total wihildc oxtriK't and by tho nwU 
amount of -ulublc iwh, which should not bi- less than fl ]»r «-ut. "ft'* 
wii|.di( of the Iwivt-*. Tlic iirwemv of ini|Mirtnnt nnionut.-* of n«iJtiil« 
or iiddi-rl niincr.d nvilicn^ ii^ sh(l^vu in ilic total luih, wliii'li in it pittuw 
KIMi'iniiii nu'i-ly nniounU to 7 uml iii'ver to S [kt iimiI. Tho snlitwi'*** 
nnwl iii\vH foniiil arc sand and soapstoiie ; the tiivt nanic<l ii^ luund nobW' I 
linu'." in amount.- i-xtN^liufr -■'• ix'f oirnt. I 

Cntcctui is niiiiliiil tHxti-ionally to ixliaui't^'d tco lniv<« with the 3m\ 
of solutions of ^unituv niatu-rs, for ih*- purjHiw of addin;; aytrinp-iioyj 
and iMilor to the infuh^ion, Tvni!' »f tnatid havo but little, if any, of^ 
the Inn- aroma, and their infuHoiiH yield a sediment in which tht- 
tielof of (Tiltvhn ean readily Ik- ^w\. 

The obji-d of "faeinfi" i" to make the produot ap|>iiir to be < 
greater value, and the pnirtiee is thon^fore, pnii)rrly ^ixuking, 
whieh fHitncK within the dflinilion of fruu<hi]i'nl iKlidt*?n)lioD. Dams 
> Ilmtim M«ilinl ami SarRic*! JoitmnI, April 8, 1)^1, anil ScpletnberS, 1887. 



COFFEE. 



171 



wotberwMi- inftriw Imves are matwl with Prii»iiaii Miie, plumbago, 
iiidigo, iim! otluT siibHtniKK'S, iirnl iIk- >iiiii1! uiiiiiiirit which iulh('ri'.« ini- 
jiroviw llieir cnlor ami general apiMLaraiico, Tiii- ani(Hnit is too small 
bi be of uuy Miiiiar\' i>igiiifi(3tiK'c. TIk' jinvfiu'c of tiiciii^ inntcrinl^ 
amy be ttetn^ted by the tuie of the microscope auil by cheioical aualysis. 



I 



COFFEE. 

CofK* is the seeds of the Cuffai .imhlm, dried and deprived of their 

Bwliy iiivcrinj;. Tin- fruit U a small l>nlp_v Ih-itv coiitaiiiinj!:, iL->ually, 

tmjuxtls. The tree i.« raid Vt hjivc orijjiiuit^tl in Ahywiiila, iNlii-rf. 

IwHvviT, in tlip seven tt'onth ei-ntiirv- llu'iv wtm fnw, if any, siK^cinien^, 

,flld to have Ix-tti intriKhKiil inU* Aniliiii In tin- ril>e<'iith wnlnry. It 

» now (rrowii very extensively in Bra/il, .lava, I'erii, Ceyhni, West 

IiiilIeK, iind Ollivr hot ronntnis. Tlii'lii>l Knr<)|M>:iii In niHilinn it was 

^osper Alpinns, of Padua, who ineliidetl it in an iU'.fxnit of K|;ypli»ii 

'|illtiiL-<, |inhii«lKil in l'ifl'2. Tin- lii'>t work clfV')ti'd wholly lo oifl'pe 

was* small Ixitin treatise, f>c m/ubo-rim" pi-Hniir raliui; by Faustus 

Xflim, ICiinn', lfl71. ColVw wif* first woUl in I^mdon liy ii I>!v«utiiie, 

iu 16.>0, and jiome years aflerward wiis iMlritthift-d iiilu I'mnw. The 

^It wh"le <«i^ii introdiici-d into Ihifi ctiuntrj' arrived in ISOl), but 

holistic were liceiisetl iu Majiwiclui>wtts an ejirly a.-- I 7 1 o, 

Tlie worM'n prodnetion of coll't* for tho yi«r end«-d Jnne 30, 1!)00, 

ins wtiinute<l at almwl 000,000 tuns.' This eoiintr\' alone oonmimes 

more ittait the whole of Knni]>«-: in IJ^fl? we [-ririonnKil .118,170 imM 

af^iiri .'JO'i.loO. Tlie total crmsumption by Germany wiw l.'ilJ.^UlO ; 

by Framv, 77,;UO; by Kiiclnnd, l:i,4:iO; ami by luily, I2,rinn tuns. 

A» i» llif raw with tea, tyotfvc mui^t underjio a pivwesB of nwistinji 

before it is 6t for use, althon(^h it is siiid that tlic Anibiaiis ninl other 

I^itorii pcoplw make a dtxyM-tiou "f the raw sirticle and jiwidhiw the 

frotinds as well aa the liignid. The roasliiij; is eondueled at aboiit 

2H0' ('. until llio nnfimil (Hildr, whit-b h nn-eniisb, jniiyisli, or dnih. i* 

changed to a rich dark browni. During the proeess, wrtaiii volatile 

unmatic prineijilos an- cU'vel(i|)ed, llie iilk.-iloid ejin'chie is diss>i('iiiii<<l 

fn>n> itic nnion with Uinniii, the nioi.-tui-e is vi^ry ]arj;ely esj>elled, ibe 

aigar is e:ininielixMl, jra,-e> iiri' Ibrrmil (lurfri'lv nirhonir- dioxidi-) whieh 

rausc che berry tn "well, and much ni|(tnring of the wll layers occurs. 

The berry thus loses in wtnght iin<l piiiis in hulk. The jinx'O.'w must 

he eondaetwl cari-fnlly. cW- the i;|Unlity will not W what is desired. Miice 

if llif niHsting is not pnshiil sntruicnlly far, then- will l>e insiiflii-ient 

•Icvclopmtni of nminii ; and if it in earri*il to" tar, the vnliitiU> matters 

arc'*xp(-11ed»nd the product accjuii-ft. an nnpleanant taste. On account 

of tlie volatile nature of the nrmuatio prinpiplc* tievclopad, eoft'ce 

fibonid bo nMrtinl only a» the demands of commerce make it neerssary. 

On long ket^pin^, except in hemicliailiy siidisi (^onliiiinT-, il nndirpics 

extensive di-terif)ralion. For the same reason, the roasted berries 

should be ground only as m-eded. 

' Cwwulur IWpom, Vol. LX., |>. 358. 



FOODS. 



Coffee contains leits caffV-inc (tlicinc) tliun is fouud in ti 
cndnriT fotiml tlie nmouiit in 26 sanipleii to vary betn-ecn U.64 sihI 2.21 
|icr oi'iil., uln-ii'ii.t ill nbiml Ijk' ■■viiiif iiiiitilx^r (23) "( miap\(» of tea, 
tiie ran^'c wsis 1.36 to 3.U9. It c-iL>tita!n!' ciHisidcrable amnitntn of fel, 
Ifcjuinillj- over 12 |«t ifiii., hIhhu rlii' Ktnw iiinontii ni' iiitmgcnous 
iiiHttfiv, small, ({iiitt? unini|)ortaut aiooiints of sugars, gummy matters, 
and otiier substanocs, and about 40 jmt «?Ht. of fiber. 

CdHVt i" iixii in infiinion and a* a dcwidioii. Like t«a. it loses ita 
plfa^sini anmia wluai bi^iWI, but its decoclioD i.- Icsh biitt^r and u.*rnii- 
gviii rliaii tbnt "f li.a. In imk-r Ui oujny botii tbo fragraii«? of an iu- 
fuiuon and tlie strength and body of a decoction, it is not an unmminon 
]>riiotice to niakv llmt thi.- mio and [umr it off, and ibcn, with u frp^li 
]Jorti(>n oF water, to boil the grouutl>i for a few minutes, and thi>n to 
mix the two ]ti[nid!t t/igt-llur. 

(.'('Iftt' acts as a dt^iiridcd stinmbint to the ner\'oi» i^-etem, enabled on^ 
better to perform ai-diiouH work, and diniiiiiiihfti tlie »en»e of latigiic. 
Ill Kiuall HUKiuDts, it iucrtiisps the force and frequency of the ptihe, l>ut 
lalvcn in excesMve (|nantities, it taiines [Kilpitation and intenniwion. 
lH-i<It^ p'ucnil ncr\-i)ii(intvw ami dcniiipeniciit of iIi^ij^tioD. It bus a 
marked inhibitory- influence on gastric <)igestion, and is more oppn^iiive 
ti> the utoinaeh (ban U« and, bcn<y, ^hcllI1d l>e iiwd witb ctuition by dys- 
|)eptio. With i»mc |)ersons it stunulates peristalsis, ailtl tlins acts as a 
genllc ciirharlii.'. Il iiicr<'iiM>.-> (lie !«-('reti<iu.-> of ihc skin iitid kidnoi^. 

Coflee is adulterat<il very extensively with a variety of substances 
of widely diflerwit naliin-, iurliidiug chiiuiy, dandt-linu, and irthcr nKjt*, 
roastwi cereals and legumes, sawdust, date stones, red slate, acorns, aiwi 
o'.licr rheiip article. Il i* not alone in tlie ground lorm lltat il ix 
fiiliiitied, for even the beans are imitated with mixtures of flour and 
olber ni.-ilerialx, ni(tulde<I to tlic COrret*t »lui]>e and carefully roa^tetl and 
colored. 

The det<*lion of adultemntd in ooffee re<(iiires but little time. Of 
gn-at assistaiKV^' is the fact that collt-e wiritaiiuf absolutely no .-Ijireh, 
while mn-I of the ooinmoner adulterants eontiiin it in abundance. 
TlK'rcfiirc, if a xpccimcn under exnniiniilion Ik lioik-d uiul tilli-ntl, ami 
the tiltrate gives a dirly blue reaction with test-solution of iodine, one 
may be Mir<' tlint ailnltiTiition ]w> hifu pnicti.'^l. But not all of llit> 
adulterants are starchy in their iiiitnre ami, therefore, other examination 
is neciw^flirv. Micnwcopical ■■Xiiminnlion will deitt'l not only thestarehy, 
l)ut the non-starchy matters as well. I'nder the niicn>sc<i|M', i;»iiiinl 
roffee has a i-haracti-ri.-lie apixwrance whieh cannot Ix- mistaken for any- 
thing el«f. (.'hiwry and other roots, date stoncK, and all other lierriis 
an<l H?eds have their ovm (•hai'a<'(eristies. l-'or the mere determination 
nf the qutv^tion uf purity, only a knowledire of the micntHHsjiiml a|H- 
jieiiRinee of coffee itself is reijuired, and this is acquired eiisily !in<f 
quickly by dirtv-t !*tiidy. For the identifieation of tV adulterants 
pr«-«ent, one necessarily should be familiar with the appearance of all 
i>f the snlwtanw* uwd. 

Cliicun' is the root of the Ctchormm intybtu, a perenniul herb, grow- 



I 



( 



COCOA. 



]7:J 



I 
I 



mgwildutu) extt'nsivdy (luIlivjiU'^l in lliis njiinln-niul in Kiiivtpc. The 
imrn are c1c!«]i«I, cut into jiit'oeH, iliinl in kilii!^, nui^tcd in injii I'vlin- 
<la*, iiml trrimiiil iiiUi u cuitrst- |)>iwdi'r. Lik<- coffee, cliiairy vkh^n 
BKi-li'd contains a voliitilc print-i|>lc suid h Mttcr. It la iice<l i)i>tli fw 
ita ailiiln-Rint ami it-* a hubstitut4» lor coffee. Mixed with coffee, it U-uOn 
butli (wlor uwi flavor to tlir iiifnmini, iiiui t)_v in«ny U n.-gnn\t^l if a 
iJiM»ble addition. It itself is subject to mluttenition by cheaper roots, 
fnuti M mnn};i.'lwiim.-l and dun del ion. 

Coffee and diicorv behave vcn' differently when tbronii into voh\ 
wjiter: thw former float* smd rirtiiinn itf firm <'oiisiHiem'e, while the 
Iwicr absorbs u-ater very qnickly Htnl sink^, and in its dtwccnt icavcs 
streaks of o>lor. Coffi* which lia,t been iHKi-ited too much will, how- 
ever, somdimcs "ink, and clncort' which bji.i liwii trtiitcd wiili tiiity 
jubilances will float, Mixlnnw of the two can often be detected by 
till- (iiflcrciiw in rwijilance when pliicc"! Itclwecn the tet'lh. Tin* [iiir- 
^ioleb of coffee are much harder than those of chicory, which yield very 
Awdily to itn^s^nrc iind idno liaw a .■•wecriKli taste. 

Inferior and diuna^rol nnv coffee?- not infrequently are c<)kinLil luid 
&ced, in onier that Ihcy niiiy bf irn|)rovc<l in ii[)|Miimn(v or Iw made 
Id imitate l»cttcr Rradc. The fticinn ajieuts niscd aiv mixture* i-ontaiu- 
iug variable amounts of ultntuarine, indigo, clay, gjjisnra, chrotuatc 
of Ii5«l, and (iiid dnjit. 

Accijrdin); to (J, M'irtz,' inferior grades of coffee are treated lar^elv 
at Antwerp, liollt-iilani, Hainburj;, Brcuicn, und cIm," here, by wu.-hiiiji, 
*»loriDg, and finally drying by cenlrifngation with sawdust, tlie refiult 
being a fine white pnxluvt of an a|i[)Hrcntlv (frcfiter value. 

P&ckagc coffees sold nnder various n.'uues, .MU<:h as " French Break- 
liut Coffee," "Vienna Coffee," and ■' Eiut-ka Hn-ak liwt 0>ffec." arc 
mrely unytliiug more llian nxiiited and gnniiid cereals and |)eas. It is 
to bo said, however, that their eluiraeter UHiially i* indieiiii-d in Ihc 
din-etion.-t tor nw jirint^il on the label*, which cijnimonly begin by 
utlvihin^ the use of "'a thinl more than you would use of j^-iuilne 
<offw." Mierosenpieiil exarniimlioD and tlic iodine tcrt will rev«d 
lieir euinpusitiou very quickly. 



COCOA. 



l!» denvitl Iroiu the "^■eiN of the Tlimhromn cncao, a native of tropical 
America. Il is i^tiinaled that the annual pmtluelion of the !.ei-<U 
UDoantA to al)i>ul l.'>n,000,000 ixiiiiidK, more tluui n fifth of which i» 
expoft'tl by Ecuador alone. Nearly a fifth of the annual crop is con- 
Muued within the rnit«-<l State-., 

»Th« fruit of the cotjoii tree U a jkmI. alKUit a f<iot long and half 
Hji wide, filled with " beans," or "chowilate nut.-," about u> largi- .-i." 
almomU, iiubiil<li.-d in five row* ui' fmm four to icn «ieh in a pulpy 
matrix. ^\ hen ripe, tlie pods arc gathered and coIleete«l into h(vi|ts, 
und left tor a day or longer; then they are enl ojk^u and tleprived of 
' ZeilacJiiifl fiir L'atcrtiKbung dor NiihriinKi« uiid ()«inuMiiiitt4il, ISO^, p. m. 




174 



F002W! 



t.Jie i*c«I?, which arc jillowotl (o iirKlfrgo a prix-ws of fi'riiicntatioii 
in eiirthpii vesst'ls or in hult-i* in the ;j:r<iuiiil. Thi-s pifitcsH, wliich inii.-t 
l](- n)j:iiljitiil vi-rv iwivt'iillv, hH> tin- itn objii-t th<- ivmoval «ii' nii acrii!, 
bitter Xiii-te mnl fi'iiwtiiiciit iii)|»n>vcnit'iit iii flavor. Sometimes, the 
&ecfU ai-e dried in tht; xun as simu as n-move<l, hut the |inMhii-l is thin 
of miifli Its** vahic; soniotiinc^, the ciUiix- \>ml i* hutii^ii until tht' jmlp 
bet'omec rotten and wtifleiit'd. AVhen the I'eniientatii in iiroi-i^w !.■< cum- 
jilclitl, the sn'tsii" iiR- drill! I'liri'tiillv in the .-•iiri, niid ihcn bccntnc luiixl, 
brittle, and reddi^i or reildiwh hronn in t-olor. 

In tho pri'imralkiti of iioooa for the market, the r-vcti" first are ekvined 
ami cjirefiillv nmrted. A« is the wi«? with c«IJee. the roastinj; nmst 
\w earned to ii eerlain jMiinl to insnre the devil"|)nii'rit of ihe iliwired 
(liivor, hut not so far hevoud as to im)mir it, Duriiif; this |mK'tvf^. the 
thin husks of the seeds become nioi-e detaehabh\ ami hifore the next, 
o|H'nitic>ti they niv removed. 'J'heii the ivviU lire enisheii litjhllv and 
freed fmni their hardened! permt^, and in this form are known as "nibti." 
Thtvie aiv ground in a .-ijieein! form of mill into ii pasTc (" flake (""i-oa "), 
whieh is iiioidtle"! hito eiikm- and allowed to hanleii. In this form, the 
]irf»dnet is known as j>lairi ehmiiliite. The sweet and flaviircd choi-o- 
liites arc made with the adilition of siiptr, vatiilla h«ms, einnamoii and 
other spices. Inferior vanilla chocolate is made with artificial vanillin 
and eoiimnriii, in pUi-e of the fur nuirc exjwnisive and belter tiavon'd 
vanilla l)can. 

For the prepaiiilion of powderc'*! eoemi, it is niiT.««arv to ivmovo n 
part of the oil, which, when present In itw normal amount, favors ejik- 
ing. Thi)< rt-movid is aee<iin]ili!<h<Hl hv hvdnmlie pressure, and ihe 
paste is* then jMwcd lln'ouj^h sievcj^ ()f e.vec^-diu^ly tine mesh. 

The iMi-ealh-d s>ihil)le efKoiis an' jHvjianil with snjpir and staivhe.s 
partictdarly armwnwt, bnt the eoitMi itself h- not whible in water. The 
apjiarenl .solnhitilv is due to the fineness of the junvder and to the in- 
crease in the K]x.iMfie pnivttv of the litpiiil due to the snpir in m)hition, 
Ikith these conditions favoring jirolonged sunjxnisiou wiihoni wdimen- 
talion. Some of tin- I)uli'li siiliible (■oe(ia.« are In-alinl with alkalies, 
for the removal of the crude filjcrand for their cfliii't ii|M'n theeoloring 
maltiTS. Thesi* eoowis iherehy Insi- pan of their natunil flavor, bnl lh« 
low is made np jiomcwliat hy the aflrhtion of fni};n»nt foreipi inntt^-r. 

Coeua was intmdiieed into Euri>pe hy the S|Kin!ards aller their in- 
vasion of Me.iiei) uixler ("<)rte!'., in I'iMK It wa.-' not known in Kn^land 
tmtil IG.ii, when it was <^dd first in London by a Frenchman. In this 
i-ouniry, il first \rjis pre]ian'd and sold at Danver^, Massa<:hnsetts, in 
1771, from raw material hron},'hl fmm the \V«wt Indie by the linher- 
men of iiltiuewter. 

Unlike till nnil e<)tree, whieh hi them.-ielvi'!* ran liardly l»e rcpintecl 
an adding Utiy nutriment to the diet, ei>coa if an exceedingly valnahle 
food, which [>os!*rw«-s the advantage of ninth nutriment in small hulk, 
and hence is )Bn"ticularlv suili'd to ihe needs <if tho.*e oiifragefl hi 
■■x|Hilitioits n'move<l from eivilixcd eenteni. It makes a wholesome, 
ngreeuble, btimutunt beverage, and \h eateu in the form of cluxNilate, 



^ SKEn. ^ 1715 

and a» an atklitliin to i-ukra, pinMiiif^^ nnd otliur comjKMiniU. Ttie 
vot-in iiihn and (ibiii chwulatc owntaiii about •'iO |>or cunt, of a whitish 
fiolid lilt of Hfirw^ihlf tji>U' Hiai tifiii'll, vnuimcmly known as i-tKiia 
I>ut1i?'r. Il cuntaiiH varraltlc^ uniouiits of the alkuloiil tlicobroniitic 
(^dinK-thyUniitliiiiv), wliii:!i is r(.'lnt<il vviy clcwly to lail'dne ami iheiue 
(irimethylxauthinej, and has nearly the same physiological uutiou, 
3iltlion}:li T>i>ini-wlint it.'»s stimulant iind ralht^r iiioie diuretir. The 
amount is said to average about 1.-jO jier ii-iit. Cimiii if rit-h in iiitnv 
geiionti iiiiilli'i-, f<tnliiiii.-< inori- ihan 10 |H'r oait, of a starch with smiJI 
round granules, iind about ^.50 per ttiit. of wsb, which is largi-ly phos- 
phate of {>otfl.-.Hiuni. 

Sxt*tii uimlvHce of the kernels, conipilwd by Kiiiiig, give thi- follow- 
ing averages : 

Wawr i 3.S8 

■ fti 49.82 

H Srnrvli 1»J5 

^H fixti''i'.'tjvt« 13.18 

■ Fiber 8.66 

■ A»h _JM 

^ 100.00 

The hasks, commonly known as " shells," are used in the prepam- 
tioti of a ("Ih'jiji iiml \vlii.ile.'»iniK' lievcmKc-. TIk'v t-cnliiin lillie Hit, but 
arc about e<j[];il to coc-oii in nitiYi-jfenous matter, and contain more thau 
40 per cent, of nit r"f;fn-rn'<- c-xlmctivcrt. 

Cviooo and cluK'oIatt- are snlijeftt to extensive adulteration with «iil>- 
stano<!a having tnui'li 1c».'^ oiiiinivrciiil value, tJicui^b ihtIuiiis eqiiallv 
nutiitiou^. Among those used, are starches of various kinds, as wheal, 
rye, poi;ito, arnnvnml, iiiui riee, i^ngiir, vt^otwhli; oilj^, mutton tidlow 
ami otJi(Tl!tt«. \'euctiim red, eijiy, and brick dust. Variouf Itavoriiifp 
are employed, su<h us vanillin, i-oumarln, elovi-, miitT, eanlamom, am) 
nutitK^ ; bnt niiU>* these are used under the name of vanilla or of 
other flikvorings th&a themselves, thc^ t^anuot 1h- rifrarded as udnl- 
terations. 

Fermented Alcoholic Beverages. 

BEES. 

Beer is the f^'neric term which itielndes all fermented drinks made 
fn>m nudt — lager beer, ale, jwyrtiT, nud slonf. \» cumniotily un<lcr- 
fftood, iMf-r in iin iiifiLvioii of malteil barley, flavored with hops and 
rvrmrnled with yeast; but on lUK^oniit of the fiut that mIioIiwhuv nuIi- 
etitutes for malt and h()|*s nmy \w empioye<l in its manufiicltire, it is 
definnd aW us a " ferment^l siiwharine infusion to whieli fioine whol*^ 
w)mc bitter has Uvn adiled." In tliis wuntry, the twm beer \» 
reatrictt-d commonly to the prcxJuet jrenerally known as lager beer. 
Porter is a l>eer with a high prroentap: of aleobol. ntid iw made from 
malt drinl at :i liifrh (eraperature. Stont contains less aienhol and ho]is, 
Imii miiTf malt extract. Ale is a [mli- Ikit <i>niainii^ inure hop cxtniet 



176 



POODS. 



and ](>»' nuilt exUnct th&n porter ur stout, iiud bivwed by " top &nni'n- 
lation." 

BoiT wiw iiijidf by llic Kjr^ptiiinK iimiiy ci'iiiiirif?! Ix-fi'W tin- Cbmiiau 
era. It is relat«l ihat, for [>ublic i\yi»i>ii>*, the f'U|ij)r(*(-ioii of beer-*lini» 
Hii* iiltf-iiiptfd by tbfir gdvcniiiiciit mmv llinti forty tviitiirii'* iip\ Tim 
art of bn-wiri^ was tatiglit by tlii.-iii tu the aitcicnt Gn-uki^ uiul K'niuiiu; 
thus, bwr was a coinimni drink in Greece prinr to 700 B.<;., ai»I »m 
oiii- of till- princi|iiil lx'^■^■l■5lp^ of iIk- soMior* nf Oli-swr. In thi* lilt* 
of TacitiLi, it u-ai- in oi>innioii um- in Germany ; and Pliny tipeitkfi nf iti 
usi- in SjHiiii, Tho awiciit ItrildiiH, lU llii- lime of thv Hoiimn itin(|iu(t, 
tuade it from biirlcy. M tlic liinv of ibi- Noi'Dian cnntiucst, ilic wufdl 
beur and nit- iniunl in Knglnml (he Mime tiling : n drink nuidi> uf tuitt 
u'ilboiit liiipw. Ii)it»T, tbo word btcr ft-II into dii^uw : but in tlir fif- 
t«ontl) and j-ixtei-uth pHiiuric-s, after the in I rod tut ion liy l\w npini«li 
of b(vr miuic witb lioin". the U-rin wiw rc-vivetl, nnri tbt-n nu^ant luiji[ 
ale. Tbt- use of lio[ii- wils forbidden in IWO by Henry VIII., wbft 
rt^irdiil tlicin a.H iin Ei(iidt<.'miir, and in tbc lirxl yuir of ib^ mpttt 
Uirliai-il III., lliL' mitboritic?^ of Ijondon Inid a Rnc of (is M vntvttj 
birrtl of lii'iT loiiiainiiig ilicni. l^iur, ibis wiis ri'duci-d on«-li:ilf. 

Tlic pr4Jn<iini- ng1lin.^l tin- net- of bops in bn-wbifj is ixpivvicil l)y one 
of the earlieht Knglisb writers on dictetirs, .Andrew Uo«»|idc,' «hu »awi 
" All* i* inndu of nmltr and wntir ; and rbfv t\w vtliidi do ]uit irny omei 
tbvnpe to ale than is iX'herscd, exr<-|it v«-st, barnie, or giKb'sp"«i, i!>'l8 
M>fy.''linil tlicyr tili-. .\\v for iin Kiij;b>»lii' niun is a Diiinml dniilw. 
Ale must liiuie tliesi- [)r<)|>ei1yen : it must In- fresj-he ami (Iran,-, it nliKl 
not Ik- ropy ti<ir .-inioky, nor it nuist biuie no well nor mylc. AIp (ihnl 
not 1m- drunk under v. dayes olile. Nrwe ide w vnholwme for nil mtfl- 
And riowrL- iilc, iind ditide nlo llu- wbieb dotli siande a tylt, h )t"Oil f* 
DO nmn, liiirk'V maltu ninkilb lictter ak' tb:ui ol»n niallt- or niiyi'ibo 
conn- doth : it doili engeodre grosi' hiimonn* ; but vette it nwkrtbl 
man ntn>iijir. Ilere is made of niiille, of liupiK-", and water: il \f^ 
Diitnnill drynk for a Dutcho man. And nowe of lale ilayes it e-modn 
vstil in Hii;;lande to the <k-trymint of mimy Kngly.-iiibe men ; spwynllj 
it kylleth them the which l>e (ronblwi with the rtilyeke. and ibo MoM 
& till- .stmngnlinii ; fur the dn. like is a eolik- drynke ; yet it doth nwk 
a man fat, and inflate the bely, as it dotb appt-re by the I^itchr iMfl 
finx'> & U-ly(-_-i. If (be U'n- Ik- well rii-ruwl, and W fymd, A not ofW 
it dotli <jiinlyfy the heat of the lyiier." 

1'he ancient (icrnnins made beer from all kinds nf groins, and 1 
flavoring nwi oak Imrk, «igi\ and Iciiviw nf tlio laurel, adi, ami tainAJ 
riiik. IIop<- were iiAetl more or less from the ninth eenturj', and attsi 
iuto p.-neml use in tlu- eleventh. 1 

Ryr being the eomnion drink of miwl Kiiro|»cjin peoples l>cforp tb 
e>tabli.-<hment nf rolonice In Ameriiii. it lollowed natumlly that lit 
early settlers of thin <'<innlri,' hmnglit thi- art of brewing with tlH3|| 
In IH'IU, the cultivation of liopw liiul been carrie<l ou for some tiniej 



' A t'nmiJtnil.voiw K^Rvnifiit, or A I))fi-tBry of Ik-llli, loiule in >loDnt|>rli«r, 
pyled hy Andiotc Boordc of l'liy>;rclii: lloctuur, Liondun, IS4S. 






BEEB. 



177 



New Antiteid&m, and bop rootii wtYr »a\. (or front Rngbuid hi,- tl>c 
vnborities of Masi^iacliasptt^ In narly all the oolonw*, the biwring 
of brer vnu> rrgKnlitl u^ qiiitf a» (^■icoitial an »rcoini>lL''hmeot (A wonien 
as the abilitv to make good brvad. 

Thr tlr»t Inw rc^ilating the salv of aWholio be^-eragw in Miu^soi- 
cfaiMftti' w:k§ made iti Hj^^t : it prr:*<^'nlM-(! tluit ito ihtuxi slxtiilJ sell 
winv tir »piritj* without a ptmiil, but made no referentv to beer. In 
tbc followiii]; %'ear. il wa^ i;inl(-n.il llutt no (mk i>hould chaijif! morr than 
a penny fiir a quart of beer, and in \<^Yt, tlntt no iiin-kcc]>er or \k- 
toallcr »Iionld ¥cli anv inioxicating drink Ixii \»vt ; and ihi-^^ they were 
pnbibited fmm brvuing thentsclves, but a\\M "titaiii Inmi u Uccdh:^ 
breww. In tlw following y«ir, owng to the feet that the only one of 
thi!' class wati unable to m«vt the dcuiaiKl, th<y uvre ullowi^t tv (tuMlurt 
the pnNVK tlwniMJviw, In Ifi4!>, it was onlercd further thnt every 
inn-keeper :ind violualler shmttd kwp alwiiy.- mi hand a -npjilv i>f g<K)d, 
wholi-sotnv Ihit. In IH'd, tlie eoiirt undertook to ftimulnte the pro- 
duction of a better grade of bct-r in tlie Itcliof that lberel»y the growing 
tetxJenw tti tJie ii.-^* (if wine and spirits and tlic increa«ng habit of 
dnnil(enni:3E« wmiIi] bi- eheekdl, and pcrniiitsiiHi was (rranted to char^ 
one. two. and three jienoe per quart, according to the amount of nialt 
ib«<l \wv hiirrpl, 

A duty of a shilling ]>er bushel of intportc<] mult, inlpnsed in l(t'>4, 
flallnl fiirrh n protirrt fnini B<>t<ton nu-rt^liaiiLs on iiicoiint of the ver}' 
great imjwrtant-e of beer si* a Juverage of ihc pttiple. In die following 
ymr, in onler tu pmmnti.- hunii.- |tnNhiotiiin of itudi, ini]>ort»(.i()n n'a« 
prohibited, but thi* oi-der was re|>ealed in lUGO. In IUU7, the use of 
molasM^ a» un adidlcnuil of lM«r wa^ puninhahle by A fine of five 
pnumls. Siniilar Inwii relating to l>i?er were paiwod fiDm time to time 
by tlu! nnihorilHv <>f nil ihi- nrigiiuil <i>loiuf!<. 

Process of Blantifacttire of Beer. — The lincl ^^tcp in the hrrwiug 
of hei-r in the |)rt|iar.itii>n i)f ilw nialt. The barley first U sti-efHiI in 
VTDtvr for Mveral <liiy$, and then \» rcmovctl and iirrsngm] in beiips, 
which, afler a time, are spread out and turuwl rppeait«>dly until gemii- 
liation Iulji pnicMiHletl to the nijnisite extonl. Next it in ilricl in 
kiln« at a tenipernture Ixlow or about Vi^)" F., and then is heated to 
ftraa 12.5*" t)i ISO^, Hoconling to tht- ftdor dtu-intl. This priK^aw 
duvclops flavor, completely checks germination, and determines th« 
oommereial character of ilic pr<«dii<'I. Tin- ^Iwpiiig of the malt is 
<hine Im>I in water eontaining onnsiderable nf tlic mineral «dls thnt 
«iuse lianloess; a soft wilier exerts too miieh solvent action on the 
)imietd matt<tr», which, soon afb-r extrw<-ti<in, iir*^ likely t<i nnder^o 
decomposition. During the progress of germination, the ferment 
diaatBAe is dpvvlnjKil, ami pnieceds to cnnvi-rt the stnn'h into dextrin 
nnd RialtoHc. After the germs and nxitlete have Itein riTniivciI hy 
proper screening .ind lifting, ilit- nmll is cnishitl, and then an inftwion, 
ihi- " wort," is mnde with water at iibont lUO" F. This i.-^ dniwn off 
from the exhanstol mall, and then boiled for an hour or two wttli hops, 
which, bortides giving a chanirteriirtie bitter flavor, aiu^st in elarificnlion 
I i; 



178 



Fooas. 



bv the action of thdr (vniiiiiti'd tiiiinm on sociiv of thv protdd nuttec? 
Then tlie iKrtkJ biiter wort is cnt)lwi rajiiiUy, mil iulo vnis, tiiix4 
wiih }'«■»!, iiikI ulluwtti to ft-niK-nt for wvi-nil ihty^, duriug whkh (in 
alcohol auil carbonic acid are fomu^ from the multcwe. The nataq 
of tlic ]>pKlu<:t in iiilltifiK'i^ vm* lurg«')y hy Uh' purity of tlip yva/t 
natl by the niPtliotl of fiTnivotutiou followod. Top fei'iueiitiili'in '» 
mrricil on i-iipiilly, siiul itt :t ruiiijuinitivcly bi^h U-iiijM-niUin-, tlk- yiTi4 
(ITuwii)}; at tin- F-tiriitoc ; in bottom, or eediuipiiljiry, fcniieiitati-m, tin 
yenflt giuwt) at die liottoni, the prooesii ia slower, nud ii« currted un ali 
lower i<.-iii]M'nktiitx-. Tlie <'lii»-f acKiintiige of tbi.' i>ni])Ioynient of ywu 
whidt itrows at ii b>w tc'ni]>enitiire is that otlier, |>erliiii)ci (n)Hi«!raM<| 
^>«lhs miiy Ik- iiniibb- ro jironttl. Wlialcvcr tlu- pnKvw of f< -mi cult 
tiou followed, not all the r-xigar should be allowed to l>o (^>nvent<l, /m 
then the Hiivor would ho not what it itlionld, and the ktf]iitiK qwlilia 
would W- ii]i)iaiir<yl. Ou the coinpl(>tioti of femientatiun, the Wr 11 
scpaiatttl fpiin the yiwft and truti.->f('rr(il i<i vntu, when- it i.* rlarificl 
Aj« I'tarifyinn apnt-^, a variety of inateriali' arc- uwd, the chief of nliicll 
an^ eliijMt or siiavin^ of icrtaiii woihU, a.- luiA-) or Uivli, wliicb atlnct 
and hultl the |Hirtiole>> wbicb chum? turbidity. TbcsK* inutcnalH u^rct ia 
no way the tawte of tbi- Imi-i'. Other HibstaiiceA us«l incliulf Kclalin, 
i.iiiif^liuiH, Hax-sfiil. ami ('arr!iK«fii. After clarificatJon i<t Hd-onif'li'hoi, 
the pi-othiet i^i stortTl for ii time in storage cai-k;', where it iiiidcf^wsi 
fiirtbi-r .■•low feniientntioii at n low tempera t lire, aller wbteh it i* naif 
for use. 

SubsMtUtea for Barley Malt. — White bnrley \» ree<ij;tiiy* d amtf 
aallv jis tbi' yniiii Ih'.hI fiut»il to tin- brewing of wlioleMimi' bivr, idV 
other eereal may Ik- iiwil, Sniietiniej', iinniailol jriiiin^ arr mldcJ t9 
tiie malt befon; thr infusion is made, for the diastase of the "'all >| 
(«pid>Ie of eonverliug not only the ntareb with whieh it imliinillyl 
associated, but a lai^ amount of odier sta relies ; and so, riif . W'TIi 
and olhi-r eniiiU iiiiiy be iinplovcil. fihu-'W and laim- sugar arv iww 
wjmewbal, but the j)nKluct is decidedly inferior in qiwUty. wnre lliW 
siib<tanctxt aiv bii-king in some of the elements, as |>r<«tcids ami ml''' 
«nil miittcTv, whieh contribute to the dcj'ind>ie chanuier of llie '** 
beers. 

C'lmeeriiiiip the ui«e of (glucose, which nddw stifiipth t<t the wort, li"" 
can lie no objeelion on the rn'on' of being in any way deleteriiW* " 
heiilth. The jmiHihir k-licf in the iinwhoU-xiniciKw-i of gluctw; 
from corn slanh h-d the U. S. Treasiin- Pejuirtnieiit, in IRS^i 
re(jiies( an invi^ti^ili<iti of the "iibjct-l by ihe National Ai-sidemy 
Science*. This was conducted bv a ronmiittec of eminent wii-iilt^i 
ineluding Profes,»iii>(;iblj«, uf Hiirvard ; Bower, of Yale ; Itcmseii, 
Jobno Hopkins ; Barker, uf Pennsylvania ; and CIkiiwIUt, of CuliimW 
whose conclusions were : that the pnxvi^sc.'' •niployed ilt the niamilai 
wre are uiiobji'<rtioiiablc ; tbiit tlie priKlnet is of cxwptionid l«in 
and in no Vi~ay inferior in lifidthfulne-ss In eiine sugar; and that then 
was no evidence adiinciil In show that, even when biken in large C) ~ 
tilii^ citlKT in il« natiiml condition or fermented, It luw any inju 



^ 




BEKR. 



179 



I 



i-ffi^-b' ujujii tbe !'y:>U;ni. From a recent e-Xperience in Engiaml il 
appeals, baw«ver, tbat nni ull miiiiiitWuircn pnHliic«a jiui^ article; 
whI (hat if riul|»lmri<- afid tuade from arseiiicsil ](>Tit<?s \>^ ii«><l in the 
pTooem, ihe rti-Lltiiijj siifirir iiinv ciHitiiiii .iiitlitiifiit jirMiiic to caiuw seri- 
oitoi and vvt-ii fatal |>uiB(niing- In Xovember, 1900, Dr. K, S. \Xvy- 
iialtU' called atti'ution I" u iiiiniljcr uf wi-Hw, clmnu^l^Tized by [jaralysis, 
w-a.ttiiig »f <%rtiii» muscles, and loss of function of certuici sciinoiy 
ncr\e«, wliicli. after miisicK-niblir ^rudy. In* dciridKl t4> Ix- arsenical iwi-wn- 
injf. Slmrtly aftirwiml. an incitsu* •/rn^ Doti«?d in the iitimlicr ol'iaL-ctw 
• if, nnd di.>utbe from. pcriplK'nd ncnritin in difli-ivni cities and hiwiih, and 
u appeared tliat, In Munchc.'-ter and Sulfonl alone, XWrv vivVk abuul 
3000 Kwof. unil tlijit llif vit'tims wciv drinkeis of lieer. The beer in 
use wan examiiit-<l, and fonnd to be dli^iiictly ar^onin*!, and il wiw 
lumKil llwit, in it^ maiHifactiiiv, plin'-iM' and invert sugiir, nuidc at a 
facdirj- ntar Livi-rpiMjl, bad been employwi. S|MH-inii-nM of tin- f^hionse 
WcPC fiiiind to (tunUiin from 0,02 to O.O.'t [mt cent, of artwuioiii- oxide, and 
ezmnination of the various beers mude llicrcfniMi ^Imwi-d from 0.10 to 
1.50 gnnns of iirw-nic per pdloii. 'V\w juaonnt of beer con»umMl by 
iW victini'i varied from a |(int In two gidlon-^ per day ; ninny tir&iik a 
galhin caoh. A piu-liumi-ntitry (MmnnU.iiori, iip[M>inI(Hl lo inve^^i^tte 
tbc nuittcr. re|x>rti?tl finding from O.od to li.17 (rniitw <jf ar.-M-nio jwr 
ponnd of (tUic<)!*c, 1.40 to 4.;t-l grain.'* pi-r pound of invert (-ugar, 0.25 
Ui 3 gniin^ t*'^''' pdion of beer, and 1.40 to U.iJO per eent. of iirwnie in 
tbe sulphuric arid with whteh the >npirs were made. ISetwocti Xo- 
vcnilwr 25, liKH), and Jannan- 10, HIOl, there were no h'ss than 'id 
deaths in )Iancbe.-<tcr nlontr, vvhieh wen- itttribut(il to arscniind priiKon- 
ing. 'Hie i^'inpti>nis ()lwerved in tliis extensive otithfRik Iwgan, as a 
rule, with ilisturbance.-' of digi^tion, followed -iooii by liiryofriid jind 
bmiii-hiiil t'litiirrh and at-ntt' j^kin ernptiouK, and then by di-tnrbiniws 
of wibiiljility and motor ]»aralysis. The ea.^tw were jrronpiil into iho-w 
in whifth all th*- ahove .-•vmptoniK wcnr fairly well marked, and tbo)M? in 
whirh the prineiiwl lesions were, respectively, of the f<kin, ht-wrt, and 
livi-r. ;iiid piiraKlii'. 

Substitutes for Hops. — Various suhstaix'es have fVnm time to time 
been roporieil a.* bi-iuf; nw-tl in iilaec of ho])s to Rive bitteni(*» to beer. 
The*' inchiik' m^irly everj'llnnj; having a bitter tawu*, sneh at* .-irych- 
nine, cbimta, aihiniba, nwcnhix inilinL>i, alix.*, and picrit" in-iil. <.'i«vnhii* 
indien.4 wa.'« uiiiitiomnl In Ilolhind ai^ wirly .-us IC'JO as an adulterant. 
Till* and its active ])riii<'ipli- pit-nito.\inc, ami pioric acid, liavt* lii«-n 
employed I HViuiloniilly in England and elsewhetv; but at the prMcnt 
time, il i* safe to say, mme of thc^*!* Mih^aniHW i* ii-^cd. Of 47(i «m- 
ples of beer fXinnlned fl.r the State B^anl of Hiiilth iif Xcw York, in 
18fi5, not. one was found lo contain any hop Mibntitntt^s whatever. 

Xo objections eim he idlc^eil ajpiiiist cneh wholewmic hitter* as qnaf'*ijir 
gentian, cnbimbn. and ehirata. Evidenee that they e\'er are employed is 
exccdlinRly ?.lighl. \n a nmllcr of faet, tliciv i* no 8titiitfactiir\' suli- 
Mituie for hi>p", which give n<rt alone bitterness, but other fiavori; and a 
' Hritl«h Uwlkal Joiminl, Nov. 34, ISOft 



180 



moifs. 



peculiar aroma, due to the reeinoiiB matter which thej- contain. In ilic 
Mxtvmth and .sevcti let-nth centuries, x-nrioii^ ntFier ffiivoriogs ncn? ueed, 
siifh as siffe, eorijinilcr, laurel leavers pepper, grains of Paradise, orris, 
and enHi-ntial oils. 

Physical Properties and Obemicol Composition of Beer. — If<.«r 
ahouid be [Ktrfei-tly clear anti briyhi. Tlie pn^i^cu'i; ot" wnj- tnrbidity 
tlouotm either iiiipertiK^t hrcwin); ur the oecurreuce of undesirable 
dwom[»ottitioii pnit*i-)*K Tlie bttcr an? :i«oon)|iai)i<'d (p'lu'nillv liy tlis- 
ii^riMibli' "don*. The tafU- slmuld lie |i!wwiiitty bitter smd inclining to 
sweetnes* riitlier tlian tu iicidiiy. Tliere should In- a siifticient iinmuiit 
of curbi'uio ai-id to ninkc a ]ileii.-<ant ini{>n-ii»ii>n in tlie nnHitli, eudi iw a 
not proiJuwd by fltit bwr, TItc gjn'cifio gravity rang<*t from about 1 .005 
to I.Dlio, avenigiug Ih'Iow l.O^tl. In bock bwr, which i* n spifial 
brew continuing ;i i-inisidi-ndflt.' incivaw in malt extractives, the 6ijeci6c 
gravity in notably higher, running a* high hj« 1 .ffJ-^, and it^cm^ing 
nmre tlmu 1.021. 

The most iniiHtrtaiit conrtitiients of hi-er are the extract and iileoln)!. 
Tin- I'Jttnict iiirludc nil of the non-volatile matters iu wilntion, and 
concistj* of pniieid matters, dextrin, sugar, hop ivsin, and other muI>- 
n1iuiee> left n« ii rf-'idnc on ei>m|ilctc eva[Minition. Tin.' iinionnt if vsiri- 
able; it is highest in porter, stont, and bock beer, and hmest in the 
lighl-eoloreil loger iHjt^rs. In llic former, il uvenipCN ulmiit 7.-'J0, un<t 
in the latter, about •>.'>{} ]wr cent. Twenty-eighl -iperimens of Amer- 
ican Ix'erK, iil(t>, nixl {xirti-r ■'oUceti'd in W .-i.'^liingtou, inxl iirmlvxcd by 
Mr. C. A. Cnimptou,' averaged n.Sy per cent. 

Tile avcmpc extmct of IS'2 nnaly.-x-." of ^jKi-iTiiciiM t>f bivw of the 
lighter kinds, eonipiletl by Konig, is stated at 0.49 (range, 1.118-9.23); 
of 21 1 lager liti-i-!' of nil khidn, at /i.TH ; of GO exjxirl beersi, at 6.48 ; 
and of oil bock Iwers, at 7.20. 

The anionnl of alcohol in also variable. The siwcimens examined 
by <'rampton, averaged 4.G3 ikt cent, by weight and O.TS) by volume. 
Tin- light Iki-w nitovc mentioned (Konig) averagi'd :!.4*> |»er cent, by 
weight : the ~'L'iin<! gronp, 3.95 ; the thin!. 4.-tl ; and the fmirlli, 4.74- 

Adulteration of Beer. — Ileer is suppised pojiularly to be exten- 
sively adulterated, ami the snlisliinciw itUigiil lo be in common nse 
make up a list remarkable for length and variety, including such poi- 
Konouit drug" iv- opium, Itclbulonna, henlHinc, and slrv'chuine, many of 
the aromalics and aromatic biltenf, corrosive acids, drastic cHlhartics, 
and many other HuliHlaiice.''. The aclniil ndnltersition of Iwer, however, 
is restricted pi'.icti«dly to the nse of preservatives, flich a» sodium 
tluoridft and Kalicylie ackl, of :^inm biiarlifinate to correct acidity 
an<I to luerciisc the *' In^wd," (tnd of suit to corrtrt bud Ust« and tu 
inspir*- thirst for more. 

The use of prc-urvntivo* ii» the only form of iwUdtemtion which is 

of practical hygienic imjtortance, and in eevend countries is punitih- 

nljle by heavy jH'iiultieTt. In Germany, pre.'^e natives are interdicted 

very strictly, except in beer iatendcd fur c.\pi>rt; ami (he pcrn]ii<fdon 

* L'. B. Dejiarliuvul of A)cricu)liu«, I)lTl<<ii<ii 'iF (.'liruiiRlrv, Bulletin 18, p. 2$£ 




A.VAiySIS OF BEER. 



181 



cxto»(](^ is aooi'pted so freely ibat it is rare to find in this country a 
specimen of Gt-rnian IwttiwI (kit wliicii dtxw not cotitaiti n liWrd tlii^e 
tif salii'vlic acid. Many American brewt-rs ii«? this agent with a geii- 
cTTHis band, under the boiK'\'"lt ill pipa that it i» a pmjihylnflii- against 
rhcuinniism. Ily the tfliiiic process of rMiKOiihifj, ont- tni^ht cimtotKl jimt 
a* well tluit iipiiim ill tiHxI and drink would proveiit jtain, and biDiodide 
of mercury keep tbe Bj'steni fn-o from isj-philitio intixrtiun. 



Aualysu of Beer. 

In the uuulyeis i>f beer, the mo?^t iiii|iiirtaiit [iifxi'jws are the deter- 
mimttion of the p.roentage of alcohol and of extract, and the dct«ctiuu 
of pri-wrx-iilivf.-. 

Determination of Alcohol. — For the determuiutiuu of the p<!rccut- 
Bgc of ukM)bc)l, II suHificiitly larp; iHirlioii of beer should l>e shaken 
in a capaciiins fiAfk. until the ciirbuuic acid t» i'X|H-lk-(l, and thi-n a 
nu>a.-<ur(il vrtlunie Mbniild lie subjected either to diatilJatiuu or to partial 
evaporation in an i>\wn vcsm^'I, 

(i) Det«imlnaUoii by DiatUUtlon. — Introduce into a flask oonnectcd 
with » Licbig (sjiidcnn^'r 100 cc, of the well -shaken betT, at 60° V., 
and distil into another flask oinnected with the discharging end of the 
cnmlcnxer by mean^nf a bent ^Iilv IuIk-. Continue ihc distillution until 
somewhat more than nO cc, of di^-tillate have Ix'en collwt<rd, when all 
of the c<>ntuiii<.-il ulei^ho! will have been ex|K'lhit and c-oihIcii^nI. Add 
sufficient water to the di-^tillate to make 100 cc. at BO" 1*"., determine 
it* sjuvilie gravity l>y ni«m!< itf a piencmetrr or Wcstphiil Itahinee (a 
HpMnflc gravity cpindle is not snfticicntly accurate), and ascertain from 
inin, by refen-iiee to the apjM^ndcd table, ttu- [M-itn-nlag** of alcohol by 
weight or volume, 

(6) Determination b? Open Eraporation. — Tlii.* nielbnd involve:* let^ 
munipnlation and jjive-^ cfjiially nccuriite «>ult». Tlie Bpceific piivity 
of the lieer is (lelermiiK'<l lirst in the nianiu-r above mentioni-d. Then 
place ion ec at fiO" !■", in ii fjliiss or purceliiin ev!i|>i>nitiujr dii^b, and 
by the application of hejit drive off rather more tlian half the amount. 
Remove, eofil, make up with water to ibe original volume nt 60° 1'"., 
aii<l again dcterniiue the specific gravity. TJivide the original gnivity 
by the latter, and the result iiinaU thai of the aleohi)! wliii'h ban Vieen 
expeliiii. Ki'fei- to the table, and obtain tbcrefn;)m the pcrecutap- of 
alcohol in the In^r. 

The tollowiug table, by Mr, Edpir Kiclmrdu, \* the one used by the 
A)^)N>ciatii.iu of Official .\gricullural niemiats:' 

' U. S. Depart riipiit of AEriruliitrc, Divinbn of Clicmi(tt;rv Bulleiui Xol Ai, U'lah- 
uiKloa, tiovcmmrnt Printlnx OI9w. 1899. 



H^ ^^^P poons. ^1 


^P 


^1 TABI FS SUOWIKU PEKCENTAGE OF AIXX)Trni. BV 


mjlOHT AXD 


^*^ BV VOLUME. 




^^^^H {Bmtti tdtmljnm tit dUfenuuifioiu <^ Oilpin, Drinlcwaltr, and Squibb, 


^^^^^ tf Hdfor Ii(<Aardt.) 






l>t n-iil. I'M-frnt.'. S|wilfla 


; 

P«r»oi. Pnei-nt. 






in 111 r tt 


oJouboJ tr< 4]coh'.| by ' irrntUv il 


rnldin*. KilgbL 


^M IjOOOOO y MO 


om 


0.0fl«2S 


S.60 1.99 


0.99281 


S.O0 4.00 


■ &9M93 


.OS 


.04 


«S,2 


.56 3.03 


S74 


.05 .04 


^K 9U 


JO 


xw 


616 


.00 


.07 


208 


.10 


.08 


^^^ nn 


.19 


.12 


607 


.06 


.11 


261 


.15 


.12 


^^H 


^ 


.10 


600 


.70 


.16 


265 


.SO 


.16 


^^B 


M 


JO 


693 


.75 


.19 


248 


.25 


.20 


^^H 


JD 


.24 


680 


.80 


.28 


241 


.30 


.24 


^^H 


je 


^ 


679 


.66 


.27 


236 


.35 


.28 


^^H gar 


.«! 


.» 


671 


.00 


.81 


£28 


.40 


.32 


^^V HO 


^ 


JO 


664 


.95 


.Sfi 


222 


.46 


M 


^E .wezs 


0.SO 


0.40 


.99667 


aoo 


S.39 


.09216 


6.50 


4.40 


^^^ »i& 


.ee 


.44 


660 


.06 


.43 


20S 


.55 


.44 


^^B 


j60 


.48 


613 


.10 


.47 


202 


.00 


.48 


^^m 


.«6 


.02 


53C 


.16 


.61 


196 


.66 


.02 


^^M 


.70 


.63 


629 


.20 


.r>b 


189 


.70 


.66 


^^H 8H 


.7fi 


.60 


622 


.25 


M 


182 


.76 


.00 


^^B 877 


M 


.64 


615 


.80 


.64 


176 


.80 


.64 


^^H 


.SB 


.57 


608 


.36 


.68 


169 


.85 


.68 


^^^B 8GI 


.90 


.71 


fiOl 


.40 


.7S 


162 


.90 


.72 


^^V 


j95 


.76 


494 


A5 


.76 


160 


M6 


.76 


^B «flS40 


1.00 


a7e 


.89487 


S.60 


2.80 


.90149 


6.00 


4.B0 


^^^. 


.05 


.83 


480 


.66 


M 


143 


.06 


.84 


^^H 834 


.10 


.87 


473 


.60 


M 


136 


.10 


.88 


^^^B 


.16 


.91 


400 


.66 


.92 


130 


.15 


.92 


^^H 81S 


.20 


.95 


469 


.70 


.96 


133 


.SO 


.96 


^^H B12 


.an 


.08 462 


.75 


aoo 


117 


.26 


5.00 


^^H «0S 


-SO I. Oft 


44-'. 


.80 


.04 


111 


.30 


.05 


^^H 7K 


,85 -o: 


43S 


.8G 


.08 '' 104 


.35 


.09 


^^H 


.40 , .11 


431 


.90 


.12 ' 0D6 


.40 


.13 


^^H 


.46 1 .16 


424 


.96 


.16 1 091 


.46 


.17 


^m .WTTB 


1.60 1.19 


.99417 


4.00 


3.20 


.99085 


0.50 


5.21 


^^^ Tot 


M .S3 


410 


.06 


.34 


070 


.65 


.3-'. 


^^K 


.00 


.27 


403 


.10 


.28 


072 


.00 


.29 


^^H 


.06 


.81 


S97 


Af> 


.32 


068 


.65 


.33 


^^H 


.70 


.35 


390 


.20 


.80 i; 069 


.TO 


.37 


^^H TSt 


.n 


.30 


383 


,26 


.40 ' 053 


.75 


.41 


^^H 


.00 


.43 


xrii 


.30 


Ai 047 


.80 


M 


^^H 


.8ft 


.47 


.'iH9 


.35 


.48 ' 1)40 


.8ft 


.49 


^^H 7U 


JBO 


.61 


3G3 


.40 


.62 


034 


.90 


.53 


^^H 


M 


.6ft 


S66 


.46 


.60 


027 


.96 


.67 


^^H mm 


100 


I.6S 


.B9S40 


440 


&60 


.99021 


7.00 


6.61 


^^H M 


JSS 


34S 


JO 


.64 015 


.06 


.lift 


^^H m .10 .07 


3.%-. 


.00 


.68 009 


.10 


.n» 


^^B «y 


329 


.85 


.72 002 


.16 


.73 


^^H 03 .90 1 


323 


.70 


.76 .m.m 


.20 


.77 


^^^l aH .» 


316 


.7.1 


.80 9110 


.2.% 


.81 


^^H 4H JO ^ 


308 


,80 


.84 9^4 


.30 


.86 


^^H m » St 


aoi 


.85 


.88 


978 


.36 


.90 


^^H w 


s»s 


.90 


.92 


971 


.40 


.94 


^^H «H A M 


SSS 1 


.96 


.96 


966 . 


.46 


M 


B _ . 



xji^zns :e sssa. l*s 



,5^ 




?»«!II. 




■■•ttA " 


^B/^m fr 


JfAl .1 ■ X 


wmTh 




^^ ^ 


•ma^ 


v«^ 


•■ .- 


jt. 1> 


i.d 


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liJiJ 


■mm^ 


'LJI<W% 


".at 


i_fi 


L.V!>Mi 


UKTJ 


I-IJH 


<nA 


i-i 


."■ 


^jT 


JU 


« 


ar 


J3 


M 


fC 


Al 


I'l 


;»i 


*i 


jj 


ae 


id 


JS 


V9» 


J3 


1, 


sw 


^ 


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SI 


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lie 


kU 


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is; 


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M 


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4-4 


77^ 


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ijtf 


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'«J9 


j>l 


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tai 


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ill 


j5 


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mil 


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■ 


FOODS. 


■ 


■ 


■ 


^ 


^^^^^r ItpaaUo 


l^rmnt. 


IVnwnt. 


8pMin« 


JVir am. 


l-BTWDI. 


(^noUlo 


rwiwnt. 


Verrtni. 


W^ •TS?." 


•Imhol bjr 

iDlunuI. 


klcohnl bj 
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13.37 


0.97668 


Alcohol bj 
vuLuuiB- 

19.50 


■Icohol bf 


60= K 


kiMbolb} 

raliuut. 


■icoliul by 

nllthl- 


^1 O.STMO 


16.60 


16.84 


0.97366 


22.S0 


^K oan 


.M 


.41 


663 


.66 


.8a 


360 


.60 


.38 


^^^ 9¥> 


.60 


.46 


648 


.60 


.93 


34S 


.00 


.42 


^^H M6 


.66 


.49 


643 


.65 


.97 


340 


.65 


.47 


^^H MO 


.70 


.63 


638 


.70 


16.01 


»3S 


.70 


M 


^^H 98S 


.76 


.67 


638 


.76 


.06 


830 


.76 


.65 


^^H 


M 


.68 


B8S 


.80 


.00 


324 


.80 


.59 


^^H «4 


M 


.«« 


628 


.86 


.14 


316 


.85 


.l>3 


^^V 910 


.90 


.70 


418 


.90 


.18 


314 


.90 


.03 


^^^ fiU 


.96 


.74 


613 


.06 


.22 


309 


.96 


.72 


^K^ Ji:am 


1T.00 


ia78 


.97608 


saoo 


10.36 


.97804 


23.00 


18.76 


^^K tKH 


.OG 


.82 


603 


.05 


.30 


299 


.05 


.60 


^^H 899 


.10 


.86 


698 


.10 


.34 


294 


.10 


J<4 


^^H au 


-in 


.90 


693 


.15 


.38 


2S9 


.16 


.88 


^^H 


.30 


.04 


688 


.20 


.42 


233 


.20 


.92 


^^H 8S4 


.£6 


.98 


683 


.25 


.40 


278 


J» 


.96 


^^H 


.30 


14.03 


678 


.30 


.61 


273 


.30 


10.01 


^^H 


.31> 


.07 


673 


.36 


.66 


268 


,36 


.06 


^^H 869 


.40 


.11 


663 


.40 


.6B 


263 


.40 


.Ofl 


^^v 


.40 


.16 


663 


.46 


.03 


S68 


.45 


.18 


^m .97859 


17.60 


14.19 


.07668 


20.50 


16.67 


.97253 


23.50 


19.17 


^K^ &33 


.66 


.33 


668 


.56 


.71 


247 


.65 


.21 


^^K H8 


.00 


.27 


H7 


.CO 


.76 


242 


.60 


.26 


^^H 8<S 


.66 


.31 


642 


.65 


.80 


237 


.66 


.30 


^^H ssa 


.70 


.SG 


687 


.70 


.84 


232 


.70 


.34 


^^H 883 


.76 


.40 


632 


.76 


J3 


•m 


.75 


M 


^^H 8SB 


JO 


.44 


627 


.80 


.02 


222 


.80 


.42 


^^B SS8 


.86 


.43 


522 


.36 


.96 


216 


.85 


.46 


^^^ 818 


.90 


^2 


61T 


.90 


17.01 


211 


.90 


.51 


^V 813 


.85 


.66 


618 


.96 


.06 


206 


.05 


.66 


^1 J780X 


16.00 


14.60 


.97607 


81.00 


17.09 


.07201 


S4.00 


18.69 


^H 


.06 


M 


602 


.06 


.13 


lOS 


.06 


.63 


^H 


.10 


M 


497 


.10 


.17 


191 


.10 


.67 


^1 TS3 


.16 


.73 


492 


.16 


.22 


186 


.16 


.T3 


^K_ 783 


• .20 


.77 


487 


.20 


.26 


180 


.20 


.76 


^^K 


.36 


.81 


482 


.26 


.30 


175 


.26 


.80 


^^H 7T8 


.80 


.86 


477 


.30 


.34 


170 


.80 


M 


^^B 7TX 


.SS 


.80 


472 


.35 


.38 


165 


.35 


.88 


^^B 


.40 


.94 


4B7 


.40 


.48 


160 


.40 


.93 


^^^^ 7S3 


.46 


.98 


402 


.46 


.47 


164 


.4.'> 


.97 


^E .977«l 


18.60 


IW»i 


,97457 


21.60 


17.61 


.07149 


24.50 


20.01 


^^^ 768 


.66 


.00 


461 


M 


M 


144 


.55 


.06 


^^H 


.60 


.10 


446 


.60 


.69 


13» 


.00 


.09 


^^H 


.66 


.14 


441 


JJfi 


.es 


133 


.66 


.U 


^^H 733 


.70 


.18 


430 


.70 


JS7 


128 


.70 


.18 


^^H 733 


.76 


.22 


431 


.76 


.71 


123 


.T.^ 


.es 


^^H 7S8 


.80 


'.■ZT 


426 


.80 


.76 


lis 


.80 


,26 


^^M 7S3 


.86 


.31 


4Z1 


.66 


.80 


113 


.86 


.30 


^^H 718 


.90 


.38 


416 


.00 


.84 


107 


.90 


.86 


^^B 713 


.96 


.80 


411 


.96 


.S8 


102 


.96 


.39 


^^^ .97708 


19.00 


16.13 


.974M 


22.00 


17.92 


.97097 


26.00 


20.43 


^K 


.06 


.47 


401 


.05 


.96 


0B2 


.06 


.47 


^^^L 60S 


.30 


.61 


ailii 


.10 


18.00 


080 


.10 


M 


^^H 698 


.16 


.65 


am 


.16 


.06 


081 


.15 


M 


^^H 688 


.20 


.69 


388 


.20 


.00 


070 


.20 


-.60 


^^H 683 


.S6 


.63 


.tsi 


.25 


.13 


071 


.26 


.64 


^^H 


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.68 


376 


.:<(} 


.17 


005 


.30 


.66 


^^H 


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.78 


870 


.36 


.21 


060 


.36 


.72 


^^P 608 


.40 


.76 


30.^ 


.40 


.26 


055 


.40 


.77 


^ 603 


.46 


.80 


360 


.46 


M 


049 


.46 


Jtl 


^ 


« 






_ 






^ 


■ 



AXALrSIS OF BEES. 



185 



Spnlflc 


Per an I. 


Per cent. 


bpcclAc 


ParccDl. 


Per cenl. 


epcelAc 


Pcmnt. 


Per cent. 


80° F. 


akoohDl hj Alcohol b j 


60° F, 

0.96715 


alcaliDl by 


■Icohol bf 


griTilT At 


■Icobol br nloDhol b; 


volume. 
25.50 


wBlghl. 
20.85 


Tolume. 


weight. 


vuluiue. 


velgUL 


O.OT044 


28.50 


23.38 


aS6360 


31.60 


25.94 


D31) 


.55 


.89 


709 


.55 


.42 


353 


..55 


.98 


033 


.60 


.93 


704 


.60 


.47 


347 


.60 


26.03 


028 


.65 


.98 


698 


.65 


.61 


341 


.65 


.07 


013 


.70 


21.02 


692 


.70 


.55 


335 


.70 


.11 


018 


.75 


.06 


687 


.75 


.60 


329 


.75 


.18 


012 


.80 


.10 


681 


.80 


.64 


323 


.80 


.20 


0O7 


.85 


.14 


675 


.85 


-68 


316 


.85 


.24 


001 


.90 


.19 


G69 


.90 


.72 


310 


.90 


.28 


.M99S 


.95 


.23 


664 


.95 


.77 


304 


.95 


.33 


.96991 


26.00 


21.27 


.9G65S 


29.00 


2381 


.96298 


32.00 


26.37 


980 


.05 


.31 


652 


.05 


.85 


292 


.05 


.41 


980 


.10 


.35 


646 


.10 


.89 


285 


.10 


.46 


975 


.15 


.40 


640 


.15 


.94 


279 


.16 


.60 


96S 


.20 


.44 


635 


.20 


.98 


273 


.20 


.64 


9S4 


.25 


.48 


629 


.26 


24.02 


267 


.25 


.50 


959 


.30 


.52 


623 


.30 


.06 


260 


.30 


.63 


053 


.35 


.56 


617 


.35 


.10 


254 


.35 


.67 


949 


.40 


.61 


611 


.40 


.15 


248 


.40 


.71 


942 


.45 


.65 


605 


.45 


.19 


241 


.46 


.76 


.96937 


26.50 


21. G9 


.96600 


29.50 


24.23 


.96235 


32.60 


26.80 


932 


.55 


.73 


594 


.55 


.27 


229 


.55 


.84 


92fl 


.60 


.77 


587 


.60 


.32 


222 


.60 


.89 


921 


.65 


.82 


582 


.6.5 


.36 


216 


.65 


.93 


915 


.70 


.86 


576 


.70 


.40 


210 


.70 


.97 


910 


.75 


.90 


570 


.75 


.45 


204 


.75 


27.02 


905 


.80 


.94 


564 


.80 


.49 


197 


.80 


.06 


899 


.85 


.98 


559 


.85 


.53 


191 


.85 


.10 


894 


.90 


22.03 


553 


.90 


.57 


185 


.90 


.14 


8X8 


.95 


.07 


547 


.93 


.62 


178 


.95 


.19 


.96883 


27.00 


22.11 


.90541 


30.00 


24.66 


.96172 


33.00 


27.23 


877 


.05 


.15 


53.5 


.05 


.70 


166 


.05 


.27 


872 


.10 


.20 


529 


.10 


.74 


159 


.10 


.32 


866 


.15 


.24 


523 


.16 


.79 


153 


.15 


.36 


861 


.20 


.28 


517 


.20 


.83 


146 


.20 


.40 


855 


.2-5 


.:« 


511 


.25 


.87 


140 


.25 


.45 


850 


.30 


.37 


505 


,30 


.91 


133 


.30 


.49 


844 


.36 


.41 


499 


.3.* 


.95 


127 


.35 


.53 


830 


.40 


.45 


493 


.40 


25.00 


120 


.40 


.57 


833 


.45 


.50 


487 


,4.5 


.04 


114 


.45 


.02 


.96828 


27.-50 


22.54 


.96481 


30.50 


25.08 


.96108 


33.00 


27.06 


822 


.55 


.58 


475 


.55 


.12 


101 


.55 


.70 


810 


.«0 


.62 


4(19 


.00 


.17 


095 


.60 


.75 


811 


.lis 


.1)7 


463 


,65 


.21 


088 


.6--> 


.79 


80.') 


.70 


.:i 


4.>r 


.70 


.25 


082 


.70 


.83 


800 


.7"i 


.75 


451 


.75 


.m 


075 


.75 


.m 


794 


.80 


.711 


44r. 


.80 


.34 


069 


.80 


.92 


789 


.H5 


.,S3 


439 


.85 


.38 


062 


.8-5 


.96 


783 


•W 


.88 


4:i3 


.90 


.42 


056 


.90 


28,00 


778 


M 


.92 


427 


.95 


.47 


049 


.95 


,06 


.96772 


28.00 


22.(ir. 


.96421 


31.00 


25.51 


.96043 


34.00 


2'*,09 


766 


.a> 


23.00 


415 


.ai 


..55 


036 


.05 


.13 


761 


.1(1 


.04 


409 


.10 


.60 


030 


.10 


.18 


765 


.1.1 


,110 


403 


.15 


.64 


023 


.15 


.22 


749 


.20 


.in 


396 


.20 


.68 


016 


.20 


.26 


744 


.2.") 


,17 


390 


.2i 


.73 


010 


.25 


.31 


738 


.30 


.21 


384 


.30 


.77 


oai 


.30 


.35 


732 


MTi 


.2-1 


378 


.35 


.81 


.95996 


.35 


.39 


726 


.40 


,30 


372 


.40 


.85 


990 


.40 


.43 


7ai 


.4.^ 


,34 


366 


.45 


.90 


983 


.45 


.48 



■ 186 


■ 


■ 


FOODS. 


■ 


^ 


1 


■ 


^H Hpmlfle 


rntmM. 


IVroinL 


Spwlflo 


PilT CtfOl, 


IVrwinl. 


KpntRi 


nraml- 


t^rout. 




kldbhol Itj 


iilinhn] bj 


grt'lly ■! 


dlivjh'pl 1>>- 


mkvilinl hj 


fI.9.V107 


•Imholbjr'altDhollir 


nlDDir. 

■M.m 


weight, 


0,tf556C 


lOlUlllfr 


wrl^ihl 


40.60 


33.79 


37.50 


31.14 


^^__ »70 


JG 


.5fi 


552 


.55 


.18 


(IW 


.55 


.64 


^^M >U 


^0 


.61 


545 


-TO 


.23 


091 


.60 


.88 


^^H 9S7 


.46 


J5 


538 


.65 


.27 


083 


.65 


.03 


^^H 


.70 


.70 


531 


.TO 


.32 


075 


.70 


.117 


^^H 


.75 


.74 


62.1 


.7h 


.30 


067 


.75 


31.02 


^^M KR 


M 


.78 


SIC 


.80 


.40 


059 


.80 


.06 


^^B no 


.SS 


.83 


509 


.85 


.45 


052 


.85 


.11 


^^M «3 


.90 


.87 


502 


.00 


.49 


014 


.90 


.15 


^^H 917 


.99 


.Si 


494 


.95 


.54 


03U 


.95 


.20 


^^1 M»10 


88.00 


S8.00 


.9641*7 


38.00 


31,58 


.95028 


41.00 


»L24 


^^H eo3 


.05 


28.00 


480 


.05 


.63 


020 


.06 


.28 


^^H 


.10 


.05 


472 


.10 


.67 


012 


.10 


M 


^^H «8» 


M 


.09 


4U.S 


.16 


.72 


004 


.15 


JSl 


^^H 888 


M 


.13 


467 


.20 


.76 


.94996 


.20 


.43 


^^H 


^ 


.18 


450 


.2S 


.81 


989 


.25 


.46 


^^H 889 


.30 


.22 


442 


.30 


.86 


980 


.30 


J50 


^^H 862 


.35 


.25 


435 


.35 


.90 


972 


.35 


.55 


^^H fWi 


.40 


.30 


427 


Ml 


.94 


964 


.40 


JO 


^^^ 


.45 


.35 


420 


.46 


.'JB 


956 


.45 


.64 


^K .W842 


35.50 


2S.3B 


.96413 


38„S0 


32.03 


.94948 


41.50 


M.6S 


^^^^ W» 


.5S 


.43 


405 


.55 


-OT 


1140 


.55 


.73 


^^^B 


,00 


.48 


398 


.60 


.12 


932 


.60 


.77 


^^H 


.05 


.52 


300 


.65 


.16 


924 


.65 


.82 


^^H 


.70 


.67 


383 


.70 


.20 


916 


.70 


M 


^^H W7 


.75 


.01 


375 


.76 


.25 


908 


.75 


SI 


^^H 800 


JO 


.05 


aea 


.80 


.20 


900 


.SO 


.95 


^^H 


.85 


.70 


3(50 


.8.5 


.33 


892 


.85 


36.00 


^^H 


.90 


.74 


353 


.90 


.37 


884 


.90 


.04 


^^H 


.96 


.70 


345 


.95 


.42 


876 


.95 


.09 


^^H JM773 


34.00 


30.83 


.05338 


39,00 


32.46 


.94868 


42.00 


35.13 


^^H 


.an 


.87 


330 


.06 


.60 


860 


.05 


.18 


^^H 


.10 


.92 


323 


.10 


.56 


852 


.10 


.23 


^^B 


.15 


.90 


315 


.15 


.69 


848 


.16 


.27 


^^H 


.so 


30.00 


807 


.20 


.64 


836 


.20 


.31 


^^H 


.SS 


.05 


300 


.25 


.68 


827 


.25 


.36 


^^H 


.30 


.09 


292 


.30 


.72 


820 


M 


.40 


^^H 


.35 


.13 


284 


.35 


.77 


811 


M 


.46 


^^^P 


,40 


.17 


277 


.40 


.81 


808 


AO 


.49 


^^^ 


.45 


.22 


269 


.45 


.80 


794 


Ati 


.64 


^K^ Mims 


3tf.«0 


80.26 


.952152 


30..W 


32.90 


.94786 


42.50 


36.58 


^^K fins 


.55 


.30 


254 


,05 


,95 


778 


.65 


.63 


^^H «68 


.GO 


.38 


24fl 


-fiO 


.99 


770 


.60 


.67 


^^H 


.fi.-) 


..19 


KtS 


.e.*j 


33.(14 


761 


.65 


.72 


^^H 


.70 


.44 


231 


.70 


.W 


753 


.70 


.76 


^^H 


.75 


-« 


'*23 


.75 


.13 


746 


.75 


.81 


^^H «60 


.SO 


..v> 


■jl'i 


.80 


.17 


737 


.80 


.65 


^^H cos 


.85 


.57 


20S 


.8-> 


'lO 


-nn 


.85 


-UO 


^^^M 


.»0 


.61 


200 


.90 


.2? 


730 


.90 


.94 


^^■P 


.H.'i 


.66 


llK'i 


.ys 


.31 


712 


.95 


.99 


^F^ .0SO3S 


»r.oo 


30l70 


.05185 


40.00 


33.35 


.94704 


43.00 


36.08 


^K_ 023 


.05 


.74 


177 


.05 


.no 


696 


.06 


.08 


^HB »IK 


.10 


.79 


l<i9 


.10 


.44 


687 


.10 


.12 


^^^m fiio 


.15 


.83 


lei 


.16 


.48 


679 


.16 


.17 


^^H 003 


.20 


.88 


154 


.20 


..53 


670 


.SO 


.31 


^^H Mti 


.M 


.92 


146 


.25 


.57 


662 


.S5 


.23 


^^H «e9 


JtO 


.96 


138 


.30 


.61 


664 


.30 


.30 


^^H S6I 


.35 


31.01 


130 


.35 


.66 


64S 


.26 


.36 


^^^ S74 


AO 


.05 


JOO 


.40 


.70 


fiST 


.40 


.39 


^V 5«7 


M 


.10 


114 


.45 


.7* 


fllS 


.iG 


.44 





AHALYSIS OF BEER. 



187 



%w»s 


PmvDt. 


Pur noL 1 


Sprclflc 


Prt colli. 


I'*r VBOl- 


b'mciflc 


I'wr otnl- 


I'tir (MU 


•"ST" 


(Icnhnl hy 


■I<»hnl by 


gnilty U 


■Inoh-I [.y 


nivah'it by, 


gntUT ■■ 


alcnliDl tijr 


nlmhitllrj 


«.50 


vfijttat. 


Talunip. 


w tig hi. ' 


•ofiimt, 
41UI0 


■SlghL 


OlSMSO 


30,48 


0.84188 


46.00 


38.75 


0.93824 


40,M 


«IS 


M 


.53 


179 


.05 


.80 


815 


.05 


.65 


«03 


.1)0 


ja 


170 


.10 


.84 


806 


.10 


.68 


«e 


.116 


M 


181 


.15 


.89 


796 


.15 


.74 


m AM 


.70 


.06 


152 


.20 


.93 


786 


.30 


.78 


■ IE7S 


.7S 


.71 


143 


.25 


.98 


777 


.85 


.A3 


■ S7Q 


.80 


.75 


134 


.30 


39.03 


768 


.30 


-SK 


■ fiei 


.8S 


.80 


12.') 


.3.^ 


.07 


758 


.35 


.92 


^ 6W 


.90 


.64 


110 


.40 


.12 


749 


.40 


.97 


U4 


.95 


.89 


107 


.45 


.16 


738 


.45 


41.01 


^MM 


44.00 


3S.03 


.«400S 


16,S0 


39.21 


.93780 


48.50 


41.06 


K^6S7 


.05 


.08 


0S9 


.55 


.86 


721 


.65 


.11 


^ «9 


.10 


37.03 


oso 


.60 


.30 


711 


.60 


.15 


MO 


.!» 


.07 


071 


.65 


.35 


702 


.65 


.20 


«os 


.30 


.11 


062 


.70 


.30 


692 


.70 


.24 


4« 


.OS 


.16 


1)63 


.75 


.44 


683 


.75 


.28 


«l 


.30 


.21 


044 


.80 


.49 


679 


.80 


.34 


47« 


.3S 


.25 


0&5 


.85 


.53 


884 


.86 


.38 


m 


.40 


.30 


OUf! 


.90 


.68 


655 


.90 


.43 


4U 


.46 


.34 


017 


.95 


.62 


64C 


.96 


.47 


jm-uo 


44..W 


8T..lfl 


.e«ios 


47.00 


39.67 


.03636 


49.00 


41.52 


441 


.M 


.44 


.9.1H«9 


.05 


.72 


6S0 


.05 


.57 


4» 


.60 


.i» 


990 


.10 


.76 


617 


.10 


.01 


«« 


.05 


.5S 


980 


.15 


.81 


807 


.15 


.36 


416 


.70 


.57 


m 


.20 


.85 


5B8 


.20 


.71 


^_ 4(17 


.75 


.62 


962 


.26 


.90 


688 


.26 


.76 


^K SB8 


.80 


M 


953 


.30 


.96 


STS 


.30 


.80 


^B SW 


M 


.71 


944 


.35 


.99 


.509 


.3.^ 


.$5 


^H SBl 


.80 


.76 


D^ 


.40 


40.04 


569 


.40 


.90 


^B 978 


.85 


30 


9%'> 


.45 


.08 


550 


A.% 


.94 


^Kmm 


46.00 


37.84 


.930KI 


47.50 


40.13 


.93640 


49.50 


41.99 


^B tfS 


.05 


.88 


906 


.55 


.18 


530 


.56 


42.04 


^ 346 


.10 


J)S 


898 


-fiO 


.22 


531 


.60 


.03 


838 


.15 


.98 


868 


.06 


.27 


511 


.86 


.13 


39tB 


.80 


38.02 


S79 


.70 


.32 


502 


.70 


.IS 


330 


.85 


.07 


870 


.75 


.37 


492 


.75 


.33 


^ «1 


.30 


.13 


801 


.80 


.41 


482 


.80 


.87 


^H 3DS 


M 


.16 


SpW 


.86 


.46 


473 


.85 


.32 


^H SH 


.40 


.SI 


842 


.80 


-'51 


403 


.90 


.37 


■ S8S 


.46 


.85 


833 


.05 


.56 


454 


M 


.41 


^BIS78 


4B.S0 


88.30 














^^v ttr 


M 


.35 














H SBB 


.80 


.39 














^^B 900 


.16 


.44 














^H HI 


.70 


.48 














^ S32 


.75 


M 














fits 


.80 


Ji7 














^ SU 


.85 


.63 














H^7 


.80 
.85 


.00 
.71 















Determination of Extract. — Tin.- fxtnici nmy Iw ik-tcnnimtl ili- 
recXly or, with tin- ai't ut' a tablf. from tlie specific gravity of the de- 
sloobolizt-fl Wcr. The iJirccl int'tli(Ml I." the more tm'rimtc, and i* carmd 
out as follows : Into an accitratoly weighed |)latiDiim dinh, such as is 
■tM.ll in iho Hiiiilyi'iii of milk, w(.-i);li 'i ^nirii^ of turr ; ovn|M)nttv to oom- 
plele drytwae, iiud multiply tlie weight of the residue by 20. 



H^ ^^HP" FOODS. ^^1 


1 


■ 


^m tahles showing PKRCKKTAGt: OF AixoTioi. nv 


fticinirr AXD 


^^^ BY V<)Ll'MK. 






^^^^^1 (^IttmUvialwt Jfom tKe lirleitiiiiuUUMU i/ Oilpin, Drinhialrr, and tigiub&. 




^^^^^ by Kdgar BieAanl*.] 






^H ^mU« ' IVr omt ' IVr wdi. " I>t«ct1ln 


IVrniini rnr<»oi. SpwlBo 


r*T pcal. 


Per our 


^^H 11)° K. nilunir. wdght. 


"^'¥." 






ulDsbDlbT 


^1 

^B I.WHKKI 


0.00 


0.00 


o.«««so 


S.50 


1.09 


0,*je281 


5.00 


4.00 


^m o.9imi 


.05 


.04 


es-i 


,56 


2.03 


274 


.05 


.04 


^K 9M 


.10 


.08 


816 


.60 


.07 


268 


.10 


.08 


^^^ B?« 


.19 


.12 


807 


.66 


.11 


261 


.1-i 


12 


^^H MS 


JO 


.16 


eoo 


.70 


.16 


255 


.20 


.18 


^^H 


.•a .20 !l 593 


.75 


.19 


248 


.25 


.20 


^^H 


.SO .U 5S0 


M 


.23 


241 


.30 


.2* 


^^H HS 


.3& .:» 


G7» 


.85 


.27 


235 


.35 


.28 


^^H BS7 


.4(1 .32 


671 


.90 


.31 


238 


.40 


.32 


^^V 


.45 


.»« 


o(H 


.96 


.85 


223 


.46 


.38 


^K .99Q23 


QJW 1 0.40 


.09B57 


3.00 


2.39 


.99216 


5.60 


4.40 


^^^ »U 


.66 1 .44 


(>60 


.06 


.43 


208 


.65 


.44 


^^H 907 


.BO 


.43 


.^43 


.10 


.47 


202 


.60 


.48 


^^H MO 


.06 


.52 


636 


•J5 


.61 


IBS 


.66 


.63 


^^H 892 


JO 


.66 


629 


.80 


.66 


189 


,70 


.66 


^^B 


.75 


.60 


622 


.2A 


.59 


163 


.76 


.60 


^^H 87; 


.80 


.04 


615 


.30 


.84 


175 


.80 


.64 


^^H 


M 


.67 


608 


.35 


.68 


leo 


.86 


.68 


^^H 801 


.90 


.71 


601 


.40 


.72 


162 


.90 


.72 


^^V 


.96 


.76 


4S4 


.45 


.76 


150 


.95 


.76 


^M .99S49 


1.00 


a79 


.99487 


3,60 


2.80 


.99149 


6.00 


4.80 


^B Si3 


.OS 


.83 


480 


.66 


.84 


143 


.05 


.84 


■ «u 


.10 


.87 


473 


.60 


.88 


136 


.10 


.38 


^^^ 8S7 


.16 1 .01 


4t;e 


.65 


.92 


130 


.15 


,93 


^^H 


.20 .95 


469 


.70 


.96 


12.1 


.20 


.98 


^^H 8U 


.Sb M 


4£S 


.75 


3.00 


117 


.26 


6.00 


^^H 806 


JO 1.03 


445 


.80 


.04 


111 


.30 


.09 


^^H 7»7 


.36 .07 


438 


.85 


.08 


104 


.35 


.09 


^^H 


.40 , .11 


431 


.90 


.12 


098 


.40 


.18 


^^H 


.« ' .16 


424 


.06 


.16 


001 


.46 


.17 


^ .9977.", 


\M 


1.19 


.99417 


4.00 


3.20 


.99085 


6.60 


6.21 


^■^ 76s 


M 


.23 


410 


.05 


.34 


079 


.56 


.2-', 


^^K 7«0 


M 


.27 


403 


.10 


.28 072 


.00 


.211 


^^B 


M 


.31 


397 


.15 


.32 OSS 


.85 


.33 


^^H 


.70 


.35 , sm 


.20 


.30 1 060 


.70 


.37 


^^H 


.76 


.39 : SS3 


.25 


.40 053 


.76 


.41 


^^H 


.80 


.43 


STfi 


.30 


At 1 047 


.80 


.46 


^^H 723 


.86 


.47 


369 


.36 


A9 MO 


,85 


.49 


^^H 716 


M 


.61 


363 


.40 


.62 1 034 


.90 


.63 


^^H 


.» 


■« 


SAS 


.46 


.66 ' 027 


.86 


.67 


^^^ JI9701 


200 1.59 


.99349 


4.50 


3.60 ' .99021 


7.00 


0.61 m 


^K 0.M 


.06 .ii3 


S42 


.55 


.64 UIS 


.06 


.06 ■ 


^^^ 687 


.10 , .07 


335 


.60 


.08 009 


.10 


.69 ■ 


^^B 


.16 ' .71 


329 


.66 


,72 002 


.15 


■ 


^^H <72 


.TO .7ft 


3'J2 


.TO 


.70 1 MWii 


.20 


.77 ^^1 


^^H eas 


.86 .70 


315 


.75 


.80 1 1«*0 


-W 


.81 ^^M 


^^H 66S 


JSO .83 ' 308 


.80 


.84 W*4 


.31) 


.m ^^H 


^^H 


.&6 1 J)7 J 301 


.8-^ 


.88 1 978 


.36 


.90 ■ 


^^V «« 


.40 .91 ' 2!).') 


.90 


.92 971 


.40 


.94 ■ 


^^^ «3S 


.46 .96 1 288 


.96 


M II 9H6 


.46 


.98 ■ 






m 



ANALYSE OF SEER. 



183 



JSf 


P«rognL 


Pwe«nt. 


SpaidOc 


Percent. 


Paroent, 


1 tiprclfie 


Percent. 


Per OBnt. 


pniBil 


■knbolbjr 

Talunw. 


■Jcobol bT 
welghL 


'^V 


■looholbr 


mLoohol bj 
weigbt 


•^'?," 


■loohoJ b J 
TOlume. 


ftloohol bj 
■elgbL 


omf 


7,50 


6.02 


0.98603 


10.50 


8.45 


0.98273 


1150 


10.90 


m 


.55 


.06 


597 


.55 


.49 


267 


.56 


.94 


M7 


.60 


.10 


692 


.60 


.53 


262 


.60 


.98 


HO 


M 


.14 


586 


.65 


.57 


256 


.65 


11.02 


134 


.70 


.18 


580 


.70 


.61 


251 


.70 


.06 


t28 


,76 


.22 


575 


.75 


.66 


246 


.75 


.11 


m 


.80 


.26 


569 


.80 


-70 


240 


.80 


.15 


lid 


^ 


.30 


563 


.85 


.74 


235 


.85 


.19 


MN 


.90 


.34 


557 


.90 


.78 


230 


.90 


.23 


K3 


.95 


.38 


652 


.95 


.82 


224 


.95 


.27 


jtm 


8.00 


6.42 


.98546 


11.00 


8.86 


.93219 


14.00 


11.31 


m 


.05 


.46 


640 


.06 


.90 


214 


.05 


.36 


H& 


.10 


.50 


536 


.10 


.94 


200 


.10 


.39 


I7S 


.15 


.64 


629 


.15 


.98 


203 


.15 


.43 


KS 


.20 


.58 


624 


.20 


9.02 


198 


.20 


.47 


S67 


.25 


.62 


818 


.26 


.07 


193 


.25 


.52 


Ml 


.30 


.67 


513 


.30 


.11 


188 


.30 


.56 


SfiS 


.36 


.71 


607 


.35 


.15 


183 


.35 


.60 


M9 


.40 


.75 


502 


.40 


.19 


177 


.40 


,S4 


843 


.45 


.79 


496 


.46 


.23 


172 


.45 


.68 


.98837 


S.60 


6.83 


.98491 


11.60 


9.27 


.98167 


14.60 


11.72 


m 


.65 


.87 


486 


,56 


.31 


101 


.56 


.76 


m 


.60 


.91 


479 


.60 


.36 


156 


.60 


,80 


119 


.65 


.95 


474 


.65 


.39 


161 


.65 


,84 


813 


.70 


.99 


468 


.70 


.43 


146 


.70 


.88 


U! 


.75 


7.03 


463 


.76 


.47 


140 


.76 


,93 


m 


.80 


.07 


467 


.80 


.61 


135 


.80 


,97 


T» 


.85 


.11 


462 


.85 


.66 


130 


.86 


12.01 


T8» 


.90 


.15 


446 


.90 


.50 


125 


.60 


,06 


7»3 


.95 


.19 


441 


.95 


.63 


119 


.96 


,09 


JBm 


9.00 


7.23 


.93435 


12.00 


9.67 


.08114 


16.00 


12.13 


ni 


.06 


.27 


430 


.05 


.71 


108 


.06 


.17 


7« 


.10 


.31 


424 


.10 


.76 


104 


.10 


.21 


IN 


J5 


.35 


419 


.15 


.79 


090 


1 


.26 


'» 


.20 


.39 


413 


.20 


.83 


093 


.20 


7tt 


.25 


.43 


408 


.26 


.87 


088 


,25 


.33 


7ti 


.30 


.48 


402 


.30 


.92 


083 


.30 


.38 


nt 


.35 


.62 


397 


.36 


.96 


078 


.35 


.42 


m 


.40 


.56 


891 


.40 


10.00 


073 


,» 


.46 


m 


.45 


.60 


386 


.45 


.04 


068 


.46 


.60 


-W19 


0.50 


7.S4 


.96381 


12.50 


10.06 


.08063 


16.50 


12.64 


71J 


.£5 


.68 


376 


.65 


.12 


057 


.65 


.58 


Jm 


.60 


.72 


370 


.60 


.13 


062 


.60 


.62 


m 


.05 


.76 


364 


.65 


.20 


047 


.65 


.66 


t» 


.70 


.80 


359 


.70 


.24 


042 


.70 


.70 


w 


.76 


.84 


863 


.75 


.28 


037 


.75 


.76 


t8J 


.80 


.88 


348 


.80 


.33 


932 


.80 


.79 


178 


.85 


.92 


S42 


.85 


.37 


026 


,85 


.83 


tTi 


.90 


.06 


837 


.90 


.41 


021 


.90 


.87 


t« 


,95 


8.00 


331 


.95 


.45 


016 


.95 


.91 


JW60 


10,00 


8.04 


.98326 


13.00 


10.49 


.98011 


16.00 


12.9S 


eii 


.05 


.08 


321 


.0^ 


.63 


005 


.06 


.99 


tts 


.10 


.12 


315 


.10 


.67 


001 


.10 


13.03 


M 


.16 


.16 


310 


.15 


.61 


97996 


.16 


.08 


837 


.20 


.20 


305 


.20 


.66 


991 


.20 


.12 


m 


.25 


.24 


299 


.25 


.69 


986 


.26 


.16 


830 


.30 


.29 


294 


-SO 


.74 


980 


.30 


,20 


89) 


.3A 


.33 


289 


.36 


.78 


975 


.3.5 


.24 


«4 


.40 


.S7 


283 


.40 


.82 


970 


.40 


.29 


- «• 


.45 


.41 


278 


AH 


.86 


965 


,46 


.33 



H 184 


1 


1 


F 


FOODS. 


■ 


^ 


1 


■ 


^^L^ epMiHe 


Par «•■■(. 


rtrMDt, 


XpMlllE 


Fvr cwrrl^ 


V*r rtiiL 


f^wcMe 


PrriHKit. 


y*T OFDb ^1 




■Inihul tif 
inlunu. 

ICSO 


Mlmtiul by 
wdchu 

18.37 


0.S7(S58 


AlOfilinl tif 
volume. 


■llvhnl h]r 
15.84 


■"-^■f" 




]».50 


0.97S6G 


22.60 


18.34 ^^H 


^M. 9^ 


.65 


.41 


853 


.66 


M 


360 


M 


.38 ■ 


^^^ 960 


.60 


.46 


648 


.8(1 


.93 


346 


.00 


.42 ™ 


^^B 945 


.66 


.49 


643 


.05 


.97 


340 


.85 


,47 


^^H 940 


.70 


.63 


638 


.70 


16.01 


335 


.70 


.61 


^^H OSS 


.76 


J17 


633 


.75 


.06 


330 


.7.5 


.56 


^^H e» 


.80 


.6S 


628 


.80 


.09 


324 


.80 


.69 


^^H nt 


.BO 


.60 


6£S 


.86 


.14 


319 


.85 


.fi3 


^^B 9)9 


.SO 


.70 


618 


.90 


.18 


314 


.90 


.68 


^^^ 


.0.1 


.74 


013 


.9.'. 


.23 


309 


.»5 


.78 


^K^ .97909 


17.00 


13.78 


.l>780e 


20.00 


10.20 


.97304 


23.00 


1S.76 


^^b MM 


.OS 


.82 


fi03 


.05 


.30 


S99 


.06 


.80 


^^B 899 


.10 


.8S 


698 


-10 


.34 


294 


.10 


.84 


^^^ 8»4 


.16 


.90 


693 


.15 


.38 


289 


.15 


M 


^M 6S0 


.20 


.94 


588 


.20 


.42 


283 


.20 


Si 


■ 884 


.25 


.98 


583 


.35 


.40 


.278 


.25 


.90 


^B 


.30 


14.03 


678 


.30 


.61 


273 


.30 


19.01 


^m__ 874 


.36 


.07 


673 


.36 


.66 


268 


.35 


.05 


^^M 


M 


.11 


608 


.40 


.69 


263 


.40 


.09 


^^B 864 


A6 


.15 


mn 


.46 


.03 


368 


.45 


.13 


^m .»;s&9 


i;.so 


14J9 


.97688 


20.50 


10.07 


.973.-.3 


S3..'i0 


19.17 


^K_ 8S3 


.60 


.S3 


662 


.65 


.71 


247 


.65 


.21 


^^K 848 


.60 


.27 


647 


.60 


.76 


242 


.60 


.26 


^^m 848 


.06 


.31 


642 


M 


.80 


237 


.65 


M 


^^H sss 


.70 


.35 


637 


.70 


.84 


232 


.70 


M 


^^H sss 


.76 


.40 


632 


■75 


.m 


227 


.75 


M 


^^M 828 


.80 


M 


eiS7 


.80 


.02 


222 


.80 


.42 


^^H sss 


.86 


M 


622 


.86 


.96 


ai6 


.85 


.48 


^^V SIB 


.90 


M 


617 


.90 


17.01 


£11 


.90 


.61 


^V 81S 


.96 


M 


612 


.96 


.06 


200 


.90 


A6 


^B .9rsoR 


18.00 


i4.i;o 


.07607 


21.00 


17.09 


.97201 


24.00 


19.60 


^H 808 


.05 


.04 


502 


.05 


.13 


19« 


.05 


.63 


^1 


.10 


.OS 


497 


.10 


.17 


191 


.10 


.07 


^M na 


.16 


.73 


492 


.16 


.22 


185 


.15 


.72 


^L_ 788 


• .ao 


.77 


487 


.20 


.26 


180 


.20 


.76 


^^H 763 


.2A 


^I 


4S2 


.26 


JO 


176 


.25 


.80 


^^H 778 


JM 


.» 


477 


.30 


.34 


170 


.80 


.84 


^^H TTS 


.36 


.89 


472 


.35 


.33 


169 


.35 


M 


^^■L 


.40 


.94 


467 


.40 


.43 


169 


.40 


.93 


^^^^ 7<!3 


.4.1 


M 


462 


.45 


.47 


154 


.46 


.97 


^E .97758 


18,S0 


16.03 


.97467 


21.60 


17.61 


.97149 


24.60 


20.01 


^^^ 753 


-M 


M 


461 


J5 


.65 


144 


.65 


.06 


^^B 


.GO 


.10 


446 


.60 


.69 


139 


.60 


.09 


^^H 


.« 


.14 


441 


.66 


.03 


133 


.65 


.14 ^ 


^^H 733 


.70 


.18 


436 


.70 


.67 


128 


.70 


■ 


^^H 


.78 


.22 


431 


.76 


.Tt 


123 


.76 


.22 __^ 


^^H 7S8 


.80 


.27 


426 


.80 


.76 


118 


.80 


M ^^M 


^^H 723 


M 


.31 


421 


.86 


.SO 


113 


.85 


JO ^^M 


^^H 718 


.90 


.38 


410 


.90 


.84 


107 


.90 


J6 ^^M 


^^H 713 


.96 


.39 


411 


.96 


.88 


]02 


.96 


.39 ^^M 


^^^ .97708 


19.00 


16.43 


.974rx; 


2:;, 00 


17.92 


.97097 


26.00 


20.43 ^^B 


^1 703 


.08 


.47 


401 


.05 


.HO 


092 


.06 


■ 


^B 098 


.10 


.51 


SBO 


.10 


18.00 


086 


.10 


.61 _^^M 


■ 693 


.16 


.66 


391 


.lA 


.06 


081 


.16 


M ^^M 


^H l»ft 


JtO 


.69 


380 


.20 


.09 


076 


.20 


•JBO ^^M 


^M 083 


.S6 


.63 


3S1 


.26 


AS 


071 


.26 


M ^^M 


^1 878 


.30 


.08 


376 


.30 


.17 


065 


JO 


.68 ^^M 


^1 


.36 


.73 


870 


.35 


.21 


060 


.36 


.73 ■ 


^B 068 


.40 


.76 


368 


.40 


.29 


066 


.40 


■ 


H 003 


.44 


.80 


360 


.46 


.30 


049 


.46 


■ 


^ 


■ 






T " 




L 


^ 


J 



ANALYSIS OF BEER. 



186 



'Parnnt. 


Pertwnt. 


Spcolllc 


PerceoL 


P«r ECDt. 


Speclflo 


Pcrosnt. 


Per «nt. 


iilflokiol bj 
tolume. 


mlcohol by 

•rslghL 


80° F. 


■IcDbalbyiilcobDlbT 
ToJume. 1 wfllgbt- 


<^'f." 


KlcobDl by 

TOluiUB. 


■leohol br 
weighu 


' 25.60 


20.86 


0.96716 




28.50 


23.38 


0.96360 


31.50 


26.94 


' .65 


.89 


709 


.56 


.42 


353 


.56 


.93 


.60 


.93 


704 


.60 


.47 


347 


.60 


26.03 


.65 


.08 


696 


.65 


.51 


341 


.05 


.07 


.70 


21.02 


692 


.70 


.65 


335 


.70 


.11 


.75 


.06 


687 


.75 


.60 


329 


.75 


.16 


.80 


.10 


681 


.80 


.64 


323 


.80 


.20 


.85 


.14 


675 


.85 


.68 


316 


.86 


.24 


.90 


.19 


669 


.90 


.72 


310 


.90 


.28 


.95 


.23 


664 


.95 


.77 


304 


.95 


.33 


2S.00 


21.27 


.9GG58 


29.00 


23.81 


.96298 


32.00 


26.37 


.05 


.31 


652 


.05 


.85 


292 


.05 


.41 


.10 


.35 


646 


.10 


.89 


285 


.10 


.46 


.15 


.40 


640 


.16 


.94 


270 


.15 


.50 


.20 


.44 


635 


.20 


.98 


273 


.20 


.54 


.2.5 


.48 


629 


.26 


24.02 


2G7 


.25 


.59 


.30 


.52 


623 


.30 


.06 


260 


.30 


.63 


.35 


.66 


617 


.35 


.10 


254 


.35 


.67 


.40 


.61 


611 


.40 


.16 


248 


.40 


.71 


.45 


.65 


605 


.45 


.19 


241 


.45 


.76 


26.50 


21.69 


.96600 


29.50 


24.23 


.96235 


32.50 


26.80 


' .56 


.73 


594 


.55 


.27 


229 


.65 


.84 


.60 


.77 


587 


.60 


.32 


222 


.60 


.89 


.65 


.82 


562 


.65 


.36 


216 


.65 


.93 


.70 


.86 


576 


.70 


.40 


210 


.70 


.97 


.75 


.90 


570 


.75 


.45 


204 


.76 


27.02 


.80 


.94 


564 


.80 


.49 


197 


.80 


.06 


.85 


.98 


55S 


.85 


.63 


101 


.85 


.10 


.90 


22.03 


553 


.90 


.57 


185 


.90 


.14 


.95 


.07 


647 


.96 


.62 


178 


.95 


.19 


27.00 


22.11 


.90541 


30.00 


24.66 


.96172 


33.00 


27.23 


1 .05 


.15 


535 


.05 


.70 


166 


.05 


.27 


1 .10 


.20 


529 


.10 


.74 


159 


.10 


.32 


.15 


.24 


623 


.16 


.79 


163 


.16 


.36 


, .20 


.1% 


517 


.20 


.83 


146 


.20 


.40 


.25 


.33 


511 


.25 


.87 


140 


.25 


.45 


' .30 


.37 


605 


.30 


.91 


133 


.30 


.49 


1 .36 


.41 


4S9 


.35 


.95 


127 


.35 


.53 


1 .40 


.45 


493 


.40 


25.00 


120 


.40 


.57 


1 .46 


.60 


487 


.45 


.04 


114 


.45 


.62 


; 27.60 


22.64 


.96481 


30.60 


25.08 


.96108 


33.50 


27.66 


1 .55 


.58 


475 


.55 


.12 


101 


.55 


.70 


' .60 


.62 


469 


.60 


.17 


095 


.60 


.75 


.65 


.67 


463 


.65 


.21 


088 


.6d 


.79 


.70 


.71 


457 


.70 


.25 


082 


.70 


.83 


.75 


.75 


451 


.75 


.30 


075 


.75 


..SS 


.80 


.79 


445 


.80 


.34 


009 


.80 


.92 


.85 


.83 


439 


.85 


.38 


062 


.m 


.96 


.90 


.83 


433 


.90 


.42 


056 


.90 


28.00 


.05 


.92 


427 


.95 


.47 


049 


.95 


.06 


28.00 


22.9tl 


.96421 


31.00 


25.51 


.96043 


34.00 


2S.09 


' .05 


23.00 


415 


.05 


.55 


036 


.0.1 


.13 


1 .10 


.04 


409 


.10 


.60 


030 


.10 


.18 


.15 


.09 


403 


.16 


.64 


023 


.15 


.22 


.20 


.13 


396 


.20 


.68 


016 


.20 


.26 


.25 


.17 


390 


.25 


.73 


010 


.25 


.31 


1 .30 


.21 


384 


.30 


.77 


003 


.30 


.35 


.35 


.25 


378 


.35 


.SI , 


.95996 


.35 


.30 


' .40 


.30 


372 


.40 


.85 ) 


990 


.40 


.43 


.45 


.34 


366 


Ah 


.90 ; 


983 


.45 


.48 



^m 186 


1 


i 


POOD& 


■ 


^ 


■ 




^^^^^H F|l f f U* 


PbtmhI. 


f*f (•ol' 


t^a«iaa 


PVT4HM' 


IVrraDL' 


(HmM* 


rtrwat tmmn 




^1 <L»9T? 




0L9666O 


•qIuum. 

37.60 


■kulHlbir 


■nrftra) 


4(LG0 an 




31.14 


a96107 




^■^ WO 


M 


M 


663 


.66 


.IN 


oen 


J» M 




^^^K 


M 


.61 


M6 


.60 


.23 


091 


M 


M 




^^H 


M 


.•e 


638 


.66 


.27 


OIJS 


ja 


M 




^^H 


.70 


.70 


531 


.70 


.32 


075 


.70 


M 




^^^m 


.7» 


.74 


523 


.To 


.36 


067 


.76 »n 




^^^m 


^ 


.7S 


616 


.80 


.40 


069 


M 


St 




^^H 


.86 


.83 


609 


.85 


.46 


062 


M 


.U 




^^^ 


.90 


.87 


60! 


.90 


.49 


044 


M 


.11 




^H 917 


M 


.9t 


4M 


.96 


.64 


CO(i 


.95 


.» 




^B .93910 


3&00 


28.98 


.96487 


38.00 


31.66 


.96028 


41.00 UN 




^H 9IJ3 


.06 


20.00 


480 


.06 


.63 


020 


M 


,28 




^^^^ 


.10 


.05 


472 


.10 


.67 


012 


.10 


.3! 




^^^K esg 


.16 


.00 


466 


.16 


.72 


004 


.15 


Si 




^^^1 


.20 


.13 


467 


.20 


.76 


.H996 


.30 .« 




^^^B 


M 


.18 


460 


.26 


.81 


g«8 


.26 : .Jl 




^^^m 


.80 


.S2 


44S 


.30 


.86 


W) 


,30 , J» 




^^^^ Stt 


.36 


.36 


485 


M 


.90 


972 


J6 ' M 




^V 8» 


.40 


.30 


427 


M 


M 


964 


.40 -W 




^M U8 


.46 


.se 


4» 


.46 


M 


«66 


.46 M 




^H .9&H! 


3S.50 


29.39 


.96413 


88.80 


stm 


.04M8 


41.60 


»i.et 




^M 836 


.Bfi 


.43 


406 


.66 


.07 


ii-l'p 


Mi 


.n 




^H 8S8 


.60 


AH 


398 


.60 


.12 


&-;l: 


1,0 


.n 




^H ei 


.60 


Ji2 


390 


.68 


.16 


Vll 


.05 


A 




^1 


.70 


J,7 


383 


.70 


.20 


«l« 


.70 


» 




^B NT 


.76 


.01 


376 


.76 


.26 


908 


■76 ^ 




^B 800 


.80 


.66 


368 


.80 


.20 


900 


.80 ■« 




^H 


.86 


.70 


SGO 


.66 


.SI 


892 


.86 


JltOJ 




^H 787 


.00 


.74 


363 


.90 


JS7 


684 


.90 


.M 




^H 790 


.96 


.79 


346 


.96 


.42 


870 


■96 


.M 




^1 ,8^73 


36.00 


20.S3 


.05338 


39.00 


8146 


.94868 


43.00 


lU) 




^M 766 


M 


.87 


330 


.06 


.60 


860 


.06 


J» 




^H 7» 


.10 


S-i 


323 


.10 


M 


862 


■15 ' ^ 




^H 7S2 


.16 


.90 


316 


.16 


M 


843 




^B 


.20 


:io.oo 


807 


.20 


.64 


K« 


20 ■>' 
■88 1 -ft 

:J2 1 M 




^H 738 


.26 


.05 


300 


.96 


.63 


827 




^H 731 


.30 


.09 


292 


.30 


.72 


820 




^H 7M 


.36 


.13 


284 


.36 


.77 


811 




^H 


.40 


.17 


S77 


.40 


.81 


802 




^H 710 


.4$ 


.22 


S69 


,46 


.80 


704 




^1 .saTai 


30.60 


30.S6 


.06262 


39.,'^0 


82.90 


.M78n 


42.60 ,3fcM 
.66 -2 

.06 •:] 

■^' :« 
:« 1 ■•! 

on .r* 




^H SM 


.66 


.30 


234 


.06 


.96 


778 




^H 688 


.60 


.35 


24 It 


.60 


.99 


770 




^M 


.66 


.30 


239 


.66 


33.04 


761 




^M 674 


.70 


.44 


231 


.70 


.on 


763 




^1 007 


.76 


.48 


223 


.76 


.13 


746 




^M WW 


.80 


M 


SIO 


.80 


.17 


7ST 




^1 6U 


.85 


.67 


soe 


.86 


.22 


72U 




^1 646 


.90 


.61 


200 


.90 


!27 


720 




^M 630 


.06 


.GO 


103 


.96 


.31 


712 


.95 


.1' 




^H .M633 


37.00 


saro 


.96186 


40.00 


83.35 


.94704 


43.00 


1 

1 




^H «3Jt 


.06 


.74 


177 


.06 


.39 


606 


.06 




^H «18 


.10 


.70 


169 


,10 


.44 


687 


.10 




^H «I0 


.16 


jsa 


161 


.16 


.48 


C79 


.16 




^M MB 


.SO 


M 


164 


.20 


.53 


670 


.20 




^H 606 


M 


M 


146 


.26 


.67 


CG3 


.36 




^M u» 


JO 


,98 


138 


.30 


.81 


F,rA 


.30 




^1 661 


.36 


31.01 


130 


.36 


.60 


U6 


.36 




^H 674 


.40 


.05 


122 


.40 


.70 


637 


.40 




H 


.46 


.10 


114 


M 


.76 


S38 


.46 


M 




1. 














^ 



ANALYSIS OF BBEB. 



187 



iPcreant. 


PnoenL 


Sprelfle 


Pcrceol. 


Pareent 


BptlMe 


PsrcsDt. 


l*flTccnt. 


ynbolbT 

1 TOlOBM. 


■leoholbr 
■■IghL 


«T^tf" 


ilcoho] b^ 

TQJUbie. 


weight. 


•^'f." 


Lleofaol bj 
Tolamfl. 


■loofaol br 
wclgbl. 


43.50 


36.48 


0.94188 


46.00 


3S.75 


0.93824 


4&A0 


■40.60 


.55 


.53 


179 


.05 


.80 


815 


.05 


.65 


.60 


.57 


170 


.10 


.84 


805 


.10 


.09 


.l>S 


.62 


161 


.15 


.89 


796 


.16 


.74 


.70 


.66 


152 


.20 


.93 


786 


.20 


.78 


.75 


.71 


143 


.25 


.98 


777 


.25 


.63 


.SO 


.75 


134 


.30 


39.03 


768 


.30 


.88 


.85 


.80 


125 


.35 


.07 


758 


.35 


.92 


.90 


.84 


U6 


.40 


.12 


749 


.40 


.97 


.95 


.89 


107 


.45 


.16 


739 


.45 


41.01 


44.00 


36.93 


.94098 


46.50 


39.21 


.93730 


48.50 


41.06 


.05 


.08 


089 


.55 


.26 


721 


.56 


.11 


.10 


37.02 


080 


.60 


.30 


711 


.SO 


.15 


.15 


.07 


071 


.65 


.35 


702 


.65 


.20 


.20 


.11 


062 


.70 


.39 


692 


.70 


.24 


-25 


.16 


053 


.75 


.44 


683 


.75 


.20 


.30 


.21 


044 


.80 


.49 


679 


.80 


.34 


.35 


.25 


035 


.85 


.53 


664 


.86 


.38 


.40 


.30 


026 


.90 


.58 


655 


.90 


.43 


.45 


.34 


017 


.95 


.62 


645 


.05 


.47 


44.50 


37.39 


.94008 


47.00 


39.67 


.93636 


49.00 


41.62 


.55 


.44 


.93909 


.05 


.72 


62S 


.05 


.57 


.60 


.48 


990 


.10 


.76 


617 


.10 


.61 


.65 


.53 


980 


.15 


.81 


607 


.15 


.66 


.70 


.67 


971 


.20 


.85 


598 


.20 


.71 


.75 


.62 


962 


.25 


.90 


688 


.26 


.76 


.80 


.06 


953 


.30 


.95 


578 


.30 


.80 


.85 


.71 


944 


.35 


.99 


669 


.36 


.85 


.90 


.76 


934 


.40 


40.04 


659 


.40 


.90 


.95 


M 


925 


.45 


.08 


650 


.45 


.94 


45.00 


37.84 


.93916 


47.50 


4ai3 


.93540 


49.50 


41.99 


.05 


.89 


906 


.65 


.18 


530 


.55 


42.04 


.10 


.03 


S98 


.60 


.22 


521 


.60 


.08 


.16 


.OS 


sse 


.65 


.27 


611 


.66 


.13 


.20 


38.02 


879 


.70 


.32 


502 


.70 


-IB 


.25 


.07 


870 


.75 


.37 


492 


.75 


.23 


.30 


.12 


861 


.80 


.41 


482 


.80 


.27 


.35 


.16 


862 


.85 


.46 


473 


.86 


.32 


.40 


.21 


842 


.00 


.51 


463 


.00 


.37 


.46 


.25 


833 


.95 


.55 


454 


.06 


.41 


' 45.50 


38.30 














' .55 


.35 














1 .60 


.30 














1 .65 


.44 














' .70 


.48 














.75 


.53 














.80 


.57 














; .85 


.62 














.90 


.66 














.95 


.71 















rmination of Extract. — The extract may be (leferminetl di- 
r, with the aid of a table, from the fipecific frravity of the d(^ 
zed beer. The direct meth<Hl is the more ncciir.itc, mid is carried 
follows: Into an accumtcly weig:he<l platinnni dish, such an in 
the analyais of milk, weigh 5 grams of b«;r ; evajwrate to coci- 
TDesH, and multiply the weight of the residue by 20. 



188 



FOODS. 



Approximately acviirate results are nbtainecl by reference lo the fol- 
lowing till)]*', lifter tScliiiltu^-OsleniiuDu : 



^ 






BEER 


EXTRACT TABLE 










H»Tll)r, 





1 


t 


1 


4 


B 


• 


T 


a 


9 


1.011 


2.87 


2.TO 


S.92 


2.B& 


2.97 


8.00 


3.08 


3.00 


3.08 


3L1I 


2 


3.13 


8.18 


3.18 


3.21 


3.24 


3.20 


3.20 


3.S1 


8.84 


3,37 


3 


3.3ft 


3.4:! 


8.44 


147 


3.411 


3.52 


3,55 


3,67 


3.60 


3,63 


4 


3.t)u 


3.07 


8.70 


8.73 


3.75 


3.78 


3.80 


3.83 


3.86 


3,88 


ft 


3.ei 


ai»3 


3.96 


3.93 


4.01 


4.04 


4.06 


4.09 


4.11 


1.14 


• 


4.IU 


4.10 


4.21 


4.M 


4.27 


4.29 


4.33 


4,34 


4.37 


4.39 


7 


4.12 


4.14 


4.47 


4.30 


4.52 


4.55 


4.67 


4.00 


4.62 


4.e& 


» 


4.6: 


4.70 


4.73 


4.75 


4.78 


4.80 


4.S3 


4.H5 


AM 


4.90 


9 


4.93 


iM 


4.9S 


SOI 


5.03 


6.06 


5,08 


6.11 


6.13 


5.16 


1.020 


.^.19 


5.21 


S.24 


6.2G 


5.29 


5.31 


5.34 


5.36 


5.39 


S,41 


1 


5.44 


5.4T 


S.49 


5.52 


5.64 


5,67 


5,59 


5,62 


6,64 


5,67 


2 


6.69 


e.73 


B.74 


E.77 


5.80 


5.82 


G.85 


6.87 


6,90 


5,92 


S 


8.05 


6.»7 


6.00 


6.02 


6.05 


6.08 


[i.lO 


6.13 


6,15 


&18 


4 


6.30 


6.23 


6.25 


6.28 


6,30 


6.33 


0.35 


6:i» 


6.40 


6.4a 


S 


6.45 


6.48 


e..50 


6.53 


6.55 


6.58 


6.61 


6.03 


6.66 


6.68 


e 


«.Tl 


6.73 


6.7fi 


11.78 


6.81 


fi.83 


11.86 


6.88 


6.91 


8.93 


7 


6.96 


6.U8 


7.01 


7.03 


7.06 


7.08 


7.11 


7.13 


7.10 


7.18 


8 


7.21 


7.S4 


7.28 


7.29 


7.31 


7.34 


7,36 


7.39 


7.41 


7.44 


9 


7.46 


7.49 


7^1 


7.54 


7.66 


7.59 


7.61 


7.64 


7.68 


7.89 


1.030 


7.71 


7.71 


7.T6 


7.79 


7.81 


7.84 


7.86 


7.89 


7.91 


7.94 


) 


7.99 


8.01 


S.04 


8.06 


8.09 


8.11 


8.14 


8.16 


8.10 


8.2! 



The figures at the head of the tpvenil columns represent the fmirtli 
dci-Iiiial j)!^^ iif ihe ftpwiitie gravity. Kxample : Sptxrific gravity, 
1,0187; referring to 1.018 in llie k-n-haml citlniiin unci riiiiiiing tnit 
111 the rviliinni h<«(led by tlie figure 7, we fiud 4.f*3 as the |Rnx.vntage 
nf fxtm-l I'll" lliiil '^'nivitv. 

Detection of Preservatives. — The principal preser\-utive iii««l iu 
beer ii* silicyho acUl ; next in imp()rl:iiir(- i.-* liiii>riiKt of nodiiiin, which, 
however, is iml iised to any considcnibic extent a» yet in tliif wmiiirk'. 

Salicylic Add. — Thi* oniinary method of extracting by means of 
ether and testing the residue IcfV on cvitponition of tlic lalti-r «ilh 
ferric chloride, iitnnot be iiwxl in tiie examination of beer, f^incc kihi- 
dried malt w>nliiin» u priticiple wliich givc-i ii nactiori identical with 
that of salicylic acid. The following method, dcvUc^l by Spicn, la, 
lu)«evcr, satijifHi-tiiry and rcliidde : .\i!idity 10(1 ec. with aniplinric acid, 
extract with elher, allow the scpunitdl ether to e\li|nimlc sjxinta- 
no<>u.'>Iy,aTid warm the residue p-ntly wiib a drop of strong nJtne arid, 
whereby, if Kilieylie acid i"^ pnwciit, i)ieri« iwid ii* formed. The iidih'- 
tion of It few drops- of ammonia f)r of sodium hydnite pniiiMccn the 
00 rrc" pi Hiding ]iii'nite with ilM bright-yellow oolor, which may be 
im]>ailcd to a woollen thrcail iinnicr*c<l in the li<(tiid. 

Fluorides. — .Several methods are recomnientled, and among them the 
following : 

MKTHnD OF Hrpkuiann AND Masn. — Expel the carbonic jwid 




HTMBS 



from 5(W cc, of l>eer, and then aJtl I cc, of 8 Boliition «>ntJiinm(t ^ l"'^ 
cent, vavh >it' cjiluaini mid Imriuni eliliirid(-i<, iinil t'ullow ir with ().■> vr, 
of 20 per cent, acetic acid and 50 cc. of W) jx-r i-eut. alixihul. I^et 
^liiiid i%vi-ritv-fiiiir hours ami Hht-r. Dry the filler and [ini'iiilLitc I'ol- 
Icctcd thereon withmit wii^hinj;, mid tniusfcr to u |>laliiiiiiii criici l)k>. 
Add NlroiifT .iiili>hiine add, and cover the cnicilde with a waxetl waleh- 
gliwij with wmic lim"( M'Riti-ht-d throiifjh the wax <-())iliii}f, lhi;n ht^it at 
100° C tor two hour?, and obsen-e the effect on tlie esjjosed (jlass. 
TliiK method io Kiiiil to («• of ^uttici4:tit dtdicjicy to delt'Ct the jirts-^-ntw 
of 7 iiiilli^ami^ in a liter. 

Brand's Mtrrmin. — To 100 ee. i>f lx*r made ttlitchth- alkiiltnc with 
ammonium carbonate and hwited, add 2 or .1 ir, of ii 10 [ict cent. w»- 
Intion of i-ali-iiim ehh>ride. Roil for a few minutes, filter, and dn' the 
fihor and contcutir. 'llicn prowi-<l a* in the lui'thiKl jusi ckwrHinl. In 
ather |inie(-.-w, it is best to place a hnnp of ice in the conciivity ol' the 
watfh-^hvw lo kwp the latter eool ; the walor .xjiouid bu nnnuved from 
time to time bv m(tfim< of a pijH'tte so that it may not overflow. 

Other DeterminationB. — Of minor interest are the ileierniinationn 
of acidity and ai^h. 

Total Acidity. — 'Co 10 oo. of beer freed from oarlKinic iieid hy shuk- 
iD}f, add a few timps of ncutnd litmus i<oiutiuu, und then itdd tiecinor- 
mal »indium hydrate until the end reaction is l■b.■«-^^■ed, Exjire.vs the 
rt^iiltK in parts t)f ai'etic acid. One ee. of dii-inoniial radium hydmte 
equals n.i.ll.Kj ^Tam of acetic acid. 

Fixed and VoUtile Acidity. — <_'oticenlratc 10 ce. uf Ikit to a third 
of its bulk by evai»ration, add water up to the original vnliinw, und 
pn^v-d ii> aldivt'. 'I'ho ditlerencc in re,-*iilts is due to the acetic aciil 
rwWch luw l)een driven off. The lived acidity is due eliietly to laetie 
ttoid, and, if dc.-in d, may 1m- so ex}in^Hed. One ee. of the' dcc^inormui 
aolation it cijuivalcut tu O.OOit gnim of lactie acid. The other acids 
|>.pmieRt include succinic, malic, and tannic. 

Ash. — 'I'he niiiduc ohtnitK-<l in the direct dett'rmi nation of the ex- 
tract niav 1h.' utilized for the cptiniation of the ash. [t should lie i(rniti.'d 
Very e:mti"iiily and at as low a teni[»erature as jK),««ible until the a»h 
btcomcH white. 

f WINES. 

Properly sjx^ing, wino is the fennpnted juiiv nf {;ni|Kw, tl (fh Iho 

term i.s a])pliiil ahuj to other pnMlucts of fermentation of sneeharino 
liquids and fruit juie<s. It has bi*n in use sis a tirink fnnu the very 
earliest ]M-n(Mli< of oivili«ilinn. .At Ur* prewnt lime, wine* lire pm- 
duijwl in infinite variety and of many qualities. The character and 
propertie.- depi-nd u|Min u preiil uumiImt of fin-lors, inchidiiijf tlic variety 
itf the }rra|ic. the nature of the soil iijion which the vine is cultivated, 
the elinuite in general, and the §tate of the weiUher in particular when 
the f^iptv are rijK*niiig, the dt^w of ripcueiw when gnthered, the 
metho<l followcfl in the preparation of the must, an<l the can- with 
which the niher siteps in tlie makhig of the tiuul pntiluetare eoiidueletl. 



190 



FOODS. 



Of ver>" pr«it riif1iiCTt(x> w the cxtfiit li> wliirU the i*oc(lt), »kin«,l 
Hlrnis of the fniit are iillowwl l«» be ael«l upon. TIw rvwU yieW ooi 
Milenible nmnuiitK nf tannic 8<-i(l, and the r^kinf^ lent! eijor, davnr, nr 
ti> Mimi- i-xtcnt ii'triiif^-iioy. The ni<)ft ini|y>rtEint otiiKtiliu-tir of i^ 
jiiiif of tht- ^ra|M' bi ihe siif^iir, ami this is present iu jfTPatest sbou- 
ilainw whni tin- iViiit i« fully ri]M-. 

In the RUlkiiig tif wine, the fin-t ett'p Is the preparutioti of ttie Oio^ 
Tlie [!;ni|H<s, with or Hithiml preiiminurv' rareful «3uiniinnliiin iiixl Min- 
ing, iisuiilly witlioui, nrv erni'hHl hy iniu-liitien' i)r hy the nukol firt 
»1' im-Li, (ill that tin- jiiire is set free. Siimetimos, the f^tetiis nn- Hh 
din-fully i-liniinatitl, mul ]ijirtioiihir!y piixi imiividiwl iini|K^ an- ml 
out and »et uHide fnr lapednl ui^e. In the crushing nf tbe ftiiil, the 
nuthiKl of iniidin); hn.-* in itc favor itie Ctei tlmt tin- •hisU an* nut 
thereby iiflocte<l, :iim{ m) do not give up f<o tnueli of tli<'ir i)flnii|.>n<t 
priiH'ipli'. If II white wine is to hi- nm<h', tin- nniM i.- fnxti at om* 
from the »kin» mid ctulkn ; btit if the priHluel i^ to lie n^tl, thtwf *te 
retained during the proc««8 of fennciiliition. Tiw jiruv nf Iwtii tbf 
white nnd the hhiek vnrielic* of gniiM-i^ is pnii-lieully vriihoiit wl'f ; 
hill wlu-ri the dark skins are left in rnntaet with the (ertnentiii^ nw-^ 
thi- iiliiihcil foniicil cxtnK-l* the yellow iind bine (Nilorin^ ninttir'. w!"i^ 
bee<jnie red under the action of the fwe aeids formed at tlie aanif ti'"'- 
1'lie eonntitiinitH of the iiiukI iin> vmtcr, Mijntr, ])n>t(>kl niatt«t», gatatH! 
ni\>'iianiv«f pectoiu; matter, ui;(i'iitiic acidfi und their faltts and mitisu 
niatlci'ri. 

The must, with or without the skins ami seetls. In fcrmenlcl iii wt* 
of wood, marble, or stone, the priK-ess starting verj- (piiekly, ln-in;; in- 
duced by or^iiiMiiJ' which grow on tlie jikin itwif. The l«ni|ii'™iiij» 
at whieh this is iillowe<l to proe«cd exerts an important infliicmxio 
ileli-riiiining the ehnmeler of the wine : onidiieliil iM-lwei-n '>" and lo 
C, the prot*gs ^ nmipiimiively clow and the iii»niu of (he wini-i^rict; 
while at higher niniH-mtiire*, the rati- is mon? rapid and the Ijoiniin'l " 
Iph» marked. The terminution of the pHXHWn t«> tnnde (^■iiknt Iff 
CVKstion of the e\oliition of carbonic aei<i, the diminution of 'jMvifif 
gmvity, nixl the linking of tnatlerx which iKTun.' lui<l fonixd \*^ 
of the scum. 

Whether all of the cugar is a^eA up, depcndii wmivwhat np'W v^ 
umonnl of pnttind mitrient nmterial for the growtli of tlie oi^ini'^i''* 
by which the eon\-ei'sion Lh (nrricd on. If this is esitmnstt'il firsi, thet* 
\tilt Ik- a roidue of .^-nptr, and the jinHhiet will Ik- iiirTr-»|H>iiilinjCv 
HWeet ; if there i*- sn abundance of proteid matter, the sti^^ar will Im- ll* 
first 1" Im* exlinusH-d, auil tlie wine u ill he "dry."' U is sontelim 
IHv>e)i!'aiy to add nitrog(-noui> matter, Kiieh us egg albumin or gelatin, V 
oriW to ki«i']i the pii>et-*s fiMiii tviL-iin; Ioi> Mirlv, 

As the jierivntiip- of iileohol in the fernii-Mtinp miufl riscv, (he hltn 
tnile ot poIaMiiiini prt'!^?-iit is depoMtetl gnidually, owing to its insolu 
bility ill iJ<-oliol. TIh' ih;|xK<il is known eonimtrctuUy or ai;gul, Hnd 
tlic HHiun^e of rnnim of tiirtar. 

V^'hen the Kmt femientalion is completed, tl>c alooliolio liquid E« dm 



WIXFS. 



191 



off into auks, in which it is k<^)t for a numU-r of mmitlus llip ^-canb] 
Ill-ill); kept con^tatiily liUetl. It now iitiilt^rgne^i a kvdikI »1ou' femioi- 
tatixii, which hriii^ nlMitit cbiiiip-n which :iri- ih)1 uiuU'TXihhI c\iv|i(iitg 
in their gros^ n^uh, which i? the pmduclioD of the " boii(|Uct '* or 
flavur. lu ihi.'i MXiond |>rw6», (here occur a (knhiT ik-iMKsiiiiHi of 
argol and an oxidatioa of aldch^ilc to uwt'n' uoid. Thp bou4|U«t is due 
tti a (iiinhiiutimi of t-therii, the chief of which U leuanthie eilwT, .-uj*- 
po^eil to l>cppxluwd fntin thvultiitlwil ihnM^li thca^-ucv of the or^mio 
actd.'i nornuilly pre^nt. 

The wiiMT iivxt i« niokvd off into other ntnk^ and in ^itne niM.v it a 
neoessary Ui do thi:* wveral times. Sometimes, (li« npfiearauoe of the 
wiiH- i« "iich tluil " linin);" i* iwoewwri'. ThL:^ timsUtn in the luldilinn of 
e^ alhiimin, i^iiigUs*, or other gelatinous matter, wliich in nn dooent 
attnict.4 and Mmit»hu> the Hiu; |«nicl(s of niatt<Y which not only piv- 
vent briUiaDcy, but later on may impair thi: kix-piti); quality of tlw 
wine. 

ClassiflCAtiOD of Wines. — Wines arc elav'ificd viirIou.'>ly uccorditig 
to c.ii.r, -tii-ii;rtli, ^wn-lm-Ks, aitd rt>utent of carbonic acid, A«-citrd- 
\ng to color, they arr ela.<i«ed as ml or white, the l«tt«n- term applying; 
not only to the very light, almoiit oolorle** kind^i, but also to those 
having a dccidvfl yeJlowi«h or even yellow i:*li •brown oolor, Mich u» i« 
posscs^oti by '' white pirl." The red wines incluile tliow? generidly 
known !w Vliint" anil Hnt^noillt^s, though iHith iJk'hc kind^ e.\i>'l in tlw 
wfait^ forms. The white wines include the (vhite Clarets coianiouly 
diMigitfitwl ail Sniiterncs, white Burgiindit.'M of whieli t'liabliji ix a type^ 
the Khiiie and Mooelle wine?*, and othera, 

Aw'inliiig to strength, winw are vliLt^cd iw natunil and fortified. 
Tlic natural nines contain of alcohol only that which is* fornicd in the 
pnkJi-v. of ii»liir-.d fermentation ; the forlitin! winw, cueti as Sherry, 
Port, and Madeira, contain, liesidea, a considerable amount in the form 
of added <)piritc«. 

Acpcinliiig to their content of Siugar. wines are ib.>vie<l a- svvei-t or dry. 
Some of the sweet wincw coiitiiiii udileil wigar and tliiit which bus 
e-M-ii|H-<l the iK'lion of the ywwt plant. In the dry winei, all or nearly 
all of the sugar has been couvertwl into alcohol. Xot .-ill of the sugar, 
liowever. In any wine is oonvcrteil lut'i alcohol and carbonic acid, ^'Uiall 
amonnt^ R"'"K to form glyoerin and siiminie acid. 

Acooitling to their content of mrlM>nic acid, winex are clas^i^il a* ^liIl 
or Kjuirkliiig (ctrcrvescent). The natural wines eoiitnin |>raet!cally no 
carbonic acid ; the ^[uirkling, or eifcrvcKccnt, winw, a.* Cham|«igne and 
sparkling Miwelle, are in n sense artiticial in th.it thej' are Mibjected to 
a pr«ice*s of ferm<'ntatioii in the bottle, sugar Ix-ing added for the pur- 
po«i-. They arc fl.TVored also with liqueurs. 

Oompogition of Wines. — Alcohol. — The most iinporlunl eonst.ilii- 
ent, the active principle, of wine is etliylic alcohol. The higher 
alvohoU, propylic, biitylio, aiii! amylie, are always present in trni't*. 
The amount nf alcohol is viiriablc, ranging in natural wine* from 6 
to 14 per cent, by weight, but ordinarily jireseut l)etweeu the lunils of 



M 



1»2 



FOODS. 



9 and 12 per cent. In fortifiixl u-ioes, the amotint ranges from 12 
«l)uiit 22 (MT iH-nt., iiiit ii* iiMHilIy ai)iiul 17 i»vr cent. 

Sii<W. — Wliik- the amount of tiiigar in the orij^mil niu^t nin^ 
Iwtfn 12 and :i-'l per i-ent., in tin- niitiinil lini.->li(«l product il i» a.- 
rule quite low. iinlii)arily funfitdeniiily iindir 0,5 pi-r t-ent., :in<l 
none at all. Tlie sweet Tokavs emitain <-xcettltngly variable am 
fHiiping from ^ to 26 p<.T c«'nt., Ports imd ^[lKk■ira» iibnnt 
Sli(>rri»« somewhat lens ; hut ^Vnierican Ports, Sherrieti, and SI 
im> tHimmotily fiiirk rich in xiii^tr. I)i>m«-(tio ChmnpiriKV, «l»", wrn- 
liiin notable iinicuntf^. but tlioKc of foreij;n orig;in, even tliosi- nnlinartl^ 
rliLt^-d u!< nwitTt, ('iii)tain hut finull iniHinnt^, ihi.' iniprtv^ion of i>nivi- 
n^iw bt'itiji; larpcly diK- to tJie Hiivorings of the liqueurs added. VoOt 
epecinienw analvxwl by th<' author, orw- of whirh (No. -1) m vr«Il Itnoini 
us iiu cxtni swti'l wine, yiokled tlio following rveultK ; 




Umid. 



1. Brut InipnUI [Moit X Chondon) 
'£. Si. Mnivcaux ......... 

3. I)tv liiiji^ml (Mi-wi A (.'linndon) 

4. M'tiitvN.'ul |Mo£t &Cliaiulonl 



Soffr. 



Ertmcl. 



1.SS 
<.76 



3J7 

6M 



^'iSSt* 



ILU 

ID.!! 



Extnct. — The extract, or residue, represents tlie sum nf the nw 
volatile constituents, inclnding sugar, nilmgenoti:' m«lt«i^, (arlaiicaad 
other aei'ls. mineral and orginiic salt^, culoringnnd ai^tringent (iTiD' 
ciples, glyoeriu, etc., idl of whioh an- pre^-nt in but Mnndl (juanli* 
tip*. Jn ftwret winca, the princijial cututtitueiit of the rc^idite it nupfc 
The actual food vuluc of llw: n^idue ii*, ajiart from the ^ugar, pncd- 
rally »(/. 

Adulteration of Wines. — \\'inct< have been subject to a wy* 
varii-iy of aihiUcnili'iu.'^ fiTm the curlii'in tiniet^, and nHiu'iirvi' upaoi 
the pmctico of their ^ophif^jcntiou were enforced long before ihuj 
Bgainst the iididloratton of bread iind other f(MKl!t wenr tlwui^hl iu 
The iiiieicut (Jrecks and Koinans, for example, enai-ted stringent li« 
iiik] ap|Hiinted officials whose duty was tu detcci and puninh t|]0!« iM 
oflL>nde<). 

At the nret^nt tin»e, adulteration of wiiMw \» nnw(l*c<I very tt» 
»mAy, nnd inclii<trH iIk- iHldition of water, of coloring ag«-nt«, of p* 
wr^■alivl•B, of glycerin to impart sw«?tncw and body, of alum t4i heiRhW 
color an<l of <jiTtilorir.ing ng«'n(!« ton-move it, the §uh»tiliition of whoU! 
anifieuil con))xitmdf>. and pHKicwkf for the " improvonient " of ll* 
nalunil product. Tbe flavoring and coloring agents are a* a rulr ifw 
ImmilcM*. They iirr employed chiefly in tin* rnanufaolnrt- of faclitif*! 
wimv, and ntil imcotnmonly llic oanie AgetH f^rNe?' in both cnjncili 
Prtines, nii><in.'<, dried npphi« nnd jintehrs, rikI dales are okmmonlv 
employed. Various berrii-*, logwood, alk:mrt. r«l ln-elit. ooal-fl 
pnHliHis, and a wide variety of otlter suhtHaiMm are nid to be DM 
for im|mrting whir. 



wiyES. 



193 



Tbr addition of alonhol » necognUed a» a legitinuiic prartKv in ()k> 
case of ihp fortilicd wine* ; that "f f:l_vwTiu lia* no >4iiitl»ry »i^iilicnnc«. 
Tlio amount of alno) uw<l fw Iw-i^^tiifuing oolor t «> small ait In her 
prxliictivc of no hann. The i-m]>)i>viii(^'iii of (Icvuluruio^ af^ob* is, 
like (he ><ubstitutioa of artifioial product, a fraud pure and simple ; 
imt the uw? of ]inw«Tviitivtr«, such iu« «li<'ylio iwid, funiiaUk-hyilc, and 
eulphilei, U ot>Jeoti<,>u:ib1e on account of dan^T to hcnltli. 

Kor thr iinprovi-nifiit of u-int^s a nnmber of priMX-mt^ utv in vugne. 
Cliief of these is " plastering," which o^udst» in tlie additioo of g>'p- 
Mim to thf niiiot (or iho puqxise of t^curiii^ a more brilliant apptnr- 
ancv and iucrca^^ing titc kn-|Hii}; <]ualiti(^tf. Thi>> af^-nt 4fco»mp»<>4^« ibe 
poUi^-iun) hiuirintlf, fonnintr l;inrale of culciiim and acid ^ulpbntc of 
)>ola>i<iiini, which latter cvcntuallv i* oonvcrlfii intit tUv iK-utnil 7nlpliatc. 
CbapCalizinf^ consisiit in ihe nvutmlizatiou of the acidilr of the nittst by 
the iL-x' of innrbk- dii^'l, iitid tlio addition iif (^iine Migar or ^ticoiie. Thi? 
procc!« din)iiii^h(t4 the natural aridity and incn';i*cs iht* vivid of alcohol. 
<iitllixin|^ iiiii^iM'' ill diintiti^ tin- riiuHt m m to n^lucv it^ aoidily lo a 
given standard, and addint: Ji sufficieut amount of oim- sugar or gluoose 
til iuMire the jinMliKiiun of the pro))er alcoholic strengtli. 

The I'asteur Ireutitiput of wines is resort*'"! to soinvtiinw lut eoon W 
tvidoiioc of untoward fcrint-iitationi^ pnkliK-injf the sj>-called •' wine d»- 
«L«iw" ap|K'9irs. The wine, biwt in the boitU', U heated to fnuti -ih" 
to 1)5'^ ('. according as the al<*oholic jiiivn^h is high ur low, whereby 
Ui« fxisling germs are killed an<] llie prwer\-aliau <^ tiw winv iit made 
permanent. 

The inautifiictiire of artifleia! wines is carriwi on extensively in this 
country and abroad, in spite of the fact that fair grades of Ihe gt-nniue 
product are obluiimble at vori- low prii^^i. A number of hand-books 
wtd guides to the "art of blending and compounding" are pul)- 
lisbt^ for the n^e of wholesalers and ivtailerH of wincA and liifuurs, and 
from st-veRit of these the following are setectetl as example*' of the 
IgDetbodM given: (1) i'orl : etili-r, ;H> )>Tiilon.-i; nloohol, o giillnris ; 
Qirnip, 4 guiluns ; kino, ^ |>ound ; tartaric acid, | ]>ouud ; port wine 
flavor, 6 onnocA. (2) Olart^t : California lioek, -10 gaI1ont< ; extract nf 
kino, B ountvs: essence of malvey flower, J* ounces, (3) Sherrj' : 
«jiuil parts of Spaniel sherry and (lalifonua hock. (4) White wine: 
dissolve '1^1 {Hiun<1.'< of gni|)<.' sugar iind I of Inrlanc iici<l in 'Jo quarts 
of hot water, add 7o quartn of cold water and oU ptninds of grape 
pulp, stir, cover, let ferment for four or five days, and strain. 

In Frum'c, iin artificial .sulistitnle for wine, known as *■ piquet te," la 
man u fact ui'ed very exteiisivttly from nii^iiiiA ami driixl apples. It is 
estiiii;it.-.I that in 'IXH8 no less than oO.OOO.lHlll gallon-, mxto made and 
consumed. The pmoess is ex«tMlingly (Simple. To each gallon of 
water used an- aifdcil 1 p^mnd of raisins and 1 of dri^il apples ; the 
mixture is placer] in an open ve.-^sel ami allowed to stand ihrtv daya. 
It is then liotlldl with 1 tmsfKHiTifiil of Hiignr and a small piive of 
«anniiinon in each bottle. It i^ said to be a pleasant and harmleAA 
bevcfagc. 

IS 




194 



FOODS. 



Analysis of Wines. 

Determination of Alcohol. — The proMss Ibr tho determination of 
alc'x>ho1 U tlif wiiriv n.- (lull follomil in lln- iiimlyfU nf ln-vr, except 
that the dUiillation iir evaporation is carried farther. At least 60, or 
bt'ttcr 75 ei-., iirv ouil<.-cIc-(l bv tILitillntiuii or driven utf by oix-ii <;%iipo- 
ration. 

Determination of Extract.— Tlie s|X'(!iii<- gravity t>f llu- d^^^levhol- 
ised wine gives, us with Ix-er, an ap|iniximatc estiiiuite of the amount 
of c-xtraot, ami the ftann; table may be U(*ed, The dirc<'l di'terniiualton 
in made by eviij)oniting oO (x. of the wint^' in a weighinl platinuni dii^h 
ou a water-bath am) drying to cunstant weight iu an uir^linth. WiLh 
(twwt wtiii'.i, II stnnller iiniiiiinl in [irefvnibie. 

Determination of Acidity — The total aeidity, due to bitartrate of 
|KitaH-'>iiim, turlnric, niali(', and oihcr acidis, ii* rt-ckoiicii ii» twrlaric arid. 
Twenty-five et-. of tlie wine are titrated in tlie usual way witii deoiiior- 
nml MKliuni hydrate, 1 ix. of wliivli iijuuU O.OOTO gmtn of liirtanc 
acid. 

The volatile acida are reckoned as aeetic add. Fitly ec. of the wine 
an- iiluard in u <li>tiM!ii^ fWk «>tincetf<l by nuiins of its outlet tube 
with u Liebig eondenser, and, by meau.'* of a l>eiit lul>e j>.-iA8iug tlirougb 
its fttopi«er and projecting well Ixloiv the surface <)f the wine, with a 
fliijik eontaining SoO cc. of water. Thi- eontent* of lK)th fluiiks are 
broiiglii Iu till- boiling-|ioiiit, and then the fhime Ihtk-iiIIi ilie wine itt 
tiirncil down and the eurrent of steam jiassed through until '2(H) oe. 
of distillate are eolleetwl. Thi.-^ i* lilrat«l willi der-inorinul NiMliutii 
hydmte, and the result is expreu^ as acetie aeid. Tlie detenniuation 
of the iiiiioiint-: >'f th<- individual iieid." i^ of no hygii-nte intere-.-<t. 

Detemunation of Sugar. — The amount of i-ut^r in wine if detcr- 
niinttl by rtflncliou of Fehling's .solution, by the niethml of Allihn, and 
by polariflcopy. For the details of these raethiKU, the reader iit rcfernti 
lo any of the standard works on wine aualysis, for the email amount 
of «iRar or<lin!triIy preiscnt is of but little hygjctiic int<riw1, and the 
de«eription of the processes woidd require an amount of ?.|iace viu-tly 
out uf j)ri)piirliiiti III thi- ini|H>ri:in<r of the .-ubji^'t. 

Determination of Ash The residue obtained in the determination 

of exlrnei i^iii 1h- iitiliwd fur the ik-tvnni nation of the ash. It Hhuuld 
be ignited iit a* h-w ii tenijHT.itnro as possible. 

Detection of Coal-tar Colors.— \V'liile the presence of coal-tar 
colors is not dillieult of detection, the idenlincation of the individual 
raendiers of the group is by no mean.s easy. The following tests give 
rvliable indimtiou.-* of the priwiiee of thin claw of colors. Kijual 
volumes of wine and ether, agitated in a flask, and let stand and se{m- 
rale, will show in the etlnr layer n ii-d i-olonitifm, if anilin ixilors are 
present. In place of ether. nitRi-l>eni!eue may be used ; this removes 
fuch.-*in, i-osin, and met by I en -blue, but dotw not take up any of the 
vegetable colors, sufranin, or iiitligo^uirmiiie. Amyl alcohol, aW>, will 
becnnu> reildoned when agitated with wine omtaining anilins, but the 




triyES. 



199 



wine must first be made flli^btly alkaline. If white woollen tlinuuU 
art- Jtiimi-riwi fur «)itii' liitK' in ijic eolort-d liiiuids, th(^ will tiike up 
the colors and become dyed. 

OftwiK'nvo's t«-*t is jKTtormed as follows: To 10 cc. of wine add 
0.20 gram of mercuric oxide, then t'tiEike for one minute, boil, let 
.-■IiiikI, uihI Hltor. The liltrat*- should l»e oleur, and in tin- iibsi'iioe 
of anUiuB sliould be t-ulorlet'^ ; if it i* n-d, an antlin color is prei<ent. 
Absenw of color is, however, not conclu6i*e evideuee of purity, since 
a number of the aiiilin ih)!iiii<, us i^osin, nivthyk'u-blni', nrid ntliiT*, nre 
wholly preeipitatw], and so do not ap]n"jr in the filtrate Safranin, 
mctbvl-eiwin, Punwjiii ti-d, and a numlicr of otin^r colors an- jini.'i|3i- 
taled ptrtiallv or ci>mplotely, 

A nnndx-r of ilitw, infliiding safranin, Bordeaux i-ed, and Poncenu 
red, may l>e ineparated by the f^llwwinji ]inK-e«» : To 200 <x. of wine 
fnini wliicli tin- alciihnl lias been expelled, add 4 ec. of 10 per eent. 
hytlroehJoric add and *<ime white wonllcn llireads, and Imil for live 
minute's. Withdi-aw the threads and wivh thera with cold water aeidu- 
lMt«i| with hydnxihioric aeid, nevl with hot "iitcr similarly aoidnlattit, 
and lastly with distilled wat^r alone. Boil the threads in 50 ce. of 
ili'tilhvl w;itw eontiiininE^ 2 ii-.. of .-.tning ammonia water, r«!move them, 
and immei-se new oues. Make aeid with hydroehlorio acid and boil 
for five mimitta. Varying shades of nwe-red will l»e imparted to the 
threads if any of these coloi's are present. 

Fnehsin may !«■ dete<rtwlby the fitUowing methods: (1) To 100 oo. 
of wine add 5 ec. of ammonia water and ;10 ee. of ether, and shake. 
Rt'jnovc Ihu ethi-r, which will have no color, plaee it in a waleh-glas^ 
with a while woollen tlirwid, and let it cvaponitc to drj'now. If evca 
a traiic of fnehsin is ]ire.sent, the thread will show a distinct mse-ool- 
onition. (2) Mtx 2 vo1ume.'< of wine anil I of luilntion of Itiixic aco- 
Uite of lo:id. warm gentlv, and shako. Filter, add to the liltnite &■ 
9innll amount of umvl itlivilml, shake :ignin, and n'm<ive the anivl akH»>' 
hoi. If this has a red color, it may W due to fuehein or to orseille. 
T'l a p'lrtion of iIk- mlored liquid add bydroehlorie aeid ; if the cuhir 
is di^chai^ed, it wti" due to fuchfin. To another ]Kirtion atld arnmniiia 
wa(i-r: if the ctiiur i- iliau;;e'| u, purple violit, it was due t<i orseille, 

Detection of Preservatives. — Salicylic Acid. — Spiea'.s methwl for 
delecting Ralicj-|ic acid in wine is an follows: Acidify 10 cc. of wine 
with n few ilrops of hydriH'hloric aeid. And shake with an cfpiul volnnw 
of ether. Kcmove the ether, filter it if net'csstin-, aud evaijorate to 
dr}'nes». .\ild a dn>p of nitric acid, warm gently, and add an exw^t 
of unimoniu and 1 vc, of water. Immerse a white woijUcu thruid, 
apply gentle hmt, and then withdraw the thread, wash it, and dr^ it 
betwoen picecj' of hlottinjr-iiajtcr. .\ yellow ccilor indiaitu< that sali- 
cylic acid was present in tlie wine. 

Anoth<T melhoil, fiir whidi gniit delicacy 1;^ claimed, even to a t<'nth 
of a milligram in a liter, is the following: Acidify HO cr. rtf wine, 
beer, or other Iic|nid with inilphnrie acid, and shake it with an eqnal 
volume of a mixture of equal parts of ellier and naphtha. Sepamte 



IM 



POODS. 



the «ther, filler, and e\-ap<>rate clown to 5 cc. ; then acid 3 co- of «iit<) 
uiid u few dn>|)ct of ver^' dilute Miliition of rerrio chloride, aud liltg 
thr()ii(;h a wvl lilliT. In lln* pnwwHf of wilw-j-lir avUl, lln* wuii-n- po»» 
lioH will have a violet color. A nxHiiliaitioo of tins tni-thod unii^^ 
ill <'xli'iictiiit.' with el)H*r idotH>, iiixl tlxii extnirtiii^ the i-tlii'r roidii^ 
with Daphtlia ; the a-*id«e on pva|Minitii>u of tltf tuiphthu is iratud 
with wxil«r niul vcrk* dilute ferrit- chloride. 

Foniuld«ltTil«. — To 10 ix-. of wine, mill u few dropif of mill: knon 
to be free from lornjaltlehvde, and »luike iu a te-'it-tul>e. Ncii jjout 
down the v'ulv »( the tiiU- nlxmt 4— fi cc, of (iti>>ng oc>mm<^fr-iiil >«!• 
pburic acid, and note the oalor at the Une of contact of the iwu liqnidt. 
{Sea under Milk.) 

Sulphites. — To 1!00 ec. of wintf (or beer) ndd 5 cc. of pbof-filKirii! 
ai-id ; distil l(HI<v., n^iin^ a Liebi^ <x>»(U-nMTnilh a Ix-nt di'livi-niulv 
which t)i|is Ix'Iow the ^iirliKV of 20 n-. of dMriiMimial dilution of iniiDc. 
liy di.itilling in » cunvi]t of wasbetl a)„ the danger of tmeiL HKlioa 
i» avoided. 'Hie mirtiun which U l>n>ught about ii> a» folinn: 
SO, -r ail.O * I. = II^SO. -t^ 2III. The amount of 80, luiv iw 
determined hy ei>tiiiiiitin^ the ex<Tt<s of tiKline )iy nii-»iii> of stoiulnnl 
sikUuiii thio6ul|ih»te, or tlie distillate may be aeidi^t^tl with hvilrvo-blin' 
acid and the coiit«in<.-d iinl[)linrie acid [>n>cipiial(-<l a> bHriiini Mit)iluit<' 
by the ad<lition of bHriiini chlor>di>. One milligtam of bariutu^ 
pliate is etjuivalent to 0.2748 uiUiffnuu of SO,. 

CZDES. 

CScWr, or apple wine, i» tlie fermented jnicc of the apple. It is wsSe 
verj' extensively wherever applcii are prown, aiMl i* a very ini()oiliinl 
prodni'i. vi«'W«l either a>H twvena^- or.-u- tbe haaia of what is npinlw 
genendly im the lK-«^t kind of vinegar. 

A very lai^, if not the pvater, part of the ctder produced is n»it 
without epecinl cure by u ven- finiph* process. The apiilrn usfd tii 
nnlinarily those not marketable f>u account of small siiu.-, gnritiic^S 
over-riiH-iM-R!*. or bmii*<** ; but often |ieri'ect fniit ih w--*ed wlwii tiie ifp 
is m abundunt lh:ii tlwre i^ nion.- pmtit in convertiiif^ it into ewlrr xiul 
vint^ir titan iu nemling it in lurrel." to nmrket. The fniil is ^Toum 
to u pulp anil iircsM-d, and the jtiiee iii drawn into ImrreU and allflvT 
to ferment. If tlie same amount of carp is taken a* L« givi'n tntl) 
niakin); of wine from nm|>r», tin- prothiet iii of a 8U[M'nor fjnulf, iii>| 
keepfi verii' well ; but as ortlinarily made in tlie ^mmtrk', its life 
vliort, imlcH» (nrnlMl with r<alicylie aetd or other pnfi«r\'ative toditn 
fermentation, Iu Frannc, wbcro the yearly yield U very ^nat, tn 
best grade-i are made with doe r«yard lo tlw temperature at Mliirli l' 
fermentation prmxi-iU, aixl to the iiii[Hirtniie<' of ntekin<;(ifrnnd liiii 

C)<ler of ^hnI quality eonttiins iisnally from -i to a per tvnl. t' 
80tiii>times as much as 8 |ter cent, by w<'ij^it of ahiilml. A'rrj- m 
Ewect rider may contain lei« tltnn 1 [ler cent. Tlu- total cxtrsa-t, whi 
is laf^ly i<ugNr, U in iuvpnw jirnportion to the amount of iilcobo) ; 



DtSTlLLED ALCOnOLfC BEi'ERAaES. 



in 



nvcnijff sninjkW, it ainounbi to from 4 to U per cent., while in new 
suet't cider it ts coriirii'nily m«riT !♦ [ht cent. Tlic f«f lu-iils, cliiflly 
iiiulic, ;imoiiiti to le«i than 0.7') per cent., and avor.i^' about 0.40. 

The adullcmiitN <>f filler un- wuU-r niul .■ailirylii- aiml. 'V\w liiHcr 18 
(omul very cmiinjonly iu that which reachefi the city umrkutjs. 

PERRT. 

IVrry, or " [Rur cider," iii tlie l<rineiile<i jiiioc of pears. It is D)a<le 
in the saoie way as cider. I'var jiiJuc iM^iiiy: richer in migar Ihaii ujipl« 
jiiici-, it fiiliowA tliat llie avenige conteut of alcohol is itotncwhat higher 
tbau in cider. 

Distilled Alcoholic Beverages. I 

S])iritj*, or di.Milled liquors, are the product of distiltatioit of fer- 
mcntinl «iigiir solutions. Tticir most inipurlimt oonmlttucnl in I'liiytio 
alcohol, which is ordinarily present to the extent of iihoiit 45 per cent. 
When fawlily iiiikIv, tlicv rondin vurinhlc .tiiuill iputntitiiM of higher 
alcohi>l>', furfiiii>l, fatty aeids, and other volatile principles, which 
t»)^t(hcr con^tiliilt: what h known an tnnei oil, the chief constituent of 
which U aniylic ulcohnl. 

Each kiinl of jrriiin or other raw inntcrinl from which the ferment- 
ahlc wiifpir wihiliim if ohtainttl yields u diil'crcnt kind of fiiwl oil ; dif- 
ferent hocaitrie of the ehanying relative pn>i)ortions of its eonatiliient.s, 
which ineliulc hntylic, propylio, ami lunylic alcohols, and their eorn-- 
spomling acids, hntyric, propionic, and valerianic, and otluT luiitlcrs. 
That which is fmind in |(citiito spirits i« nehcj't in iimylic alcoh^il, and 
i» the most toxic, while thiit from ^upes contains by far the hnst inul 
pnNhicvs the hiwt hann. Dnriii); llie proi^cxs "f iiginp, the const itiicn Is 
of the fuivl oil under^ cheinimi cliiniges which result in the formation 
of o-naiitliie, )icctie, and hutyrio etlicr?«, iic-dlnlc und viilcrinmitc of aniyi, 
aud other C'>ni|K>niid*, which toprtbcr coustitutc the aroma nr"lH)U- 
quet." Thu-', a spirit is impi-ove*! in two ways hy long stonip* : it 
h>ws in toxicity and ^iinr< in Havor. 

The ri'Iative toxicity of the several alcohols and of other constiliicntK 
of fuBcl oil hai hiiTi dctcnniiu'd liy Piijtinliu-Bcnumctz and others, 
wIk) show that llic poisonous properlicc increase with the liiiilinf;-|H>int 
and molecular weight, -Ii-il'roy ami Si-rvnni\ ' ihtrrniiiiiil the amonnttii 
in grani?( nccc*-«in.' [tt-r kilojjnnu to kill a rabbit, as follows ; ethylio 
alcohol, 11,70; propylic alciihol, :1.40 ; bnlylic nhiihol, 1,4-'); aniyli« 
aliiihol, O.*!."! ; Ihrtunil, 0,24, narcinlK-rg* found by cxi>eniacnt that 
arlilicial spirits :ind winer- made with port? rectified alcohol nre less toxin 
than the tn-nninc pnidnet.-a, hv rvii-uin uf the .nbscnct' of the i^nistitiicnt* 
of fn«'l oil. Itoubinowitch.' speaking of the greater toxicity of the 
higher alcohols, calls altciilion to the fnct that the distlllatcw from cider, 
(HTry, and fcrnicnt^-d };niins, potatijei<, and iuol!U»s, ure much more 
toxic than br.in<ly. 

' .\rcliivRi lip Mi'Jocine vxptruncnUiJc iri iJ'ATiniiiiiiii' pnlliuloKiqiir, 180ft, p. SBS. 
_ » IWdc-n^ |i. 7 li'. * Cian-lU- dw IlfipitaiM, IWI-'i. ji. 237. 



1&8 



FOODS. 



Moid spirit)! are colored artJfii'ially by the ailtlition of harmless col- 
oring agc-iit.H, lliH most wiilcly u.-n-d of Mliich U cjir.iniel. As llii- |irni'- 
ticc of coloring is \a res]K>nsc to the (Icmimd of tlio com^umer fi>r a 
darker color thau cuti Ik! obtaiui^l otlierwise, it cou liirdly l>f nf.riinii.tl 
OS Hit udiiltviiitiuii. 

BRAlfOT. 

Brandy is obtained by distilling wines of the jumrcr ijiialities, oficn 
niixdl witli llio " Iwss" or dregs from the win*- ca^ks, and tbe " mjii'c," 
or «ilid refuse left after prewsinj: tlie ^'rajw's. Thf !«■_- and mare are 
iLied alno alnnc fur ihi- [iriiihii'lion of a lii^lilv iHloivaiii bnindv, wjiicb lit 
tnucb used for improving the flavor of niber brandies, and tor givinff 
flavor to the lUtitieirU brandies mnde fn>m piirv ali.'ohol and wnlcr. 
From tbiif man' bmndy is obtained the oily substance, oenanthic ether, 
which is known ciminifiviiiiiy iis "nil of wiii<;." 

BniiMly is pHKbicwl vcri- largely in Fmnce, and much less exten- 
sively in Spain, I'mtngal. and Oerninny ; in California ami in tbc uiin- 
giiiwint; region of the Ohio and Mi;°si»sippi Valle}", it is pR>ducetI in 
large quantities and of most exeelh-nt ipiality. 

The (Mlorliw distillate is storcil for some time in wikcn casks, from 
which a Bmall trace of tannin and a varying depth of amiwr color are 
ai.i[uire<l. Tliu Havor, which in gvncral (ic|Kn<is njvui tlic kind of 
gi-iipeb, their condition when (ni-sised, an<l the care observed in the 
iiiakin); of (hi; wiiK-, bccwincj' impnn'iil diirJiig storage. The liquor is 
then eoli.R^I and Iwltli-d for tbc markeL 

Giwil bmmly should ciiriiairi from 39 to 47 per cent, of iikidiol by 
weight, should have an agreeaiile odor and taste, and shoidd be free 
friim substances adiltxl to imjiiirt sbnrp ijisU* and apjiari-nt strength. 
The neai-ly thy re^-idiie frtini 1(10 cc. very slowly evaporated on n water- 
balh should hav<- a plcjisanl <Kkir, and irs liisti- slionld be iie.itlier sweet 
nor shtir|) ; a sharp odor points to the presence of fusel oil dcrivwl from 
potato or cereals; a swi-et taste is indi«ili\e of a<ldc<l sugar or glycerin; 
mid a >iiuirp taste i-^ suggf*''iv<^ "^ cjiyeiinc or other spice. 

Much of the brandy of eommerce is a purely artificial pr(«luct made 
from alciibol or jsitiito spirits, water, and flavorings, '['he fonindiv for 
making brandy aw very ninneixius, an<l not a few re<|uire what i- kiio» ii 
iLs bmndy e.sseiK-c, an artii'le made wilb others and other substances In 
xiiri'iiig proportions. By one formula, it is made with » parts of tenan- 
thic ether, 4 of acetic eiher, 3 of liiictnn- of pills, I of tincture of pi- 
ntenla, and 100 of idi-ohol ; by another, ir consists of l.i luirts of acetic 
ether, 12 of sweet spirit of nlire, ami 1 of ri'difii'd wxh«1 spirit. One 
[tart, of either of these mixtures i" sufiicient to flavor u mixture of 1 000 
purls of alcohol and HOO of water. 

As cxaiTipk-s of the >vuy in wlii<4i fhetitious bmndy is nindc, the fol- 
lowing will serve: (1) Boil rt ounces of ntisins and 6 of St. .John's 
bread in wali-r, filter, and tnake up to 10 <|uartK ; mix this with 20 
«pians of alcohol, 10 ounces of bmndy essence, and J ounce of essence 
of violet flowers. (2) Dissolve I iwiind of argols and ;i of sugar in a 



wntsKBr. 



IM 



gallon of wster, add 40 ^lon» of alcohol, }- pouix] of acetic ctkcr, 3 
oonoes of tiDctnre of kioo, 6 pouods of bruised raisins, and a sufficient 
amount of canunel, and let i4and for foufteen dajrs ; Aiuin and buttle 



WHISEX7. 

WbUk^ M At product of dUtillalioa of the fcnnentcd ma-th of 
tenia or potatoes. Th« raw Qtatciiiib from which the mash i« made 
ifiHiide nL-iIt, wheat, rj-e, com, oatit, and pi>taio. In lite pr»K*ss nf 
m.ifihiii};, tli«' Ktarch of tlw i^iiii i» chanj»pii in siiipir Ijy the di:i»taiic of 
the mail ; and fince this ferment k cupable of cjuveninj; other aiarch 
than that with which it ii> aicaxTtated, it h etistouiary it> mix mall and 
raw i^rain in the proportion of I to from o to it purts, vV bu^el of 
^rain nuikev nlmiit 'i.o gallon.'* of npiriu. lu dm coiintrv, ihr gmin.t 
employed are ehicfly dim, wheat, and rj'e ; in (Jreat Bntuiu. barley, 
oata, and n'o are uaed (c^cthcr ; potatoei are u-'«d to a greater or ]esa 
extmt on the continent. The mush for i^lcb whiskey is very com- 
monly pn-parwl from 2 porta i>f malt, 7 of barley, and 1 each of ttate and 
T\v ; tliut for Iri^li wlii»ki;y !.■< the siiinc, wilh (be i-jciy^ilion of llie rj-v. 

As «oon as the fermentation nf the mai-li through the ageney of yeast 
i» outnplcttt, i1k d I." I illation h begtin. Thi; tirsl dbttiljate, knnwn a» 
"low wine," U re-distillcd. TIk second distillate is etrmigcr and less 
rich in fusel oil, whieh, being less volatile than ethylie aIoiihf>l, cornea 
over chiefly iu the later portions. The new whiskey J* stured for sev- 
eral year^, in ordiT iliat it may aotjiiire the flavor due to ilie fornuition 
of new compounds frvjm the constituents uf the fusel oil. During stor- 
age, ii takes up a trace of tannin from the oak uf the casks. 

The flavor of whiskey de[)ends iijwn the iiatiin: of the raw malerial, 
and largely upon the aging pmoes.'. The disagreeable flavor and odiMr 
of new whiskey ftn* due to fii.*el oil ; the smuky tiiste of Senteh and 
Irish whiskies^ is due to the smoke of the peat and turf 6res over which 
the ninlt is dried. Indian corn whL-iky lia.-< a miieh different flavor 
from that of rye whiskey ; this fliivor i?- regarded highly by many to 
whom rye whiskey is unpalatable and insipid, and at the same time it 
is sii full lliut to others it is rank anil nausea I itii^. The (vecidiar flavor 
of Bourbon whiskey, so-called Ijeeause origiiuilly prixhifietl in Houri»on 
County, Kentucky, is due Lo ihe «>ni from whirl), with rye, the iiuish 
is prepare<l. 

Whiskey of ginvl (|uality should contain aliont 45 pcT oent. of alco- 
hol by weight, and should yielil not more (han 0.25 jter eenl, of nfi- 
dne, which should have a slightly aromalie wlor and but little taste. 

Whiskey is nuiiiufactnrol ver\* Inrgely from ah.tdiol, »vnter, and 
various flavoring compounds, some of which can hardly l>e looked upon , 
as wholly inniK-iious. The following direi-litins are (aki-ii from a siuall ' 
work, the object of which is, according to the preface, " t<> give the dis- 
penser of li<[uors thorough and prjicticii! information by which he hHII 
be euablc<l to comitouiid, and blend I)i|itors for his own puqioses, and 
thus secure the additional profit." 




900 



FOODS. 



1. Bourbon Oil. — Take orfiiHc) oil, 64 uuncw; wviate of ))ota)«iiiii) 
ami niiltihtiric utut], well, 4 imiHx?^; aud Itluck oxide of niangauw^ I 
«uiicc. Dissolve ) oint<.-e wicli of Klilphnl<> of wipln'r iin<l o.xii!iil» rf 
aiumoniiim in 4 ouiktit^ of wsUt, mix all iu a ^la^^ peri'olator, iiui] Ih 
n^t fur Iwdve lioiirH. Tliea |)frroliitv nii<) ])Ut iiiUi « gto^ ftill, lUiit 
distil (i4 ounce!!. 

2. liyc OH. — Mix fi4 ounow of fiiwl oil, 8 wicli of lenantUic rthfr, 
chloroform, and Hiiljihiiric ui-!d, and 2 of chlorau.- of poliiK»itim iii Hvl 
wiiter, [)liu'f in a gt.t.v Mill, mid distil 64 otinoo^ 

3. lirtuliny Oil. — Mix tfifrdlit-r -IS oiiinxw of oil of swM-t iilmfowl" 
and 12 of snl|tliur!o arid, iinil wht-n con] ni'Uiralixe willi amnioiiin uuJ 
diliitv with doiililc i)iv vohimv of proof !<](irit. " This m u»k1 to {Ml 
an artificial b«id on inferior liquorK," For making the loun't ffwt 
of whiskey, on« U diRvt*"!! tr> mix 'A2 gullonfi of alcohol aiid ICof wftUr, 
4 onnws of tviramol and 1 of beading oil. B_v iwitlinii oil <if i^c or oil 
of IJourhon, "innlfing llic result rj'e whiskey or Bourbon, a« iht^cwe 
may bo," the vuluo is isaid to be incrt^nseil. 

From another .similar source the following n.fii)<>8 for fartitioiw 
whi.-*kcy ur« tiikeii : 

1. Bourbon Whhkni — Proof spirit.' U'O ^,dlon-'< ; |K-ur oil, 4 ouiicrt; 
pelargonic ciIkt, 2 oiKia's ; nil of winti^rgrt'cn. 1 .'i dnn-hms in ciber; 
wine viiic-pir, I giillun ; rammi-l coh)r, a siirticirnt <|nantily. 

2. Old Itoui-lmn. — .\lcohol, 40 gallons ; Bonrbon \vhii«key, Ji p^ 
lonn ; sweet opiril of niirc, 1 on n el's ; fu.ti'l oil, 2 ounei-s. Mixand 
let standi four days. 

;i. Ohl l{i/i: — Sojik II half p<H"k of roasted drietl peaches put i^ 
into u woollen lia^ nnd leach with common whiskey tmfticinil fo" 
barrel, and add 12 dix>ps of strong ammonia. 

4. l^ofcfi Ulilirh';!, — Ahroliol, 46 pillonn ; g<>niune Seotch, 9 f"' 
lone ; water, \ii gallons ; ate, 1 gallon ; ereasote. 'i dro|w in 2 WinW 
of acetic Hcid ; |M'hirgonic ctlier, 1 oumi- ; honey, 3 (Kiunds. 

!}. IriiA }l'hiKl:ri/. — .Sfmio as above, Bubstituting Iri*b for Scoicki 
and omitting the honey. 

RUM. 

Rum is made by distilling fermented mola.isett or the ^kimminj^oi 
iiugHr txiilfr-^, with, not tincommonly, other snlistdnwi*. us piiit«pp»* 
nod gna\'a}4. to give flavor. The eharacteriiitie flavor of rum i* diif W 
hiityrie ether. The aleoholie content of nmi is very variiibte, rsnj^nR 
from .10 to over 60 \m'.t cent, by weight. Like oilier c|iiritji. mm 
verj- Uii^ly an artitieiat )inMlnel of ftlcoh4>l, water, and flavoring 

' Proot iinrit in itrflood by an art of nulUmrnl iw a dttiitnl ipiril vhick •! 61* ^ 

li ixiiiijiiii. Iitilf jM vi>liiiii«' i>f nlmliiil n( «|i. v-r. ti.TlliW HI 60* F., or 4ii.S per cail. ' 

and iintlvr pmof mmn lliul ■ itiiiril u (iroiigiT'r or iirnkpr ilian ]<f<H>f )i|ilril, and " 
VICTIM or dcflcionoy U «x|>r«H«i) nn it ni»ny iWivvb nvi-r or uwlvr pn<ft. Tli« ♦"P'J 
■ion, for exaniiile. H utiiltT prvuf, nivan* llini itif n|H.t:iin<.'n conwiin ti('i''i (lartx of ■■''I 
and 7& iif pmif r.p'n'» ; 2d over pniol' m«im iliui lUCi |iiirt;> unj be diliilod oilli 2.'i 4 
water (o bnng it li> th* Mrtniph of prunf kpirtt. 



)i 



LIQUEURS. 



SOi 



known aa mm efi«enoe. One of Uiesc eonjikte of 15 parte of butyrb 
ctiicr, 2 <'iwli i)f' atetir ether, u-iaenoc of vanilla, and essenw of violi-l, 
and £10 of ak-uliol. Auuttii-r coiivUls of 3'2 iwri:* caoli »>f rum ether 
aod iKx-tie i^thcr, 8 of butyric ether, Iti of extract of saffron, anil J uf 
oil of blrt'h t-iit in Mnmj; iiU'ohol. Tin- rum i-t.licr ii'[|iiinii i* a jiiiKliict 
of the ili.itiUaiion of akmhol, MilphuHc acid, pvroligueou.- acid, and 
hlai^k oxidf of iiiunguiH^-. Priiii<- juiuc is ul^to u ihjeiiuiuii tidilition to 
factitious rum for its Haver aud color. 



om. 

Gin is an alcoholic liquor flavon^l with juniper Iwrries and a great 
variety of other i<iibstJiiRv--<, iiicludiug iTanluiiom, <-oriandi-r, oaK^ia bud.% 
calamus, orrifi, angelica root, orangi- peel, liisjriw ])owdcr, nnd sugur. 
It Hhouiil <-outitiii itlxml 40 ywr crnX. of alcohol, and Dot over ti per 
cent, of total residue, U]cludiiig (-ugar. 



Liqnenrs. 

TJqueuFB^ or ocHtiiuU, arc luiinufiiotnrcil <:Htm]Ktnnd»> of alcohol, vntttOf 
li.il iiiN, cane sugar, and coloriug matit-r. They ctinUiiu usually aboaC 
40 per cent. ()f alcnliol by \vtij;ht, and from "io to 50 jk-r ociit. of mui; 
wupir. The colorings are, as a rule, of vegetjible origin, but *ionictiincB 
tile c'lul-tar colore arc eiiiployd. hi ihe siuaW amounts in whieh llicy 
an- eiiiiHiiiuinl at any one lime, they can hardly l>e looked upon as espt-- 
cially harmful apart from their alcnlmlic content. There ij» one, how- 
ever, very lately consumed diluted with water as a *' long drink," 
that a]iiK'arK to exert n <lw!id«lly deleti-riou.-* i-Heet upon flic ncrvrms 
system ; namely, absinthe. The evil effect* of tliis drink aiv by i^ome 
nltrihiiti-d hi the oil of wormwtnid ( Arttinitt't iifutinlhitan), aiul liy 
others to the star anise (Jtficium), lioth of which are among the numer- 
ous ingri'dients useil iu its manufiicture. 

Where the blame lies i^ of no great eonsequencK^, the ilrink beinjf 
one which should be shunned above all others as a jtoison without 
n-pird to the iiuiiK'iioiisiii'«s uf riio»t of itjs con?ititucut,'« ; but it is 
unlikely that its disustrou^i effects arc due to wormwood, which as a 
dnig hiLs little or no action, and which (>ut<.-r» into the composition 
of another drink, vcnmilh, which enjoys a good reputation. This is 
in no wnse a cordial, hut for coaveiiieni-e may ht-ri' l)e de-scrihi-d. 
Vermuth ts a forliticd white wine in which certain herbs and other 
vegetable matters have lat'ii infusiil. The ordinary French vermuth 
is made from wormwoixl, bitt<?r-(ira»ge peel, wattT ^-nnandpr, orris 
mot. chamomile, Peruvian liark, almw, cinnamon, nutmt>j», centaur^', and 
rasjilierry, but nmnv othi-r ^iibstances are iisiil bv dil1<-ri-Mt niakent. 
The fn«h product has a very pronounce«I flavor, which is mellowed 
by age. The wines most nsixl in tnukiitg l'"n.'neh venuuth are from 
the Khonc Valley, Picpoul, and from the southernmost [Kirts of Fninoe. 
Ilnltan vermuth differs materially fix>m tin- French ; it is a much 



CQ m 



SOS ^^^^V FOODS. 

vraker infuRiou wttli ii fiir nutrc l>ittcr buste. The materials used an 
ill xXw maiii the saiiic, but tlie^* ure emplo^vd in very diflcmit pn>pt>i« 
tiouft. Vermutb wutain^ nbout 1 7 per orul. uf alculwl. 

Section 6. CONDIMENTS, SPICES. AND BAKERS' 
CHEMICALS. 

Tbe coiidimeDts inolude a liirjft- titmilM-r of fwKl n«-«'!»i>rM'!« whicli, 
wliili' llic)' «n- ihi'iiisi-lv(» of no mitritivc value in tlic amouuts wliicli 
it iri puMiibk- to uit, serve ti vi-rv um-IuI ])Iii-[kim* iii iitt|ULrting flavur, 
ami ill Hlimuluiiiig u|)[K'titv mid dij^tion. Ainnng theu are funii- 
wliiili iict tlinmgh IVve acids, mxiu: (l)r(iii|;li voliitilv "iln, mww tbrougli 
iiviiiuiiM iiiatlfi'ri, uiid one, jN-r]iu|]« (be mu-it iniportunt of all, oimQi"0 
sail, tbrimj^li itiiclt' alune. Some iii\- HJiiipli- MilK>iniK-<-7< ; n--> vinc^ciir, tall, 
uih! iIic )^picL« ; wliili- otlu-re are corabiiiutinDs of a numtxTol' ingn*ii- 
eoLH l)l(-nde<) Hixyjrdin^ ui dcliitil4- and, bm n nile, .lecret formaW; w 
Buiiwi", cbuintyii, c-jit«U{»-, and oiirnes. Only wlicn tbix- cmiiiKHiiitlwi 
ariirles cuurain nubslimciw injurious to biullh «in they be rc^rdnlM 
iidulu-mti^^l. The Uiinato ciitMUpt' are prwierviJ very <'oiuiHnuly flilli 
saliL-ii'lic acid or <i|1«t priwrviitivcr*, and eolored with aniliii ii'^ 
Tliu-H, of 25 i>aiupl<« of diQerent miikei4 exnminod in 1 8i)7 by the bitlih 
authoritieij of Snn l''mnei«!o, 20 cy^mtnincd salicylic acid, 2 wmtaiutJ 
tiiis iipMit togi'tbiT with iionijc. and I runtniiKil foriiialdebyde ; l<) wt« 
anifinally colored, nionily wiib coal-tar colors. Of 38 cxiiuiiiied liy 
tlic Miiswiclnisctte Sliitf Board of Healtli during 1899, 15 contftiiw 
aalicj'lic acid and 13 benisoic acid. 

VINEOAK. 

Vinegar is n weak solution of actftic acid resulting from the ncefiu* 
fermentation of saccbariiie i-olutious which lave undergone aleolioli* 
fermentation. It eonljiinei, in addition to acetic acid, small and uiiiW' 
]tortant anionnts of alcohol and aldehyde, and extractive matters m 
vuryiiifT imiountK, according to tbe nature of tbe on^tnat liquid. Thj? 
acetic acid cont.ninul i>; tlic |>n>din;i of oxidation of alcohol thr^mp' 
the iigen<n- of Mj/etMlemiu lufti, a fungus wbidi fonnii wlint Lh kiio*'f 
w tin- "motber of vinegar." Thu.", the change from sugiir to nccVO 
acid involves two se|tarate lemientative diangw tbniugb tl>r agency *". 
two diffen'ot ortpmiMiis, Snivhiromj/rfti i-rrieiinir and .I/t/cw/oniMi off"" 

There are wveral kinds of vinegar in common iw, as follow!! : 

Cider Vineffar. — In ihi.* countrj-, cider vinegar is rcgnrdtil V' 
generally as tbe most d(*irable kind. It rontnini* uo aldehyde. alrt>' 
i.it(> lo .^JiO (K-r cent, of nw-tie acid, marked traccf of nmlic acid, »<• 
iboiit 2 jier cent, of toljil rt^idiie. or " eidi r-viiu'gnr wlids." 

Wine Vinegar.— Ill wim'-prcKlucing countries, tlve vincgiir in iiirtf 
mon uw is nuute from tlw cJim|>i'r kindti of wine- It has color or uO' 
dcourdlDg to (be kind of wnie from which il is made. The i^o-rall 
white nine vinegar t» ctitninon use in tliis country among the forcigd 



ViytSGAR. 



203 



bom population u a colorless product of the oxidation of dilute spirits. 
Wine vini^ir iMinlaiim rntlier more acetic avid tliau cidor vinegar, hut 
&r le» n.-»idu(.'. 

Molt Vinegar. — In England, which it« neither a cidcr-productng 
DOT a win(vprod lining (wuntry, the vinegar in pominont*! uit- is lundo 
from » Witrt ](i-ppart«l fn>m malt and uninaltod grain. It is les^ strong 
in art' lie ac'id lli;iii flu.- viiicgiir^ iilnvidv <liL'>i'ribc<l, bill eommorily con- 
tains sulpburie acid, which, iiiuler thi? English law, is a pertniseible 
admixture to the extent of not cxeutling O.IO per rent 

HolAsaes Tlnegar. — A very Xox^q part of the domestic supply 
of viiK^.ir is rnninjliii-tiircil fn)tn frrnn-nliH] niolii-tsi-K. It Is nmilt- to 
imitate cider vinc^r in cnlor, and i^ Nold c'>mnionly under ihc name 
rtf tliat arti«'le. Il yii*lds aliont tlic .<ime amount uf acid, but is very 
deficient in resiclue. The latter has a, very bitter ta»te, mid aWnr euui- 
plete ignition yieliU an a.-<li i-onijii ning no ]Kitassium salts, while that 
from cider vinegar gives a deciditl imlieation. 

Spirit Vinegar. — Spirit vineg;»r, al^o known as *' Quick Process" 
vincjipir, is nnidc from dihilul aleoliol. The pnicc-<» n.-«etl i.-< the same 
as tliat employed in the making of malt vinegar and molasses vinegar, 
A ecriej* of Huitiible vut-t is iHinstnicK-d iinil lilUil with Ni'ch or bin-h 
shavings or twigs, which bv approprisite ti-ejttment become coate<l with 
Mil-'oilrrma iirdl. The ak'nholii- liijuid is iillowml to pereulati- through, 
an<i in iu, passage the aIw)hol is tninslbrmcd. The tcnipenitun.- of tbo 
room id maintained at about 70" F. 

Adulterations of Vinegar. — 'Plie principal adulterations of vini^r 
art' thi- u<Mitiiiii of nutcr and tlie coluring of irifi^rinr gr:i<le.'< m) that 
they may lie -old iu- eider vine^r. Where laws are ui foR-e establish- 
ing standard.- of acidity and r&-«idue for eider vinegar, a very eonuiii>n 
(rami if the addition nf rider jelly or of a prejmnilion maile from apple 
pomace to a cheap vinegar of the prnj)er strength, eidon-d, if neot'ssary, 
with e.ir.niii.il. Sui'li isimjioiinds iilwavs »lii>w but .-light or no rciiction 
when tcjfted for malic acid, Tlie addition of minei^l acids is not a 
common ]ira('liei- in thii* country. 

Examination of Vinegar.— Addity. — ^To 6 oe. of the spedmen 
in a [Hprcflain (aK.-^-ii)!e. add a (ow iliiips of pliennlphthitlein Holntion 
and iilwnt '20 w, of distillitl water. Titrate with decinonnal s-xlium 
liydrate »wliiiiun, adding little by little inilil the a|ipi<ariincf of » tiiint 
pmk ivilorution. The innnber of cc of the nciigcnt uned, divided by 
10, u|uals the ]iereentage of absolute acetic acid. 

Beaidue.— Evapmiti' .'i gnim- in an ai.*nini(clv wciglui! phit.inum 
di.-h to complete drvness over iMiiling water. After the residue is 
weighed, it may hi' ignitetl fitr ifs yield nf (isli. 

Ciennine eider vinegar should give no more than a faint cloudine?^ 
on being testeil with nitnite nf silver .iiid chloride of iKirium (alvsenee 
of more thiin Inii-es of cldoriilc!- and sulphate*), iirxl slmuld yield a 
fairly copious prH-ipitale with soluiion of suhaectatt- of Wd (prcsi-nee 
of malic acid). The residue i<houhl not ta»tc bitter (alwcmx- of i-anunel). 
Ciiier vinegar to which water hiu- been addai is likely, according to 




S04 



FOODS. 



the pature of the wairr, to show more than the luoml T««»ltt« on i 
iiig for vhluridiv and Kiiliihutcif, mid to yiold notablp trut'es «t limt 
Molasieii viiifjifnr ^oiierallv yicUU marked indicaliotiA of liniv wlu at 
n inon! ur li-.->r> |)n>ii<)uiiM'4] tulor of rum. 



LEUON JTTICE AND UME JUICE. 

Ijenioii jiiW if tht- i'\]m---.si'(l jiiin- i>l' ihc ri|ic fruit of Of/rtw /(monun. 
It is II iK>niL-H-hiit tiirl>i(] ydlowisli 1ii|tiHl, with a vcn>- add aMe sodi 
slight agreeable otlnr, dm- in [tan to the [iivseiKx^ of n iiiiuill tnier of 
vulittile oil from the lind. It i^hoiild CMntaia tiboiit 7 to 10 perntiit. 
of citric add, and ttliould yield from n.Hi) to 1 .00 per oent, of luA. Ill 
.■«|Kvifi(' gnivity shiiiilil Ik> imi lerw* lliaii 1.030, and i* inrually nhuiV 
1.040, Am it ii- quick to undergo deer ini|>0!iit ion io itM natural «»' 
ditioii, II DiimlHT of iiietho<l--< have Ihiii pmiHi^eil fi\r \\% pn-scniitint^ 
the be»tt of which iip]>eurs to be, fin^t to clarify it by meaui^ of slnm; 
aleohol, next to filter or deeani fniai tlie |>nvi{iitiitixl iiuitterts, ami thru 
to expel tile aU<ohol by Iicut. The ctwir juice may then be buttled ttii 
sterilize*!. 

Liiuejiiiee i" the ex ])reiwod juice of the wmr lime, CUriut nnWrt, anil 
of the sweet liliie, C (imrHa. It wmtaiiw usually aoiuewlint Ifw iic"! 
tliHii leiiiou jiiitv, uikI liii.-< a lower .niKt-ific gravity. It U [ircwrk'nl by 
the same methotl. 

A^niiti.'U'orbiitie.s, h-moii jiiic^and lime juieeareof ulKiut e(|uii] vlllll^ 
mid far siijKTior to vlnepir. 

Adulteration, — I^'mon juice U much more Aubjeet to adultcniioit 
than lime juice, but Ijotli iirc falr-itiitl and imitiitcil extenwvely. 1" 
(iiit, il WDiild imt ht- overstating llie case to say tlial by far ibe IiwjH* 
part of the lemon juJw sold in ihi* ii>untry is wlmily fiu-litioiix Ct""" 
monlv, it in noihing more tliim an ac|Uvous ^ihitiou of citric acid ; miKio- 
tiinet^, it is flavore<l with oil of lemon. Its taste in mui-li sharp(7 »M 
lesw ngn^iible thiiii ihnt of the genuine article TIk- re^ifltie biVrtJ 
difTerent in <hanietev and a|ip<-ani»<-e, and Imves pmctieally n*" n^'b <* 
i^inition. Otlier aci<l'i are u*vt\ sometimtw in \ihuv nf <ir in iiilhli"" 
dirk' af-id. The one most enmnionly em|>loy«] is said to be tarunf } 
this is detected readily by the gniduiil formiilton of bitartmte <'f !»«* 
siiim on addition of the aei-tate. The mineral iichIk are suiil to be iidu" 
not infreipieutly ; they arc ik-Iccl*'d witlimit dillicwlty by tlie comin'i' 
ti:st8. 

SALT. 

The best irradee of ooinnioii anlt iirr while, dry, frw from dirt, no 
eiiHipleiely sobible iit water. Many s]X'cinR'iiB of girncl f|Unlity enntsw 
Iraf-eH >if ehloride of magiiesium, ^vhi(■b I'nuses caking. In hunii4 
weather, even the Ixvt grarU> of sill iilK4iflK> inoUlurc siiftieieat iB 
HDiQUitt ti> cause it to low ite dri', (lowilety nature. The addilim 
of aliotit 10 per eeiit. of com ttlareh serv<^ to keep it Ary and 
deml. 



CLOVES. 



206 



UDSTARD. 

Mustard is thc> flour of the h.'cJ of iIk- black and lh« whiU' niii.->tar(), 
Sinapiji iiiffrr and S. alha. The first mE^iriooed is much the more puu- 
gent "f till- two; on boiug wot willi w-ntcr, u volatile oil i^ iImvIo|(w1 
fntiii twii iif its 4H>nt<tituents. The white nitistunl ylcliU no voliitik- 
oil bv thijs tniitnu'iil, Iml dcvelnjw im jicrid iirinciplc. Bitlh varieties 
of r«cds contain a bland fixed oil to the extent of 2tt-25 \vr ^-eiit. As 
thi» uiliU nothing to thv flavur, niak«) (finding more difficult, aud 
exerts an injurious ttifluenoc on the keeping qualititM, il is n-inovcd 
fn.ni rliv whole sci'ds by prtswun-. 

Miistiird is largely i^ubjcct to iidiilleralion with wheiir, ri<v, and enni 
flour, willi tlii; liirlher addition of mrraeric to restore the color lost by 
dilution. These substances are dctoctod very nuiily by raeanti of the 
mierosixtpe. Fiirtherniore., sinw stareh is wholly atwiTit fnitn pure 
ninstunl (lonr. if a small ]iortion of u itiispecled sample, boiled iu a 
little water in a test-tnlje and cooled, gives a blue nr blni.->1i-bl;ii'k 
ti)k>r iin ihe mklition of coinjioniid iixliuu aolutiou, it unquebtioualily is 
adulterated. 

PEPPEB. 

Pepper is the fruit of Piper nl/fram, a perennial climbing shrub. 
The unri)N- Ijcrriiw, dritil for rx'venil iliiys aittT bi-ini^ pieknl, are known 
as Black I'epjwr. The rijK-iie"l berries, dried and ilecorticiited, are 
km>M'n as White lV|t|R'r. In llie jwiwdcifd tbrni, in which they an- 
retailed most commonly, both are adultL-rated very extensively with 
suhfllanei!* of a ImrinlcMK naUiiv. Thiwe incliuU- ground .■>hipbiY-iid, 
eonuTic.il, (iMvitmiit shells, riee, biiekwli«it, oatmeid, mufitani hulls, 
charcoal, olive stones, and a variety of other substances of little or no 
value, cji[Mible of being rcdtiixtl to powder. 

The simplesi method of determining the purity of this or any other 
form of s|ii('i- is to rtHluce a -■'pe(!inien nf the gi-iiuine ungrtinnd siih- 
*tnnee to powdcn-d form and study its appearance under the mieroseO]je, 
nod then to ivimjuu-e it with the sanipti- in ijucsrion. if'jiioU kind ]ijl-> its 
cliarsirti-rislic :ip|iwir;nKS.', and so with a Httlo practice one is enabled to 
iletermtue very quickly the fjuestion of purity. Ily a similar study of 
tlie microHCipic aiipeanmecs of the wuinion adulterants, these may 
rcjulily be identified iu the mixture. The chemical analysis is intricate 
and tedious, and not always conclusive 



CLOVES. 

Waves are the flowor buds of Eut/min mi^nphnH'ttn , picked while 
ntl and dried in the sun. They contain about Iti per ci'ut. of volatile 
oil, eiL-ily n>moved and of c<iiisi<lendilc vuhic. In the jKiwdcri'il form, 
cIovCm are adulterated commonly with allspice, clove Rtemo, spent 
cloves, cocoanut shells, and other worthless matter. The pnx-nw of 
spent elo\'(^ cam Iw dctvrinincd only by estimation t)f tlie amount of 
volatile oil present. Clove stems show micrnsa>picaUy a ver>' large 



306 



FOODS. 



proportion of tie so-cali«I stone cells. Otlier subntanoea are detected 
m tJie maimer describwl under P(*|>]»er. 

CINNAMON AND CASSIA. 

Cinniimon i» tlif! inner burk of Cwuamomnvi tri/lanirum. Cassia is 
the biirk of several fq>e<;ien of i'in7Uunoiitum. In thi' nii^roiiiiil ."twlp, 
cinnniiKiu is tliiii iiiul (iditutv ; i.«i!^»in i« tliifk and eomparatively 
coarBC. Cinnamon is the richer iu volatile oil, and for tliis n-a>oii mid 
liMuiiiM- it Is fonnd muirh ]f!» ubiiiiditntly, U eunsidenibly m<»re expen- 
Bive than mssiu. (Jroiuid ctDnamon is practically never tbund in the 
rket, tin- Bnlwlance si)ld under tlmt niimc Ix-itif; ulriiost iuvjiriahly 
'CMftMa. The (^iiuiiun iiilultcrant^ of cassia include groujid sbipbretid, 
DUt shells, and cedar sawdust. 



ALLSPICE OB PIMENTO. 

Allitpice i« the dried unripe bcrrits of PinmiUt nffiAnulw. Although 
one of the ch«npci^t of spices, it is adulterated extensively with ground 
hhiplfreiid, charcoal, nut nhells, olove stenis, mid rnu^Uird hulls. 

omaEB. 

Ginger is the rhizome of Zhiythci- ojlicliuiff. It i» one of the nnwt 
cummouly adulterated of cfindintents. The substances used include 
ground shipbread, rice, tnuslitrd bulls, cuyenui', lunnerie, curnuiwil, 
dovi* 8tcuL-<, and exhausted ginger fmni the manufacture of the tincture. 
It is vety rich in starch, which is diirert:ntiatt.-d iiufily from other 
ittarchci*. 

NUTMEG. 

NnlTiicB is the inner kernel of the fruit of Myriidicn fratpKing. It is 
not cfjmmouly sulil in the |Kiw(icr(il ct>itditiun, but when wi miIcI in 
^avTuWy adulterated with the substances used as admixtures of other 
q)ico«. 

HAOE. 

Ma<M? is the dried membranKMK cuvering, ihc arillode, of the nutmt^. 
It ia adulterated with wild mace, cwrumeiil, and other cheap materials. 

CAYENNE PEPPEE. 

Ciiyciine is not ft true pf|HK'r, but the jKiwderMl iiods of sevei^ 
specief" of Cujfk-nm, iiidnding C iiniinum nmi ('. fniiHt/itifum. Its 
ii]ipeiii"Miit' imder the niicmscope is very characteristic. Tlic t»jnminn- 
est udultvnuit is eimimcal. Anion); otlicrs are rice, mustard hulls, 
tunneri<7, and ground sbijibi-ead. 

BAKINO POWDERS. 

Baking powders, like condiments, are in no sense (bods, but bcinR 
employed iu the preimmtion of brrad, in which are retained the uld- 




BAKING POWDERS. 207 

iDate products of the reactions of their component parts upon each 

Wher, they are of hygienic interest. They are employed for the produc- 

tioD, within a short time, of a result which, when caused hy the action 

of reast, is only slowly brought about ; namely, the leavening of bread. 

Vast produoeH the leavening gas, carbon dioxide, through slow fermenta- 

tioD of a part of the carbohydrates ; while with the use of baking 

povdern, this gas is disengaged as a result of chemical action of one of 

die coastituente upon another in the presence of moisture, and chemical 

ral«tances foreign to yeast-leavened bre^d are lefl oa a residuum in the 

Imad. Whether this residuum is objectionable on the score of its in- 

floeDce upon the system, depends upon the nature of the ingredients of 

the powder ; but aside from the question of disadvantage or inferiority 

m this account, it is a fact, generally acknowledged, that bread made 

vith baking powder is lacking in a certain agreeable flavor developed 

by the action of yeast. 

Baking powders are combinations of an acid or acid salt with 
sodium bicarbonate in about the proper proportions for chemical union, 
together with an amount of starch guflicient to keep the ingredients in 
a dry state, and hence mutually inactive. When the combination is 
introduced directly into the flour, and water is added to make the dough, 
the reaction occurs and carbon dioxide is set free. They are known, 
Mcording to the nature of the acid salt, as tartrate, phosphate, and alum 
powders. Tartrate powders are made usually with " cream of tartar " 
(potassium bitartrate), but occasionally with tartaric acid, which is not 
only more expensive, but is objectionable from a practical standpoint 
on iccount of its readier solubility, which causes a too rapid evolution 
of gas. The reaction which occurs between potassium bitartrate and 
Bodiom bicarbonate has, as results, carbon dioxide, water, and potas- 
«inm sodium tartrate, or " Rochelle salt" ; as follows : 

KHC4H«0.+ NaHOO,=KSaC,H,0,+CO»+ H,0. 

^K commercial advocates of other kinds of powders dwelt upon the 
nudes irability of aperient substances in bread, but the residuum of 
Rocbelle salt in the amount of bread which one could eat in a day 
*oald be very much under the minimum dose from which any results 
*«ld be expected, 

Crtam of tartar, as retailed, is adulterated verj' commonly with gyp- 

■om, chalk, alum, and starch ; but as furnished to the manufacturer by 

*he ri-finers, it contains but a very small [lercentage of a normal ini- 

pirity, tartrate of calcium. The usual chemical tests and microscopic 

*Uoiination reveal fraudulent adulteration very (]uifkly. OochI ^iwci- 

"ens contain at least 94 per cent, of bitartrate ; mid 2 dccignims, 

I WMolved in hot water and titrated with docinornml stwlinm hydrate, 

^ain for complete neutralization not less than 10 n()r more than 10,6 

•- The presence of a small amount of tartrate <>f calcium is of no 

•nitary bnportanoe whatever, statements to the contrary in advertising 

Mt(«r notwithstanding. 

IV phosphate powders are made witli acid phosphate of calcium. 



208 



FOODS. 



whidi coiitaiii.s onliiinrily more or It^m sniphatr a» n natural imporii 
Thv reuction witb Hotliuni bicurbonato is ex|>ruKsed ae fuUovnt : 

tiiH^tl-O,), tZSiHC-O, - UHIt>. + Kn^lV,-*- SCO, - Mfi. 

There is no vrcll-grountlt^ objtyrtion to tlie iise ut' l]ii^ dass a 
povfderB. 

Alum imwders are made usually wltli Rtida nltim and a ven- lur£t| 
umoiiiit, 1Vi'(|uciHly .-i-N liiub jw 50 ]ht tvnt.. iil' ftarcb " filliiit;," Tluiri 
leavening |H)WGr U ulnioi-t iiiviiriiilily far Mim llint of tiiirali.- uikI 
|ili<i»|)liiiU- iMiwdcrM <ir gdoil <|tiiiruy. 'i'lic cIiwijh'hI rUuv iif jKiwilfW,] 
Uio silf iif wbic'b is promwltd by girt** nr " |iremiiini*" of din 
ortvkitry and glas-s are made uitli nliiiti mid the tnaxiiuuiii amount ( 
tilling. Tbf nttctiun b<<twvcu alum und liudium bimrboiintv 
oxpiviiwed iu-< fitilows : 

N(.,AI.(«(>,).-t fiSJKt),= AlAn, + 4Jf»^, + «0Ctf 

Whether the alum exert« aoy injurious effect u|M>n tlie braid It^ 
u»d wh<!tl)er tbft ivsultiiig bydrali' or uuy cxoctw of alum biw niiy nwi- 
tan- iiii]M>rtaucc, HIV questions wbii'h liiivi' Ixi'ii the wubjtvt of i-xlwisifl 
«inm)vem". Without n-]iri>dn<-iiig the urgnmiiitn utnl <rliiiiii> of l-ilh 
i<i(k?, it should Iif Kiiid thai tlic weight ')f scientific I'videnw h dd'iiW.t 
aguiut<t the euiploymeul of alum in tlic making of bnaul. Simc u( 
those who Ix'licvo alumina to lic tiiiniiU-Hs in tlie auuiunts ooimiimn 
rcgnnl jKJwders coiitaining Iwilh ahiin and potassium bitartnitcsHliiglily 
■ ibjeclionable, th« complt'tv pnt-ipinil ion "f ahmiiiui Ixinft (inwiitrtl. 
I'owdcrw routaining abim and acid ])hos|>hatc are bold iiIm) ti> hv iil'j«^ 
liotmble. on aw4miit of tlic fornmtion of uluniinum |>bot«p)ia[(^ wbi<^ 
siippot*d to inhibit gastric difp^slion. 

Id ii4)dttion to xtHlitiin 1)i)-arl)oiuit<>, aiiimouituii <^irl)onflle if UN 
more or ]i*s as a soui-cc "f leavening j;ii«. While llii" iigcnt wi« 
administered thcrapeutienlty may exert a marked tempuraiy infliu'iif* 
the amount used in baking powdura ia tuo numll to be hurtful ttit^ 
ini'Httm. 

'Dk- amount of Hturch lilting unod ii> making tmking [Kiwil^rs is <rff 
variable. The best gnide-i rontain r«in)fidcrabiy under 2*^' \kt ttnl. 
and anything over that amount may riglitly he regarded as in ui 
iiultin.- of UutUH.'PAsar}* and fniuduleut dilution. 

SectioB 7. FOOD PRESERVATION. 

Fo»xl!» of n perUtiahlc nature arc pn-ser*-ed in many iliflTerent vtf 
but not all melhwls are r<]Uttlly applicable to all foodf. Thus, fntfU 
and salting, white well suited to meats and fish, can itardly U- employi 
witb fniit and vep.>tal>lc--< ; and pni^Tvatiim in iMlgnr .■<ynip, whiir «'| 
iidapted to fruits, is not sniltM to meats. Tlie metho<ls in general ■> 
include the employineiit of low 1)-m|H^nilurv«i, dciticontion, tallil 
smoking, <»iinit^, and eltendcut iniitmcnt. 



FOOD PRESERVATWy. 



208 



Cold. — For the bowt results of preservation by (wUI it is rot always 
Cutii'Dtiiil itiitt till- t'nixl .-liiill \m- I'ntKfii ; l>iit unli-ss tlip tomjMTntiirc to 
wliicli it is exfwjswl is near or below tbe rrwKiiig-poiiit, the iiitluent* is 
only (<iniporary. Packing in ice serves very well for short peridds to 
»hip mciits !in(l (Isli lliroiinh long <Iis(Hmv-<, tiiul In kwp tliiFii in sntis- 
faclorv oondiliou tor rea^ioiiable periotis in the homes of the consiimeni.' 
Tlien- lire ?^'vcnil nii.'thoil.-> nf ii)i|ilviii){ c'olil on a large M'aV- Id eolil- 
Stomge warehouses, ocean steamers, iirid public mnrkets, the principal 
one iK-inj; known n.^ the itnimonia prr>ces», by means of which any 
desired lciii])enitnre down to 0° F, may he obtaine<I with bnl slight 
fluetnatinn, proviiltil the walls, floor, and roof f^f the !*|WPt> tiocupied 
arc rendered non-roinhii;tinjj by linir-lV-It, !iir s|iiur.H. .iiid olhi-r mi^ins. 
Meiit."^ aiul fifih 3JV preservwl indefinitely and withont deleriorntion when 
froKcn, hut «)i(.inld not bL- nllowe<l tn tiiaw and fn^-xi- ; <^^ and fmitH 
may be kejit many months in drj- air at just above the fret'zing-|K>iiit. 

The ailvant;igtw of iiild ils a prtwrving agi'iit an- rhut, unlike iiiiy 
other, it involves neither the abstnietion of any constituent of the f<vid 
nor the addition of any fon-ign mattt-r ; it neither iniiwrt.-* a new ta.*!* 
Diir alters the natund flavor ; it causes neither ii lows of nutriment nor 
dimini»lie<l digi-iilibility ; and on the wilhilntwal of its influence the 
malcriai i'i Ir-fl in its ori<;inal oonditinn. It shoiilil Ih- said, liowever, 
that after restoration to the natural condition, the keeping qualities 
sp|H-ar to W sonirwluit im|Kiir(il, and in con.'^e'pieni'e the ninterial 
«honhl be used within a shorter time than Is the cfiso with similar fi-esh 
finnl ibaf has not been froaien. 

Drying. — Driing is ellicient aee«rding to the thoroughness of the 
proei'H'i. Tile methoil is not wo well aiiiipti-d to nu'iitn n« to vegetublcj', 
sitiw it leads to more or less loss of the uatiiml flavors, which ai-e likely 
to 1k! replaecil by others li-.-u* ngreenbli- in charnetiT. I>ri<'d niiitt^ arc, 
inoi-oivcr, considenthly less dipestiblc than fresh oietits. M'fien thor- 
oughly drinl and i>roperIy .-tored, both meiitn and vegetable priHliiet!* 
can lie kept without limit of time. Drying dws not insure safety 
against parasites. 

Saltiiiff. — III tlw proecw of witting, the rtolnblc orgnnic constituents 
of meat and fish are removed in large port, and the fibers Inrome 
hardenetl. The nutritive value and digi'stihillly, tlii-i-i'r<>n>, .-ire dinun- 
idlii-ii eiirTtwpondingly, Brine salting of fish 18 one of (he oldest proc- 
esses of preservation known. 

Smokinj^. — .Snii)king ciuwistis in exposing the meat or fish to the 
iii-tion of the smoke of woixl fires after, as a rule, a preliminary .bill- 
ing. The ex](iisitl rnatenul, alreadv depnviil of part, of its natural 
nioiiiliire, becomes drietl still farther, and is partly jwiietrated by aeetie 
iieid, creosote, and other pn---«ervative eli-nii-nl.'« of Kmoke. In the 
i^niek smoking proi-ess, the meat is bnisheil over with or dipped into 
pymlit;neous aeid at liefinile inlervaU, and finally dried in the air. 

Oanniogf. — In l Sll l, M. Apjiert, of I'aris, ilisri.ivenfl that mcjits and 
other f'lods in smletl vessels would keep indefinitely, if, after lieiuff 
sealed, they were kept for nn licuir in boiling water. In ISIO, he 

14 



210 



FOOVS. 



intrmliiodl t\w ni«tli<Kl of wnlii^ the veseei alter l\w lirating 
Iiiin tirivfii our llif air iirnl n-plmx-*! it with mUviii, -"h itml vfhon (wnli 
a vacuum is formed. At tlic present titDe, the chief mftlmd foIloHtdj 
in td ]Hii-k tliu <3i>i«i full unci vloitv tbcm complWvly, vxcvptiiig a 
hole, tliuu tti subject them tu the teinpc-nitiin- of lM>ilin|; va\ei, uri 
lii^her, and to ohino tho hoh> vritli .solder. Tlii-y are then nlteaitdi 
liiially idlowcil to vaxA. 

Miieh has heen sai<] for aiid a^ioet this method of pr««en'ing fiK>lKj 
Tlie diicf oljj(.t!tion)» huvi- txrn itiHt tin' tnituml nvi(L> of ihr fuNli najl 
oirrode the inner suifnce of the cuns und form mi-tiillic :=idtfi, atid ihitl 
terut! plittc.-i, ilmt i.« to nay, ■■•hfi.-t irttn or .ittvl txutttl with an altt» ••( i 
two parte of lead to one of tin, may l)f used innle-jd of the bt-j-t (jiiulityj 
of tin plates. As to the lattt-r olijoction, while there i.i in thi.-< oauali^l 
no Icgul rt^ric'tioii as tu the chamct4.T of the tin eniployedf it i» a bd 
that tcme plates are nev«r u.-*ctl. With regard to the |»o)isilulit>- /I 
eorro:*ion of the nidjdlir isiiHaec, it muft he udmitlc^l tluil not ><iiK i 
very acid foiMls, but even tluw- whieh are neutral and even aikaliiir in| 
niM'tion, iilmo.st invariably will yield truni* of tin ; hut then: is, all 
same time, absolutely no evidence that the smalt ammint piwent in i 
entire omtent* of n nin in m{Kil)U' of I'lmMiij; Hii* slifjlirixt injury. 

There are, it is true, inimerrKis c-.tsi-" of iK)iK)nin|; n(K>rtcil an Jnel 
metallic contamination of nmni'd I'ihxI.*, but n<it om- of thiw *b)di| 
Iiav« (iillen unik-r the view of the author will stand tlic Ii'«t of ndn 
eion of other ]>ossJble and more pn)l«ihle causes. Of the small nniciiinW 
of tin found in eann^^nl fooiU, I'rofeiwor Atttield wiys thai llifj' 
undeserving of serious notire, an<l lie questions thai they nepre-xiit ih 
iimonnln'pil.trly worn off of tin ?«aav[Kin» and kellh^. KuriWini'rti] 
it is the nearly unanimous opinion of u-riters uf works on tovii'oli 
that the otdy con))HtuudH of tin iliat are in any way poisonous an 
chioridw, and even these are ignonxl eompk-tely by m^wl of tlw \ttiA 
ii^^ authorities. 

On llie other hand, there i» no limit to the Ufstimony n-pinlin); Hif^ 
very grrot value of canned foods, esi»e<'ially iu miHtan-oiwniiimii'oui 
large nchIc, and in expHlitioiiH of vitrimts kiiidtt away from market < 
tres and other sources of sitpply. Lieiitcuunt (im-ly, IV. NanKrii,) 
otlier Aiiile exj)hm'm aiv niuinimous in tJieir praise. Gpeely. f'T »»5 
ample, says : '* No illnes* of any kind wenrrcd prior to Mir rt-(iv«i, on 
those most ii»elined tti eanntxl fntits and vegetables wore the l(i«li 
nn<l Htronpvt of the party." Lord \VoI*eley, in siKtakingof tlKOft 
fulness iu hot clinuite!<, oys that " tinned provisions, meat of ^'c^lal■l< 
put up se[KiniU-ly or combined in the fonn of soiiju, an- practk'ally i 
onmMgenhlc by any elimalic heai " pntvided tlie^' are of tlH- Ixvt cjiuJi^ 
and have been properly eiH>ked and eiielowil in perfectly sound aill 
tijflu tins. " Given ihi-w <NitMlitions, nothing ean bo in<^rr admirab' 
failing them, nothinj; more deleterious." In military o|terations in I 
tmpics. wliere l>eef rattle esmnot \m- taken ahmg on the hoof and i 
frij^'r.iui) Itcef cannot )>e trart.-<|)>irti-d overland OD account of 
(I«^u^l]>usition, canni'd meats are indispensable. 



FOOD PRESERVATION. 



sn 



How long properly canned fnocia will remaiu in good Rtiiulitioii, am 
hardly Ih' dL-U-nniiui), hut tlic cviilcncc iit liitiul |Hiii)is tn indvliiiUo 
IwservatioEi, In 18^4, according In Lcthcby, a number of* tins of 
iniittoii wciv mirt ftflliiin' fntni thi- wnvli of a shi]! at Priwce's Inlet ; 
ciiK^ht yeiiif later, ttii^' were fonnil by Sii- Ji.Iiii Russ, ami (Iioki- wiiich 
he opencil wfiv in gmwl eondition, aitlioiigh exjMised during this time 
to alternate frcexing and ttmwinji. Sixlcen ymrw iifli-i'Wiii-il, tlk-y iifriiin 
wcro found bv men from the ship liwcullgalor ; and in iJ^tJs, forty-four 
yciirs from the time rhcy wi-n' cast awliore, tlio rcnmining tin.-, oiN-iu'd 
by liCtheby, weif found to be in a [HTfeetly xonnd *UHe, Tyndall ^ 
iuake»i menliiin of tins in the Royal Inslilutton that had remain*^ ia 
good condition sixty-three y«in«. 

Prfifcssor A. H. ('hcster, of Hamilton Colle^, relates that in the 
summer of 187-5 be hid a nnrnlxT- of cans of oorncd ivif iiikIit ii 
Ntnui)) in woods in the northern [wri of Minnesota, and live yesirt- later 
found them to Ik- |icrfectly swecl, ultiioiigh tlicy bad Ihco cx|k>.-(-<1 to 
the heat and cold of live sueeei^>iive summers and wiut^rm. Again, a. 
iinmlK>r of nmn of meal and fruit, washetl into the (JeneB(*ee River in 
lUBo, were dug out of the mud sixteen years later, and found to ha 
unHlUriHl. 

It ie an unfortunate fact that the cupidity of >iomc of our lar^ct 
poeking-bousat has Iwl to the canning of what is praitiealiy rdiLso 
niciit, fn>m which the iimstilneiit;* to wliicli the de-si nil ilc flavor* are 
dne have bi-cn extractedj and that in conwxjueneo the public mind has 
largely Ix'wune imbued with a pr*;]n<lifc against canniil tocatx in geu- 
eral. Itnt it is not alone in tbiH countrf that canned meaiit are some- 
times not what they pur|»ort tu be. It \* n'lalcd that in Kmnce, in 
ilS99, a |Kicfcer of meats wiw sentenced to )«iy a fine and to serve 
^^ht iiionths in pri,<oii for putting up'ni the market an ininiciiHc amount 
■jTvfiiinned game and poulln', all of which bud been made from the 
Hesh of brokcn-ilown cab horses. 

Ohemical Treatment. — (.'bcniiisil prew-rvativw* ure eubstances or 
condiinations added to fornix with the object of dolaving or jire^-i'nting ' 
llu'ir iliiiinijM.Milion. Tbcv uiv use*) on tin- assuriipMnn that, whilv^ 
tliey accomplish the desirwl object, they an? inca|)able of exerting any 
harmful intlncnci- upon the n)'.-<Lein of tlic consumer — an »s.sumplioi> 
llmt liiis not been demonstratetl ai^ bused on sound reusuning. It k 
aswtuui'd that bad i^tfiiru eaimot be eau.seil, iR-eanse thty an- not niuni- 
fe.st<Mi 111 unci" lifter tile ingestion of snmll doses bv jjeivons in gixtd 
Uumllh ; but ihLs is no pi-oof that continued up« mav not result in serioux 
rtoniiblc which miiv lie n-ti'mi! li> some other jm^sibk- ninse. 

It is said that (be prejHiratiotis employed are in common nse as 
voloable ri-iiiiili(-> in ihc tivatment of the ^ieb ; but it .-diould In- taken 
inio coiHidcnition that, when n.-icd as reineili4'S in morbid eojiditioiis, 
they are given for only n limite<i time, tor the purpose of connteriU'liiig 
abnormal influences, and tluit the duses are regiihit**)! ejirefullv uiicKt 
proper professional supervision. Tlieir action In con<litiotis of beiiltb 
■ Fitting Mnlt«n in llie '\ir. New York, 1«<3, p. ViH. 




ai3 



Fooije. 



and diiieaiic iiinj- he vm- (lifliix'nt ; but wbctliir k» or not, oik- niii finJ 
no «x<.iiw for th« in^;v»ti<Mi of curative rciiicdiu) by u pen^oD in » 
Mate of heulth, whu^^e iivhImu oecds no Hiurh nid, for iiuli-litiitc {«.'riixl» 
unit with 11" i\'j;iilfiti<jii i>f the ciw of tlu' <!'»'(■. Suliolic acid, l'«r 
example, is a remwly holtliii^ » liij;h jKisition iu the treatment of rlnii- 
iiiatiNiii, but iiA viilue in tlit.H (^itiditiuii is do vuli'l vxctiit- for iu mtmiii' 
i<itniti<>ii «lay in imd duv out (u thoM* who never have felt the twinjEv 
and ]iaiii of this (li.-rafie. Ii i^ much moiv raiM>iuib1v K> iissutnr ibl 
driifpi whicli vxvrl a [lowcrful i»(hn-iKT for piml in nutrtwl Flalcpwi 
exert an equal lU^n^w of influence fur hann in iintilitioiii< of limlri. 
Miirco\'(T, it in to In- tMiiisitk-ix-"! llmt tlw obji^'t of i-lu-iiiieal trt-JliiKiil 
of foodH ii^ not to iK'tieflt ihv uiieoiieciouE w>nsutiier, but to hrin^ iIk 
Inrga-i jMLiaiblc finiinml n-tnrri to tlic iiuiuiiliK'tnrer iukI |itirvry<ir, l<i 
wltoni tbi- buiItU of till? i-i>tisnn)cr niiiy tw a nmlter of little i'<ijiivnj, 
In all f;urn<»> to the oontiiinier, (?hi-niit3il!y ]mscr\'wl f<HML> nhoiiH kso 
lubcUeil (but the jiui'diiL-^^'r niuy In- intbmml of (bu iiiiliiiv »ud amuiiul of 
the atlded liubfitniioe, m> that lho«ie who object to the dielelicii^of Jmj;* 
niny not have the sunn- font-d Mjion thcU) wilhimt tlieir know tit );!(', 

The mldition of |>i-eei'rva(ivrw to footk <ifltreci for side is foH>i<l<]ra in 
abnont all livili/itl eoiuilrii^si, uinl M-vrnil }n)vern«n-iiL-> biivi- iiiiuii^l bn> 
(•IHviiilly diivi-tc-il ii^iiiiKt individual dnipi. Thuf>, France anau* ImW 
acid, bomx, Milleylio acid, and (Mxlitini l)i.-<id])bite ; AuMm niinus nli- 
cylie «fid ; (icrniuny [>robiI>it> all jinti-H^'|it!<-)', and fj^iHTiidly IwinV trid 
and bomtc!*, and inii>o-*i'« addiiionnl |wi)altit-r< for ibe mJc of ilitinioiilj' 
jirvservcti f<MKif lo the navy. Ma.-NU'hust'tl-- pnihiliitf all j»rwtT»'ali"* 
except salt, suptr, niter, vint^ir, and alcohol, unlu^ the jinpcbasT i« 
infomiocl nf the nature of the ^ub^tjiuec ummI. In milk, all jinsrm- 
tivi-d whatwKver an- probibitcil untimditiotiidly. 

The -flilwtam*)* uwd aa chemical preservativiw biebule Uiric too 
niwl borax, finlieylie neid, fnljilnmnis atiil, siiliibitct and culiiluW^ 
benRoio acid, Ibrmaldeliyde, bydnijrcn pcruxide, sodium fluoride, »« 
Otherit of minor importance. Many of (he ennmiercial pn'iKimtina* in 
common uw arc <v>mbtnations of two or more of thcw- and otlwraik* 
Btances. Thuf, Veiixke awl Sw-Iiorer ' n']M)rt the in^n^lii'iit.'< of ."tS m«l 
pre«r\litive^. annlymil by thcin. iw follows : Salt, euf^ir, and wiltfelrti 
(1); mlt and sodium sulphite and sniphate (4); twdium ^idpliilv W 
MilphHte(4); the Mmie, pbia nupir and ><idl(1); mlt iind KKrunnbi' 
(flrlwnate and nitrate (1); silt. Iwrie acid, ^lljteler, and sodium ^' 
pluite (:t) ; •»](, Imric acid, and MNlinm ;>nlpliatc (1 ) ; Ndt, lK>ri<.- U'i'l 
g^'{V•unl, anil s'Mlinni Kidptiate (1 | : Nilt and bi>ric acid (t>) ; Hilt, mIv 
peter, oodium and calcium ^uljihatos, and coi-liinittl (I) ; mlt and b»n! 
(1) ; m]|, borax, and Milt|iet(>r (2) ; Nidt, Iximx, and wxlium nitrate (t) 
talU iNirax, sodinnt and ndcinni Aulphntof, and nalicylic acid (1) ; bod 
and stiptr (2), The rftst eonsiitwl of single RutjAtanets. 

A hiip" pru|K)rtion of 24 meat pre«r\-ativof vxaminwl by K&niiDet 

were found to be mixtures of borax and bone neid, and bomx and 

dium snlpbite ; 31 oth^-rs exanuncd by Kionka weiv, ao a nde, sottiv 

< DeuUrfao FtciKbmciliM|b I89», \X1., No. iO, SI. aMi U. 




FOOD ritiisF.nr.iTion. 



213 



«u]j)liiu> Hint Hill phat^^, but I -I liquid pivjKiralions mn.«iH(«l rliicfly of 
calcium sulphite aad sulphato, axn\ •unVinm ^ulphit^, bil^ulphiu>, iiii<l I'ul- 
pliatc Kirchmaier lias re|Mirii*l oiu' sls oimsisiing of salicjlio in-id 
and Modiuui i>alioylal(' iiud plin^pluilc. I'ulctiskc fouuil Ixiric iidd 
(iibiiut BO (>er f*nl,), s;dt|>oi<T (alioiit 12—14 ])er rent.), siipir, m\i, and 
imdium salicvliiii' (jilimii 7.'>0 |ht wiU.) in ti r-jn'ciriHii ol' sjiiwifjf .*:ilt, 
anil in a immlipr nf other preparations sold under fancy names. Of 7 
othor meat pn:wrviitiv<» (■XHiiitucd l>v him,' one oniktiiKil wilt, rsoiliiiiTi 
sulphite and sulphate, irun rhiuride, and vanilHu, und the rest were 

0<.itlll>iiutti<)lis iilR'Jldv doMTllKHl. 

A. C. Chapman' has reixuiwi a most i-xtraordiiiary t'oiiibiuiitiuu of 
aliimiiiiiai Milplmti', .-^It, widiuin nitrate, bcn»iic acid, iixlie acid, aiil- 
phuroiifi aiitl, and chloral, 

Ani>tlii-r, I'xamimil by Tollner, proved to be ammoutum broniide, 
borir acid, Ihhiix, stnd stipir. Anot.lK'r, known at* " Mayol," i'"ritiiiiii.tl 
wood alcohol, elhvlie alcohol, Iwric acid, aiunionium Buoridc, and glyc- 
erin. MciUj' pixwrrviil liy nutting of il are said to .■Jiow no trnw of 
boric acid or ammonium fluoride beocuth the brown coaling, which 
IbnnR ti> a depth of a millimcler. 

In this country, the favorite mixture is one of borax and boric acid, 
and thif is wild niidcr many difffi-ent names. 

Boric Add Mid Borax. — These *ub»tanix'-'' Benenilly iiri; iisi'd tojfythcr, 
for the r*^a-on that, althon^'h the acid lia^ [greater power as an antiseptic 
thun llic Halt, tile CM inibl nation of the two i,« still more ctHcieiit. It i» 
used vt'ry largely in butter to the extent of ahuut a tenth of an ounce 
to the piniitil, ami is dir>}ien''e<l with a j^-ncniii-s hiiird in oj>ter>, darns, 
und other tish, in wmsagcs and other meat products, and in milk. 

With n^iril to iIk* eflitrt.i of Ixiric lu'id and btirax on the syst<'m, 

there i« a deeidcl difference of opinion among those who have inveati- 

galcfi the -Lihjcct, but it should Ih- siiid that :i niiniluT of llic ri-port* 

fiivorahle to tile use of these a^cnt*. published bv eomniereiiil houses, 

8U^«st that the conclusions arrived at were inspired somewhat by 

Anancinl considcnilion*. Onr knowleiljic of powiihlc ill efftvtfi i« dc- 

rivci chicliv fi-om the clinical experience of those who have usc<l tJie 

kdru^ internally and iih wnslies and injections. It. is a fact that rnunv 

*|iaticulfi can lake large do»es of Iratb sulxtances tor long jieriotU 

with no appaivnl harm, hut it m cqiiiilly true timt onmll doses and 

loenl applicatiiMis have t)een a fre<^iicnt eiiiiw of serions ami even fatal 

result-. Deaths have Im-a n-(iorted from the use of o ]H>r cent, folu- 

lioiis III washing mit the pleural cavity and htiiiluir absi-e-i^es, and 

from washing out a stomach with a solution of half that strength. 

Numerous castt< of troiibk^M)me ciitaiieoiu eruptions nnd of wrions 

l|ga(>tro'into^tiiia] disturhaueei- following internal and external use have 

Emen reported within nirnt years. Pl«nt' hiis shown thai internal use 

may Ix- (bllowcti by ucntc tMreiichyniatou* nephritis, and hi* eoncluifiouii 

have been endorsed by the experience of VM, meationed below. 

' AiMlm Biuidnnkiiucrliclicn (ioiiinlhrilHiniic, VIII., p. 666l 

> Aiulni, Dw., 1^8. * luHii^uraJ diwvruUcin, WilnbiirB, ISAlt. 




S14 



FOODS. 



In 1876, tlie ndinixtiire iif Iwnix m Iwltcr was »iiiWion«I officially j 
in France; (mt seven years laiter, a cunimittw nf i«ivnti«ti>, v,li.) in- I 
vi-ftiKiitHl tlic nuitU'r witli ^ni\i ciirc, i-onrliidiil ilmt i7<intioiu?<I mp" I 
lion is liltely to niuiie drlerionttton nt' the hVxnX MiqiitM'liw ; iind vlim, I 
niiiiiruliiil Inlcr, thii* liiKliii); W)i.>* tdiifimiod liy the iiivc^'tifpiliwtii of I 
Pi-nclK't, ihc iiH- tif liuni.v wiis |>r>ihil)ili.il liy ilif j^iivoniiiicnt. ri"! only I 
ill liiiitiT, Imt ill III] iirticlfti ol' i\«n\. In 18!il,the Mibjid ^ras prcfralfl} I 
by tliL' Kcnf^iii);luii Vtwiry to Sir Aiiiin-w (.link, Sir Hi'iiry Tlmnipmn, I 
ami I*n>li'ssiir I^iKl<-r llruiiton, who Limcurn.'d in pronounrine lioncaitd I 
in liir^rt' lioKC', or in >nmll flnw's tiiki'ii tor i"iij; |M'ri<«J>, ju'i (laiipT'iii' fu I 
hcnltli. The LimtiiI (invcrunieiit BoarJ, in |f*!ll , rc|Hinr<l tlml, mIilIi; I 
Itirjri- cirist-s arc iiiiilinilititlly injiirioiis, they liiul mit sufficient cvsltnir I 
tt' huh) lliat minute uniotintfl uddccl tu fixxk van iiHVvl ihv fx^lc-ni Kuni- I 
ftilly. I 

-is is well kiiuwn, \ioni\ ha? l>«-ii iiwtl oxtciisivcly in tin- Inaini-nl I 
of ejtili-jisy ami oiJier iIimsuhcs uC thi- n<-rvouB (ivrtem. PniH>*<»r H. C. I 
WikhI i»tatw tlisl, in lii« fSju-riiiiiT, ih*- must ninrk«l n-siilt Inmi rl» I 
use in tins ilirection was severe gastro-inte^linal irritMlinn. I>r, Ffif' I 
has (rivfii u viilnnhU- rqiort uf hii> rt^nlts iti the Lrc^tmcnl of Vi'l (V«< I 
i>( c|>ilep(-y hy this ilruR, whieh wafi given in iH^itiniiig <iii«(-« df 30 I 
grains, iii(-n>as(tl i»i iis much «.■* 5 drachms a day. In more tliaii ""p* I 
vont. of the cnseti, tlie tmittnent h»ii no iK'iH'ficial rr^iilt ; tu alioul I 
20 per cent,, simii; n-mjxiniry or doubtful improvemeni wii:" ««; I 
niKi, in 9 per wnU, thorc wiij; di^^lincl piiii. Kul lh« n"""' ^^*' I 
baek «'as the fre<|uenoy of t<ixie efltvts and the danger <tf jiriKlu™"? I 
or u|{gnivating Kisions of (lie kiilni-ys, even when given in KmiiH I 
dosee.. Among the most common n>siilti^ wen- lo«» of iippi-lite nuii I 
burning {win, fiillowed hy nausea an<l vomiting. Cittaneoiis aflfvtianf 1 
were vcrj" common, and complete bshhiuw wa* cutM.il not iiifrwjOfiiBy'B 
(Tliis result has Infu notcil by many other practitionen^) In ^"i"! 
MMtf, u cjtcht'ctic condition, chiinK-teriMil hy \vik>ting, a wnxy tiiil '" I 
the skin, piiffitu-ss of ilie foee, and even general onlcma, was oWn''^ I 
III « ntimher of ak*i» of gcncnil uilcnw, nnvinia ileveloix-d witlj i-** I 
suddenness. I 

Dr. Griiiu|H'h ' has tT>]»<irt<fl n ca.se in which lu^dache, imnseii, si"! I 
inti-n*e drjnit^w (if the i^kin t'ollnwei! the u«' of an injeiiion contaiii'"S' I 
t»ble»|>oonfnl of lioric acid to tin- [wnt, Tlie effects disiiiiiMiircd "ill'l 
eviisation of the treatment, but enme on a^^iin with its nMiew-al, Or. J<l 
J. Evans • Ims fi.niMl, its a common result of llie ntntiniwd us* of IwrMB 
acid in cystitis aixl iirelhriti«, tin erytln-mii fiillow<i| by di-v(iiiimr\l»"''^ 
Internal d<»K-« of 10 to 20 grains twice diiily for five w«^-k^ «iii'"l i'*] 
one instance total lialdiiess. J 

Kx)M>rinH-nti> on man »»d nniranli^, hy Pr»>feiw>n' Mattem. Fori-iw,' 
Chittcntk'n, and Schlenkcr, hnve demoiLst rated ilial Ixiric acid uihI 
h'^rax interii-rv nith dtgi?<lion and iiiiirition. Alatieni ^-|H<rtf 
pmfouiid dUiurtsinov in ikijr* after a few daily diw«s of K grains j 



* IWdon, Jan. 3^ l)t99, 




'Rwwilr MAIwinv, ;^>Mi;inb«r, IMi.'i. 
ttioL M«<Uv«l Journal. Jno. 7, 18W. 



FOOD PRESh-RVATIOy. 



21$ 



fliarrhtea nnd other Bigxift of gantro-intcfitioal irritation, and iu wimo 
iiutancM even fabil rcwiltM wvtv. wiiiiwd. He himself l«ok 30 
.grains, and suffered violent iilHloniitml jjiiin and diiirrlitefi. Komtcr 
and St-li It'll kcr liiiv<' slirtwn tluil dos<>s nf S gmins havt- a dwiciwl 
effect in preventing abrarptiun ol' nutriment and ctiii)>inj;r inu^tinnl 
irriliitiuii. 

Dr. Annett, of Liverpool, ft-d a nninber of kittens wiili milk 
nintninitig 20 (grains of iMirie aeid to the qiinrt, and alt of them diol 
in an enuiciau-d eondilion iit the eiwl of tin- thinl or lonrlli week. 

As to the effwl uf ihese agents c)n tlie different processcv* of di^'s- 
tion, there is nti siKreemeitt. <'liitu-iuluii, fin- example, Ix'lieves that 
borie acid increases the dij^estiou nf proteids, and that cvwu '2-) [kt eent. 
will nut eliwk ptstrir iligi'^tion nf i^ idUimin. He has noted also a 
marked slimulmit effect on |iaiicrentie liip-stion of jiroteids following 
thf iiM- "f honix, liftfiimnii and Itisini, and others, however, Imve 
ohfierved elfects direetly contnirj' to tli«*e repoi'tcd bv Chittenden. 
Ohittendpn's first exix-riments were made to determine the powiblc 
influenw of Iwnix ami Ixjrie aeid ni»on the proet^sses of salivary, 
gastric, and jwincreatic digiistion. He eall^ attention t<) the (iii't thai 
hi« roMdls throw no light upon the innin'oi^' of thi' agents n]K)n tlie 
secretion of the digestive Huids. He shows that honix inl)il>il.'< the 
action of Milivu on iitnreh, and horie neid in small amonnts increaaeti it, 
and also the (>ower of the gati-trie jnice to <iigest proleld*. Later 
ex|>ei-iineMt-H hv Chittenden and (iit's' had them to die conclusion that 
the two suhstan<'i^ have no peculiar action (>n nutrition, and that, Kincc 
«liniiniilion I" (H>niplete within thirty-six hours, the jwissibility of 
cumulative action must be verj- small, even when moderate amounts 
are ingcsli-d daily- 

Tunnicliffc and llosenheim ' concluded, from a »erie» of metabolism 
experiments on young children, ilial lK»ric acid in doses uyi to 1 gram 
per day, ciiiKtmtoil fur some time, exerts no intliienec on protciil or 
phosphorus lactabolisni, has no effect on the assimilation of fat, and 
ex<Tt'< no inhihitory effect on inti^linid piitreliu'lion ; (hat lionx in ts>n- 
timicd doses of 1.5 gnuiis may or may not improve assimilation of fat, 
and tends to iricn-asc iolfi'liiial pntrcfaetion ; (hat Ixith hr)rie aeiil and 
lH>nix niv climinatctl quickly ; and tlmt neither will affect the general 
healtli and well-being. 

HaUiimnou,* exprrimcntinp with borax and milk m r/Vci, fuimd that 
1 pan of borax iu HMD complcii'lv prevents ihe action of rennet, and 
that smalltT amonnts <li.'lav it. 

On the other hiind, Liehreieh,' experimenting with dogs, found that 
neither borax nor boric nctil ha» any inRiience on metaUilism ; that 
Iwrie aci<I in tsituratcl solution has no effect on the mucou?' mcmbnmes 
<if the stonutcii an<l intestine, while liorax in '2 \n'r cent, solution has a 



' NViv Yi.rk MolJial Joimiul. Fi-lininTv W, 1804 

' .loiimul -( llT)ti.-m-, April. 1901, p. IflS. 

■ Itritikli .Mi'.liiiil JiiiiniHl, Jiilv 7. IllOd, u. 1. 

* Vkrti-IjiiliraL'hrlft fTir gerkti'ltirlic Miilipin, 1t>00. p. 83. 



316 



fOOVS. 



niarktdly injiiriuii^ efli^, llioiigh not so much as I per wot. of mkIiucd 
hydmtc or 0.') |icr fctit- of siiltin-ti-r ; tltat. y (kt wiit. "f Ixirio tm<\ aii<t 
lO.'io per cent, of Ijorax have no influence on gastric (]igeI^tiol1, but 0,5 
rper cent, of lioni\r hji.-> >liKhL inltitiiinrv action ; itiat ncitlicr liiui :iiiy 
effect on tlie (iiJ»l^^tion of wtsirchcs ; iitid tbiit JKitli an- climiuittctl quickly, 
ami have no tt-nilcncy to acciiniiiUitc in tlic m.-Icdi. 

Vaiiglmu mul WviiIhut' ilniw nttciiti«n to tlic almost iinivcnsal 
practice of Hprinkling mciits, inten<le«l for export, with borax, in order 
to [ircvcnt tlicin fnini iMKimjiiig flinty ihiriiig tnttiKil. On arrival nt 
tlieir <li«tination the nicsilj^i iirv wjlvIi«1, tin<\ ttiu^ Imxl from the prc-icr- 
vativc. They obtwrvcd that nieatf kept at onlinan- tiniptTJitiirc-s with- 
out bonL\ iH'CHinc slimy within it Ci-w days ; and from the Kiirfac** of 
ench they isolated '20 kinds of micro-organi.^ms, 14 of which provwl to 
be jK-ptonixing luu'tcriii. Thcv ciiiichidc that the linislitig of liami^ and 
Lbaooii, whi<-b arc to lx> transported long distances, with not exc«^ling 
rl.S JHT cent, (if liicir weight of iHinix or hoHc acid, is clfci-llvc and not 
objectionable. ;Vg»in»t ibis very practice, boM■e^■e^. the German gov- 
ernment, whether prompted by consideration of the public health or in 
dcfcrtniw to the dcrniiinlj< of the Agriirian parly, liii^t legi^iatwl ; and 
on March IS, 1!K'2, it was annonnciil that on ()ctc)her 1, 11)02, a de- 
cree pivhibiting the inijH.irlutioii of meat* so trcateti tball take tflivt, 
Iji tbe act relating thereto, boiic acid and its salte are mentioned spe- 
ciHeally )i^ nnbrilnnco iiijnrioiii' to buOih. 

Cons^idering all the evidence, conflicting though it be, and the nuinyf 
reports of untoward rcsiilti; of large and small nicdiciiiiil do*e.« ;iiid 
fn«n ahiXiqitioTi of both agents from local a]>i>liration.«, it seems not 
iinrcjinonable to conebiiU; that llic daily ingtwtion of variable niiionntH 
in f'lKid and <lrink bv ix'nions of all ages cannot be wholly free from 
objection. A verv I'oiumon pnicticc i.* the iiihlition of a nuxliire of 
the two or of either alone to milk, in tbe pro|»ortion of I |Mirt in olH) 
or 1000; H pint will, therefore, contain a tair-«zeil adnlt dtB*, an. 
sruount which, taken twice daily, or oftoncr, by a iKJltb-feil chikl, cau] 
lianlly lail to have some etfect not wholly for its well-l>eing. 

Salicylic Acid. — Salicylic aeid i» more eflieieiil than borax and boric 
acid as .a pi'eservative, but cannot lie used bo generally, Ik-^^juisc of ite 
tendenev to niu^e nnpleit.->ant flavors in fnoibi having a bland ta.-<te. It 
is used extensively in jams, jellies, tomato cnthups, bottlcti beers (v*- 
ln-cially tlio>e frfna (ierniany), the lHa\'v lieers innocently consumed by 
total abstainers under ttii- name of "malt extracts," IViiil juitMs, simIii- 
wal<T syrn])s, cider, wines, and other ?<iceliarine (ireiia rations, and pre- 
served vcgclablcK. (.'imci-rning it.» iibj<^t.-liunablc nature iw an addition 
to foods, there i» practical unanimity. It not only exerts an inhibitory 
uction on digestion, but acts a\ftn n.'> an irritant, oitecially lit the kid- 
incys, by which orgjins it is cxerctnl. It.-; addition in any quantity t<i 
nrtioU'ri of fo«id or drink is forbidden ex])ress|y in many Kiiro|»eau and 
"South Anicriran ciiuntritw. It* adililion to In'cr and other urtidc^ in- 
tended for export is pcnnittod in Oemiany. 
L ' Amcrium Meijidiir, SUtvh IS, 1903, p. -ISl. 



Ff)OD PRESERVATIOS. 



217 



Sulphites. — Sodium xulpliiU- Hiiil liiHulpIiiti* ami .lulphiirou^ iickl urc 
used more m less exteiiwivt'ly fur jiitsiTVing meat, boer, wioe, ainl 
V(^'tuliits« ami fmit-- jmt uji m «nin ami gla.v jars, Tlit- latu-r .-Imiild 

[ nee<l no presemitive if pruiwrlv put up; but tlit-y arc, iiovcrtheless, 
ofU-ii tnaitcd witli these and otlnT :igeut«. Sendtner has tbund rrmti 
26.4 to 4f<2.6 mill i'^nini^ of wi!|>liiiriiui* «wil iu 'A'i ["((W'imvrw of vejjc- 
taliIe.-< in jrlai^. Kiiniiiien'r and otlicn^ have reported aniuiiiits riiii^iii^ 
Irotn 'A tij '2'>0 luilligraui?* \tfv Hut, In nil itiiii white wintw. lii tlii« 
coiiutrv, it is not unciimniunly prei^nt iii uinned corn, which ha« \i&\\ 
bk^trln-d t.Iicrvby uiiii hciiw inipri)Vi.il in aiijienraiia-. 

The most exteusive iuvestigntiun of the ctrit'ls of the Bulphites cm 
the sy.iteui i« that nf Ki<)nk;t.' who hiw shown that in practical dow* 
they have an iiijarioiis effeet on the Iiiurt and evutrrJ n<^'n-ons ^ytcm 
of eold-hloiKW Hiiiinnls. With warm-blooded animalx, he found that 
larpc iWes exert a markcil aiul isf)metinic« fatal imisononw ai'^lioti, uiid 
that small doses, long eoiiiinui'd, atfect seriously the circulation, luu^, 
anil kiilriev*. Ho^S f"-""' n|Mjn mwit f ic«lc<l with »uii>uut--< rccommendvd 
for |>resi'rvative purposes, were atfected very seriously. 

Sodium Hulpliitc if uwil very emnniouly in siinsiip.'s and ch<i|i)K'd 
meat (llambui^ steak), Iwith as a preservative and to cauwe the brijrht- 
red «»lor of the fn'sh uxal to In- rctiiiiuil unaltered. ChopjHiI nii^t 

iJteepe its cokir but a very J^hort time-, and iw the purchowr will not 
accept it when not bright tc\\, the vi'iulor U driven to make its iip|H»ir- 
IiDce acccptjiblc. Thu>f, the purchaser, insisting upon haviufr wliat to 
hi,^ eye is fr(«ldy chopped wholesome luisit, may lie scTve<I with stulc 
meat oontaining ii most uiuli -iirablc chcmifxil prtservntivc. In IW1I8, 
the Imperial Hoard of Health of Germany forlwde the use of sotlium 
sulphite iu foods, Ixrau-se of its flangciijus pro|HTties. 

ForQuIdebrde. — On account of its property of hardening tlssiiex, 
fitrnialdeliyile d'H-s not h'lid it.*i-If to (retienil ii.-ii' ii* a fiHwl priwrvativc. 
Fish and ineat.s are rendered so haitl by very dilute solutions, oven I 
to ."ijOnO, as to be worthless eommeivially. It i^ ustil rmwt com- 
monly in milk and other liquidti, and lu'ts most efficiently in debying 
and prt'venting deeoni|>oflitioa. ltd tiae in milk if, howover, fiir fntni 
conuncndjible, for although clHcient a* n prowrvative, it alters the char- 
acter r)f the proteids, which are thereby made Iej*s ilip-stibte. The 
»LM-in, whi-u priHr{pil:iliiI, iIih-.s not si>|Htnitc iri fine clot>^, hut in loui;h, 
hejivy curds, which yield only with ranch resistance to [leiwin and 
hydrochloric acid. SV'e^le and Mt-rkel • have *ihowii that the pron-ids 
are mude much Ii-sm digc-stible, and their conelueion* are in agreement 
with thofl(? of most investigator^ of the snbji^t. Itliw anA Xovy,* 
aft«T n most ciirdVil ami exhaustive impiiri' into the cH'wts of fonnnl- 
dehyde on the digestive ferments, found that [H^jisin and trypsin have 
diniinishtxl uclioii upon fibrin which has bt-cn a1tv^^d by it in very 
w«uk solution ; that eaectn is altered rapidly, and, as a result, la not 

' Zeitwhrift Tiir l!yir!i-tie iinil Iiifwlioiufcrniifchpilcn, XXII., p, 351. 

' FdooliiitiifiU-rirluc iiUt I.<'Ih-ii-'Iii>U>'1. .-k*.. iS!»\ ll^ \i. 91. 

* JuuniHl uf Bx|i<.'ri'iii:>iiUil Mwiicintr. IHtfJ, jk 47, ^ 



218 



FOODS. 



cocifriilnkt) bv n-iinit nr, at bc«l. vt-rj' clowly, and is not readilv dij 
by the proteolytic f 'cmidits ; anil that jM-jixin and roiinet an; tJi<-mM>1v 
not iifiVTliii liy fJiirly (ntnuij; (1 and o [xr wnt.) »>oItitK»tf- uctiri); futl 
lieveral wt«kn. IVpwin vi-as t'mind to l>e allVvtwl <iuickly liy wn' 
diluto Hjlittionx, tryi'^in tn l>cr ulD'cttil ii<^'i>n)in^ to ihc oiiioiitil "f 
orgnuic matter i^rei^cul, and aniyliip!iin and |>iyaiin U> be ni>t dt*trovai| 
by ven* dilute niilutiniiH. TIk' Inltcr, however, w<>rc found to I>r de- 
cUvvftl l)y rtniiij; Huliitiimfs. 

Halliburton ' fVuind thul O.n ptr «cnit. nf formalin rt-nderfi ptxiric 
dijioliim of fibrin ulnioKi iin|>'ii!i^iljlc ; and that 0.05 per wnl. cniwiil' 
vraltly delays it. Its pfFwta on iKincrMiiii! dig^tion were «wji onw 
niitrkol. 

Tnonicliffe and Rosenheim,* r.Yjx^rin)eating with young chiliK'n, 
found tl)iit, in ilom-s of 1 |NirC in b,000 of milk »r 1 in 0,000 i,{ t<d 
fiRHl and drink, fnrmaldchydv exerts no a]iproiia)jIe effect on nilr'i^'^n 
and pliiispliomn int'btbuli.-<ni or un fiit iissin illation, Imi in largiTiiuK?; 
or hin^ t^vntinued, it may tend to dlminit'li pho-iplioruH and fat iiK^im- 
iiiition, on su-count of its efiw( on ]mii('tx«tic digestion. Widi iIcHdiW 
(-)iildron, (hi- l;oOO()d<MK' \kis a measurable dclrtcrious cflVvi nn ll"' 
iiitriiyen, pluMphoniH, and fiit ii^iimilalion, and exerts a slight irriW 
aflion on the intestinu. 'nicy conclude, lu)wevcr, llmt, ax n^tl, tk 
cnb-'tance bis no influence on the general health and well-beinguf 
clilldivn. On tin- other hand, fec^ling cxiH-rinH-nts, condndiHl by Df. 
Annctt with kittens, d(inont;tnite<I that, nn the amount mixed uitli <i" 
milk WI.1 in<rrcHScd, tJie retarding nvlion on llieir develnpmeni wo' 
more marked. 

>\'liatevc;r may be the results of e-Xjteriineuts tending to show llw 
effects iif formal dclivdc on mctjiholi)>n) anil Kit>wih, cvcrj-lxxly whoba* 
<Mri'ji»ion to luindle even very dilute Holiitiuus can testify to its irriWnl 
cfrcctxim tiicidiin ; and. this In'tng ll)eca.'<c, it . ■"Tine hardly r(W">nal»l^ "" 
as!*ert that the much more delicate miieoiis menibnines of tlic dijiefH*'*^ 
triK't t'lin be Kiibjcctcd to its aetiou and wholly i?t^ca|>e injuiy. Forms''' 
dehyde is not genendly rcpirdcd as a jioiw)n in Mnidl iloww, but a w""' 
Iht of diMkth^i have been iitlribnted to its use as a milk prcEcrvnl^''' 
though it should Iw siid tluit the eviik-nii- in iIkwc «we» will h:if"? 
Ixiir erilini! analvsis. One undoubted case of non-fatal |M>i)miiilig '"'' 
Imiii n'<ionliil by .). Klubcr.* The subji-i-l was a man of furly-sfvcfl 
who swallowed some ajterient water into wliioli foniinlin hud U-eti i<itf * 
dun-d aecidciitijlly He lay for a long time in a state of coma, an" 
hiul anuria uinctt^vn lioury. Formic acid wov eliminated in the orin 
during nxovery. 

HydTogeii Peroxide. — TliiM ngrnt is rceommendeil ns tlw lenst dau^ 
OUtt of all ehemiral prcM'r\'ative«. and is belicviil by some to cxcTt d 
<leleterio»s effect wliativer. It is well aibiptiil for use in wine, bca 
Mid fruit juinw. Ou' |inr1 in 1,000 U taiid to prv^-cnt eiitindy tfl 



' Journal i<f Hreirnp, Julr, 1901. p. 321. 

* Mbnciicmir iiu^iriniwhr Wnrlivavlirifl, Ortotwrll, 1900, 



,v 



cosTAMLVArio.y or foodh by metals. 



2ii) 



kln^io ri-nitMitalion of glu<^>*e NiliitioiiH, amt in Honiewhat Inrgt-r 
iDB-uiit* tfi iiri'Vciit llic toniiati'iri uf lac-lie in-id In milk. 

Soditin Floortde. — So tar slh is knowu, wxliiiin tlunnOc exerts no 
^jiiii'itin iu-rii)ii, biic \\i< i^Hift on ili^'HtinD Iuik ncit Ixvn Htmliitl tliur- 
Hijffily. IV-m-t ' »fHi-itf< tliat il \\-m :i dcciditl iiifliK^iicc iii inliihiting ilio 
f^ftjintfiit i>f' liii-tic iiDit liiityric fiTiiii-iiiA. r.->iii^ liiiii.tclt' itii<) ii 
;m/)iT of (In;^, lio iiiKlvrtiKik a wriws oi iwitinu fXjxTinicntJ', mid 
iini:li>ilt<l tJa'ivfiimi iJuit llu- sill is in no wav [HHHonoii-s Jind may \ta 
id wiltKxil 4bin;^r Ji« a Uxiil proiTvarivf. S|K'in'iiicn.» of milk own* 
:t {Hirb^ in 1,f>00 and kq>t at -W^ V.. rt<niuiiied nnoliiiii^'d long 
Im' (HintmN luid Imi'oiih^ <iiii^i)iit<il. A dn/cii miIh-h of milk con- 
imnf il, and plantt?*! with biitync fcrniciit, uiid iiiiutliiT doxcn cmn- 
pnin^ iintnutwl milk similiirly })luiit(.-d, won- k('|>t nidc liy Mde at 'A^'' 
', Oil [Ik- day follomn^, tlii* I:itl<.'r ytvrv <r<iiii;iilut«-d, but tlie rorin<.T 
*»■«- iinclinnfriil. SiitiriitiiminiH itijai-tioii^ of ihr ^ilt to tho I'Xlonl of 
hi^ ^r.\ia inT ki]o|;niiii of woi^rlit «m»ctl in ii do;; tsligln ««li«ili"ii iitid 
liiiWi'l-'; liitt larpT d<wi;i (iin.'kil marki'd salivation, diureiiis, thirst, 
Iwl rcfiiMil of fooil. Iiittnvcnoiii> iiijtft ioii'^ o)' (1. 10 |kt kilofj"'"' '""Uwt' 
ioindlkitt- rfc*e of pulw and n«|iiralion, follun-wl hy abundmit sdi\'a- 
ibiii, niiiii-n, vonvnlKioiiK, nnil di'iilli in tliirtv-livi- minittt-^. I j<''l1miiiiii 
w! Btvm ' \ta\'<- noti-d tlinl sixlinm Hiioiidv intorlcrl■^ but litlli' with 
4» ilip^tioii of Hljin-li. 

SMliuiii fluoride a))p«ars to lie w^k iis a general prcscn'ativc, but 

hn^vnb) utt^diolif fi-rnii-ntiiiion cnmjiU-tcly wlicii [in-M-iil to the cjctvnt 

rf I jKirt in 2,<WiO. Tho fluorides and bydnROilorit- acid are used l^ 

»Bir hrewers for tin- prevention of unde?iii-ed termt-ntnlions. 

MhUD Bic^rboBAte. — This H|;ent xvum to lie a)> little object ionidile 

iny, but it i" verj- weak in it>t jii^servative aeiion and is loo ineffec- 

i» for ^M-ral ii»e. It ix \tHi\ wonicwlKit in Sw.tien tn oonjimoiion 

*illl Mgar for mint and liidi. A more <itn)nion ii8e \» to overtv>nie 

(finiilng nridity of milk ; against ilii!* is ui-mil the powibility of 

n^riive cficctM in infiinttt, tliroutfli the MMliiim lactate |>roduet<d. 



Section 8, OONTAMIKATION OP POODS BY METALS. 

V^ inrrtijiiently, nmall iunouiil> of rnilidlii' -ailt.-* aiv prewenl in 
«!•, ril)M*r through iweident or by riuisun of intentioniil :iilmiMure 
»i|jic (lelinite end. The moiit common are componnda of copper 
~ I*iii), iiikI tluwe iin- regiirdei) lu of gn^iler hygiciiie ini[H>rtitu<v 
llie KidiM of xine, tin, and nickel >iecani<inally pret^ent. 

ir. — CopiMT giiin.- fiitmiHv tlii>itii.'l] till' Irnprnpi-r iir*i- of enok- 

iilfUfil-i of hniMt and ei>])|K'r. and through llic iik' of \U kiIio fur 

iiinje |«tw and other vogetalilea (" ivverdiw^age"), and for impmv- 

IIiHir of infirior grade, ('iipjKT nmt hrat* ketlliv yield Mnall 

iti^ to ariil, fiilty, and other (imkU allowed to rit;md therein, e^pe- 

■ AuiMlm (I'llrxinw >'■ •■•' M'riiH^nc li'snir, Jiuic, 1808, pL 497. 
• Jiiurtial af liw Fnitkliii liwiliiiu-, l»Uli. 



Mi 



* 



cially if the cuntenU ure t>xpo»»] to lite air. Tbcir yield >s rourJi 
l»rwit«r if tiny am not kqit Uioroiiglily clwin mhI well |xil»lwJ. 
[jctituatin ' found 36.8 initli)rmuis of L-u|ii>cr in a liter uf lirotli nmle 
in II liiy.in v(*j«'l and allowi'd tii rAuml 'il luKir^, 8.7 nigr. iu 100 n-. 
of iTtiidd fat nllowii] to !>tnii<i 2 w(.x-k«, :2I mgr. in a liter of s>ur 
vfiue, and til in die Nime vulunifr of viuc^r afler 24 hotU¥>. Mairtoi 
rc|Hiilttl '2-1 nigr. in n 1it«r of fujc witip ntU-r 24 tioun^ 

The UHi? of L-o|>|ior for greening vt^tabW b »eeedii)g;Iy mmman. 
Ir niTVi^ iio iiM'fiil piiqNi!-v otht-r tliaii l» \AcaM; tlit.* t-yi-. Tlu- jNasnf 
oUit-r vcgi-lMblt» lire Imdiil in ii wry tliinU- Htlulion of copper i-uIpbaK', 
diuiued, washed, and, linally, put up in mux or glii.->.>« jiir>. The KCli- 
liciiil m\ov, whicli i» ot\t:n niiioli more iii(cnK.'ly gntii tliait tlic nalunl. 
i« dih? to an oi'fpiiiic ('on)]Kiun<l of cupjicr wbicli if iuwluljl*^ in w'ster, 
'I'lii- rluini Minii-tinic.-' iirpii, timl tin.- i'ii|i)h.t curv»i^ d' iix iIk! cliliXiK 
))liylt. iind ii- not it^c■lf rL-lain<rd, is prejxi'terous, for if a solutiom'f 
t'ldoropliyll L- tinUfKl with <)iliiu- <<o)))Krr .iiilphnti-, llic Mtior i» Aifimri 
and H l)i\iwu prwripitato i» prodnci-d ; wliile if pcrfertty white l>can» afe 
l>oiled for a short time ui a Niluiion of liie sunu- nrriiugth, thty \At uo 
a ilii'|i-^ii-(.ii I'ohir thniti^h ilii- formiilion of u new conijiound ulili tlii' 
omliiinc^l Ic^umin or some other ])roteid. I'l^tatix-K, Ix'ili): verj' |K"r 
in pixttcidfl, an- alfwttii hut slightly by siniilur trtiitroeiil, bill tgg^ nwf 
be rolonil intmwly grceii. 

The liquor of i^iuintH) jrrwnM} vfjir-liddi-s U I'oinnionly fn* fi""' 
fopjK'r, and iht ti>linn of ^]HvinR1l!* by adding ammonia to u jxifli"" 
of the liiinor, in ihc ex|Hi*talion of prcKltioing a bhie color in «»*<' "'^ 
vegetable lian Ken so tiwitwl, ij<, tiiiTi-fiire, without roult. In orif^ 
to dcterininc ilie [>rewnce of coijper, a few gmnis of the ^uh^taiiM m** 
he iurini?nitt'«l in a ]>orci-hiin ntpsulc, the n*idtw ihcn-fitim tnaieJx't" 
dilute hyilrorhl'iric acid, and tlic liltnit(> snbjti'tcd to the UMial U-^lf- 

Thi- ipiolion of the hygienie iiniHiriancc of i-nuitl :nnounl!< of iVf\KT 
has been ttic Mibj<-ct of ii number of oxtcuKivc invi'Stigatioiw on lli«l«''^ 
of individuals mid foreign govemnieiite, and while it can Imnlly he »'^ 
to Im- proveil that dtingiT nin arbx- thcix-fi-oiii, novi-riheli-w no p"" 
rtsiMin «m lie advanecil iu favor of the |>ractii-e of grwning. Two ft"' 
<lcnt.-> in Iji'hniann'.- hibomtory tiMik daily dtuww of «ip|>er sidts willi ti'' 
perw'piihlf ili^turbuDw; one twik 3!' niillignini^ of copper >al|linU' 
<iiiily for .iO <lays and then double that amount for 30 more ; the oilwf 
took lh<> act-late liir '>\ day.« in diu^-^ rnnging front Hi !•> Of! aiillitmnM. 
Them- amounts are larger than an average eater woidd be likely to lake 
into hilt ■"Vfti-m fii>ni iiumetl v(^-IabUw in (he I'onrse of a d*y, for |Ih> 
entire eontmt» of an onlinan' tin — M>niewhat luw ttiuii half a (iouimI 
(iininionlv yield le«A llian -iO milligrams of eopper. 

.\c<<iir(l!ug to liauni txml S<-<'lin^-r,= wIion- niimeniuf ex|H-rinM'„ 
exten<le<l over a {m-HimI of ihrrv ycar^'. ^niall daily dot^s are, as a ruleJ 
omiplelely ahMtrlHtl and again eliniinati-d ; larger doe^-s are not n«n- 
ph-li'ly abitorba). Complete elimination imiy retjuire us loiig aa fivi 



lliO 

1 

cntfl 




' 8«T«tiib InivnwiiiMiKl (iipcivn* of IlTf[i«nis 1891. 
■ZeilwkrinfurvllRillii-hFClMnue, l8IKj,p, 181. 



i 



COmAMiyATlOS Of FOODS By ittTALS. 



221 



nioDths from iho date of tht- last iloae. I^iig-cnntinwed ing^etiou of 
^iobII tiuiwK iiMV briit); iilioiit ii ootidiliDii ni' i-UthuIv, |ioI.4rinii])^. 

Cojiper iip}>ears to be a normal coustitu(^ut of some articles of food. 
Tin* iu-j«-riion, miult^ oi'i^iimlly by Mi-ver, of f'o|>euIirigen, tJiat vrh^t 
and oats oftc-a f.ontaiu iiiiLiiih- tracw*, c!i[xi'iiilly in llirir Imsk^, lia» r*'- 
IHfliliilly Ih'1'11 pnivrti, Acem-diiig to Lt^hriiunn,' tlif s[)wic'.« of plants 
ba» far IfS;? iiifliictRV on thv unimint taken up llian tlic aiiiunnt nf fcipjxT 
pre-teiit in tho soil. lie found the metal in a great variety of pliints 
|>r(.iwiiij; in a w)p]KT foi\ : rvc, tmln, ho]),^, [lolatiie!*, (lanilt-lioii, juiu|H.*r, 
violets, cborrit*. etc. In woody planti^, tlie k'^'"'*^'^* amount of 
<"0]iiKT is ia tbit l»iirk. AficniTling to Kai'^iten,' the (ipraying of pajie- 
vines with cijpper w>hition^ is not wholly frw fniai ohjwrtiou, sinoo 
that which adhercn to the fruit may U- fiufficient to make their yield of 
wine toxic He inrtaniTi' a nu'iilnT of i'a«wof diarrtmti unil vomiting 
<liie to wine which }-ielded trace- of cojipir. 

Lead. — TiatTS of ImhI arc of coiinuoii occurrcncx; in viiriou* articlw 
«f food, eitpecially those wrajHR'd in foil or enclosed >n cans having ex- 
[loMil wamx of lc!id ^loMer. A mimbcr of sptinmcns of wrapping-foil, 
analyzed by Iti'. Charles P. Worcerter,' yielded lead in aiiionnts rang- 
ing from Inici-n to HTI jut cent, Tlicy an- UM-d lai^jcly f'lr wrujipiiig 
rreain cheeseB, chocolate, and other loods. Tlie metallic caps mied for 
dosing gia.H.-i jar* of preserved fniitH and vegctableti are also sonnvs of 
danger. One spcfinicn examined by Wonrc.»tcr contained fly.o per 
cent, of lifld. Patent stoppers, consisting of a nHiallie di^k with a 
border of rnbber, n«il in Ixitilcw for *uniTiHT hcverAgwi known to the 
trade as "will drinks," commonly contain lead, a^ is -diown by 
Woix'«8tcr'»( cxiiminiition of 28 «|Hvimeni<L, which yicMed from AJ) to 
50.7 per cent. The contents of the several liottles yielded lead with- 
out exception ; the l:irp.--->t lunonnt wiis I.O.') niillignintit. 

Dr. William R, Smith ' has drawn attention to the common oeriir- 
pentre of hud in citric an<l larlario acids. Tlie former is nmil eonsid- 
pnihly in making cummer diinks, and the latter in effervescing powdera 
and Imking powders. Of a do»-n njxvimenH examined by him, only 
Oiir wax uncontaniitiateil ; the higlie^^t amount found was II.O.'li j>er 
«eot. 

At the pn-Mcnt. linn?, umned fot>d» ar« h!*» likely to ishow traces of 
lead than formerly, when the cans were made with less care. In ISB."!, 
Wiley ' n'portfil triiws in l.'J2 out of 2-18 .'4impl<-« examined. 

Conwrning the hygienic importance of small daily doses of lead, 
(here is but one opinion. It is quite improlmhli- that tlie iKVJwional 
tliteof uiniKil vegi-tablc-'* wmtiiining but n fniction of a milligram in an 
entire can will leiid to serious injury, but the constant daily ingi'^tion 
of appii-ciable amounts of U«d is likely to lead to m>rioii« eou sequences 
iij at least a fair proportion of cases. 

' Arcliv ffir Hvuiwu.. XXVII.. [.. 1. 

» Cliemikrr-^^iiiinir. 1*90. p. 37. 

' 29th .\niiiin1 l{i'(H>ri of ihr Sinic flonnl nf TT«ultli ■>r Mnl*nc^nM'lt^ p. 570. ■ 

* Joitnml iif SUilr M.iliciiu-, (Xtolwr, llfliJ. 1 

-* Dviartmcnt of .Vgrk-ultutc. Uiviiion of ChamiMrr, Bulletin No. 13, t^n VTll. 



222 



FOODS. 



Esixii-mlly to he- nvimlcil an- the aoid dnnk.-i contained iii bottW 
witli 1(11(1 utopjtcrs. Tlio iimuunt I'f lead prciicnl is smuil, and an occa- 
sional indulp-'nco is niilikely to (■aiiw> Imrm ; but eases of HpniiUH iiijnry 
have iicfNiTeil. In mii', in wliicli tlic cjiiim- "f" the trfHihlc wsti- invewti- 
gatcd t>_V lh<^ aiitlinr, the jiatifnt. a twn[>cniTiee lectnrer, had tor some 
wf-i-ks iHvn [ HIS,- ion II to ly iidiM('t(*<l tii ihi.- use of n [mrlipiilar brand of 
effervescent drink known as *' stniwberry tonic," a carboiiaKMj, noidn- 
tiiiiil ^iiilnlion ot'.-iipir, tlaviir«I with an artitieiiil e(>m|i(iini<l ctlicr, iiinl 
colored with an atiilin dve. Kviik-nee nf elironic lead poisouinc de- 
v<Jo]>f(l willi wmn- sndilcniu'!*.-, and in a ^nhort time not onlv wrisl-<lnn)j 
but ali^o toe-droji uiijKureil. .Sju-ciineii^ iit' the bevt-rage wertr examined. 
Tte stoppers were almost piii^ lead, and the ennt^iita of eacli boltl& 
yichk-d nuttibli- tnice.-' of the inetfil. 

Zinc. — Zinc sometimes <)ceurs in small traees iu canned foods from 
the ii.Hi' of ilic; ehloride in sold<'riiig. With improved inetho<Ii', in which 
another tUu is employed, this contamination is becoming niiconimon in 
this cUh8 nf foodii. It app«.«is to bt- a connnon amdentnl inipiirity iu 
dnc<l apples, from contact with galvaiilKixl inini wire racks on wIiicli 
they aiv cincd. KiinmicriT ' foniid it in 4 ont of !i .■ijKiinu'ns of 
Anieriwni dried apples ; the avcnipc nmoniit, reekouwl as malatc, wa« 
O.OfioG jxT tent, Hujard * found it in .'ti out of n4 ; in 20, the amount 
prt-sent ningcd from 0.03 to 0.49 f^m to the kilo^uni, reckoned iw 
oxide ; in 1 7, it was present oidy in traces. We liave no evidence that 
these xmu]) HUKinnU nrc of the sli^hlol siinltiirv i[iipiir1iiiic<>. 

Nickel.— N i<jkr I is employed somctinn-s in place of eoj>]KT for gT'-en- 
ing [X!iis. About a unarlcr of a pram of the snipluitc sniliwv lor u 
kilf^ram of pens. It is dissolved in Imiled water to which 10 cc, of 
a 2 |H'r cent. N)]ution of ammoniii are addi-il, nod ihcii the >ohrlion i^ 
dihilttl with Iiriile<l water in snilicient amount to cover the peai-, whleh 
then lire boiled tiir .t few miunti'K, ditiirKil, and waslicd, .-\cconliny to 
£, Ludwig,' nickel is given off in small amounts to all siirtf of IVhmJm 
RookMl in niekel di.ilios. He found from traces to 12. !■ milligrams 
pi>r too gmnis of the food cxamiiKil. There is no evidence that thei^ 
amounts can protluce injury. 

TId. — (*(>ntiuiiinalion with e<im|ionnds of liii in exeei-dinply common, 
and. so liir as is known, is harmlt^" and unimportant, the coini)onuds, 
otbi'r lli;m the chlonde, ln-ing npiHin-ntly incaiuble of producing any 
physiological or Im/al ;trlioTi. 

Metallic CoDtamination from Kitchen TTtensUs. — Much has been 
said, frtnii time to time, c*ineerning the pi>ssib]c dangler of {mLsoninj^ by 
entail amnimts of lead and other metals taken uji by foods trom kitchen 
utensils, and csfKvially from plawtl earthenware; hut a number of 
extensive investigations have demonstrated that this danger i* very 
rvmuU.-. iMus^i ' ha.- shown that, if the tiring of letid-glnKcd pottery 

_ ' CliMniktr-Xpitunir. IW'T, p. 721. J 

■ » F(in>r-hiinK«bcri.-hl iibpf 1,t'brTuniilIe1. etv.. I8B7. IV.. p. S18. I 
H ■ ( )i*.u<rTvii*li(' < 'Ill-Ill ixv-lie Zciliinir. 1^4{l8, |. I 

■ 'UiumakileilH K. Soci^li lluliana il'iKivne, Jniiiianr 90, 1900, p. 1. I 



COSTA ittSATtOX OF FOODS BY METALS. 



sss 



■Im btni Aoxvi [iroporiy, iiu trnou of \vaiA nil I 1h' tiik(.-n tip bv udd rucxli;, 
r Huh IS tofnatii souji, or i^vi-ii vinej^r ; Imk h<> :ulvW-» tlml all new 
[ TBwfi'' itl>t>ul(l 111- clniiiHtTi) v>.-ry rTiivliillv Ik'IoI'c iir^n^, mi ucciniDl cf the 
I OMDOUin unoM'iKv hI' IruI <lti-t on the ^la/x' wlieii i'lv-iti trum tlie kiln. 
I Richo' il-'w detvniiiiatl timt witli {ini|>crly tin-<l mm- tliu (biii^-r uf 
taluikm of lutil t» pnictimlly nil, the ^iHwiinfiis iiMtl yii'lJing no tracns 
. bilKiiliug <IiliiU' ae(!t!o and nitric acidn nnd Nilt xolutionii. Hut iin- 
, frofrrly firetl wan; will yield Iniciw. 

Euain<;IltHl ware is bplit-vt-d coinninnly to ctintain lead ; and the 

muir), iitiviiif; n (liftiTcnt (iM-lliciinl uf i-xituiiMon from llmt of the 

iwn, being likely to craek and chip oH", e»|)ecially with careless haiid- 

I Kcig, in tlu>ii);l)t to Iw dmigcriiti.-' ; l>ut Itiirllic' fmiiid no tnitv of lend 

' Iti miinber of enamelB examined, and juswrt?' tluit very liurd cnuinels 

fcti ivttlii'r Iiiid nor any <ithi-r |>()i.-onoiw ei)in)ii)iitid.-> in tiit-ir jin^iiiira- 

(ijii. This accttnis with the ex|)erience of tlie uutlior wnd oilier 

I Imrfican investigators, and it may eontidently lie said that the 

auuclU'tl won- in mntmon iisi' '\» l«id-fn?o, 

Alttminumware, which ha» of Into eomc into extensive use, is lei<a 

Lmn] upon l>y tieid (akA* tliun tin, hut iif iitrcctif! i?on"i<lrral»ly hy 

' alblins tiw impurities present in eommereial nlnminiim acting a» 

bnring iigeut8 u> itK oorroMon. But the rL-^nltiii); eoni]>oini<lN nri^ 

bmcinnu' in the small amount ingested. Tbii^ kind of ware is kept 

I riwi \trv cnsily and otTem lln- gn-iil inivnntiifri- of )i}rhlni-.-<H. 

I XirlHJwurc U utlnekiti hut tlighlly hy uitlinary fwjd niateriiilif, and 

I iBruniiiinta taken Up are without sanilarj' i^igtiifieanM\ Hut itn eost 

I " itjiiiint i\M exleiifive iiin-, and, morcuvor, it iui|)artH nunieliiiie^ u 

I pminli linl> which if repugnant to the eye. 

L > K«rup il'ltyicii-iif. Au)(iut 20, lUlKI, \i. TiM. 

k 'Jonnal in Iliarroado «t dc Climiiitf, 169il, p. 105. 



CHAPTER 11. 
AIK. 

Am ii4 a mixture of ga8e.i, and not a climiioal oomjwiiml. Until 
tbc latter part of the «c\'cutecijth ocuhirv (1669), it was supposed 
to be an donienl, hut Jean Mavow then pmv<J it to bo a itiixltirc 
of tpwpf-; and later, LavoiHit-r dinjovi-rfl tlic two pose*, osyjj^n and 
nitmgt-n, which, a bundi-ed yeara later, were separated by Pri<?stley anil 
by 'St'hi-ok-. 

Air ifl a colorless and apparently odorless mixture of oxygen, nitro- 
gen, argon, carlwiiio acid, aipiiiius va(ior, and Inntw <if otiier snb^Omot*. 
It is not, however, under ordinarj' cuiiditloiis ixlorless, but, on the oun- 
trary, it oontainn varion.-* sw-nta, lo wbicti we ari' «n ai'irnHtunicd ibiit, 
unlewt prcM-ut in unusual (Icgrec, owin^ to local conditions, tliey are 
not perceived. This is noticed on returning to an oittinari' atni(ifiphi.iv 
from one where the raiisei^ of the usual o<iors are absent or nearly so, 
as, for instance, from deep aublerninejin cav<« ; or fi-oni a rofnii wlu-r^- 
the air is fnul mul oppn-wive, ns, for instance, from a heated, over- 
crowded hall or street car. The air of the Arctic regions contains Imt 
little "idor, on iwxronnl of the jdjsence of bodies which give riw to odors, 
and the proximity of any sminy of snu-ll is noticed ((uiekly. Tbc ex- 
plorer Xanseu' speaks of the pervjidinR smell of Miap which he noticed 
when, after nioii(li!> of vtandering, be met Jackson, who had been housed 
mmfortJibly with all the common nwt'jwitie!* of man. 

While air is a mixture of gases, it is one of tolerably constant com- 
position, pjirticnhrly in the caw of its chief couHtitiient, nitrogen. 
I'nder the conditions of life, the mort' inijmrtant. but less abundant 
cli-ment, oxygen is subject to more or less* variali<)n. In the presenw 
of vqjetablc life, particularly by day, it is increiiswl HlightJy ; in the 
presence of animal liti?, il is diniinishi-d nioi-e or Ici«, 



OXYGEN. 

The normal amount of oxygen is staled usually at Just below 21 per 
cent, by volume. A. Ix-duc gives it lit cxiiclly 21, with 78, OG of nitro- 
gen and 0.fl4 of at^on. PiflTerent observers liavc re[K>rt*'d tbc follow- 
ing as averages of lai^- numbers of aniilysC-H of pure outdoor air : 

20.99 Bcotlond. 

2a08 - . , . , tVollnnil. 

•iM* ... . . S««tpn. 

20,112 Fnint-c. 

'20.9* . (WTmnny. 

2(l.!'-' . - - Norwaj. 

•i0.9r> Knulaiul. 

2a88 Ohio. 

■ Vanbwt Nurtti. Vol, II.. )i 539. 
Ill 



OXTOEK 



228 



Tiie mean of a iiimiljcr of uiialyH«« by BuiitWD was 30.924 by \-oliiiiif, 
mid (if « Ijuiidnil m I'ur'iH liy Rtigmmlt, 20.9(iO. i^'or the §ake of 
conv<ini('H(i', wi- iiiiiy iliiin-ffsinl tin- wry jjighl <iifrcrciiiv iH'twii-ii 21 
and iho figtii'pB obtained by exact aiialyi-w, a diHei-einx? in tbc wvLind 
(ilan! i}( (kriiiml-s, hik) iuriH'|it 21 a!< ii iioruiiil. At (;mit hci^hi.i, the 
|iropartioi) of osYgcn U lens than nt the surface. For iii»tauw, uu the 
K:iiilh<irii, ill Swltzt-rland, 20.77 lin.i Uh'h olwrvitl as the nwau nf a 
Dumber iif dctermi nut ions. Uiider wrtaiu fiinditioii^s, tbtTt- 'if very 
.sliglitly tnoro than 21 jmrls ; for iiistanoe, in tim immediate vicinity of 
vcptotion, especially by day, tlicrt- nitiy bt- an vtwwf uf "xygrn, but 
it is vciT ttniall ; sea air, taken in mid-o(*an, had yielded 21.5y, but 
oniinarily <-iiiit;iini( Wm limn 21. It is \iv, by very sinall fnn-liimK, 
in the atrects of cities than in the open couutry. nnd in towns than 
lit aeii. 

Oxygen is the element in nir that mipports all life. It it consl^ititly 
U*inp withdrawn fii>ni the air in th« jinx-esa of respiration, and is re- 
tmned to it in clRinicid iiiiioii with rarlwn iw eiirbon diuxide. Tlii* i* 
absorU^l by vigt'ialion and split nji, rite i^irlnin Iteing retained, and the 
oxypcn lor the most part Meujted and n-lnriui! tn the air, Tlmn, the 
processes of animal and vegetable life combine to maintain the equilib- 
riiiTii, 

All animals do not breathe in tlie same de^^ree ; binls have the 
mn^t iictivt' n-spinition, and next conn? maninials ; mid all eonsiniii; 
more oxygen when active than when asleep. 

Oxygen is ("jwontinl to the p-niiiimtion nf seeds, and to the growth 
of plants. Although plant.s take np carlioti dioxide and cxlude oxygen, 
they also bn^athc as do animals, absmbing the tatltr and exhaling tho 
fonncr. Kv^'ti the anaerubie orpuiisms consume oxygen, jilthoiigh 
living where air is Planting, fur they split up combinations of oxygen 
and other clcmcnla. Thii", in dilute sugar ^ohltion!< they withdraw 
some of the oxygen and split up tbe sugar into carbon dioxide and 
alcohol. 

For Kiistainiiig iinimal life, it is essential that the air sh-.ill contain 
not far from the normal amount of oxygen ; tlial Is that it >li:iil l>u 
114-ithcr much diminisluil nor yet over-rich in that element. Unman 
life is impi^issible in air which contains bnl fonr-fifHis of ihi* normal 
aiTioiint, and eipiiilly so in an artificial utmiwpherc containing materially 
more than the Donnal. 

In man and animals, the tiKiinei> <hi trnt. rewivc oxvgvn in the frt* 
coiidiliim, for when the air is inspiretl, the oxygen Ls taken up by tlie 
red blood coriMlscles ami nnite.'* with tin- tiivniuglobin U< form uii un- 
stable i\^m)M>iiiid, oxyhicmoglobin, which, as the IjIoikI circulates through 
the lisBUcif, is decomjKJsitl : the oxygen i.- then tjiki'U up by the oells, 
and eventually reliiriietl to the 1i1i"m1 in the form r>f carbon dioxide, ami 
diniiiintc<I as such fnini the body. In an artilieial atmosphere con- 
taining an exocssivc! amount of oxygi-n, th<- Im-moglobin lK^-om<« i«1- 
nrateil witli llie gii". part of which becomes dissolved in the blood serum, 
and then acts as a poison tu tlH* tisaw^ and ditsinivii tlieiu. 

U I 



226 



AIR. 



Inspired air loses about a fourth of its osygen, and is retiirnetl to 
tilt; aliiitKijiliiTi- mil in iiii[>iirity ; but dimixion ocnir!! m> rH])kUy that 
tlif atJHOJsphen- of n lliickly w.'tllMl city show^ iiu vtry material \'aria- 
tion IVom tliat of tlu' ojN^n onuutry. 

Tlif hiiips an- never filled willi pure air afu-r tlie firet rc^|nriui»n 
at birth, siiici- thoy are never wholly emptied, aud they eftn.-t'ijiit-iitly 
eoiituin an iiiijiure residue nf air iillcr eaeh expinitiuii. The upper 
part of the reK|»init(>rj- trai-t is the only iwrt that reeeix-es strictly j)ure 
air. Pn>fe:iA<>r Kieliet has di-.tiinnslmtcd ihiit, if tlie n'.-<|iinitory tract 
be Icnptheued artilieiidly by ineans of a rublxT tube, pure air will never 
ntu-h even th<' up]H-r air-iM-isii^h, and the animal will die of a.-<phyxia. 

The aaionut of "xypeu slxiorbiil varies with age, ctuiditiou of health, 
and activity. ,'leeoi'din)( t« I'l-ofessfn- l-'oster, an avenigi' person inbiileft 
in 24 liount iibont 31 pmindi^ of uir, which eorixi'iioiid^ to a little more 
than 7 ponnd!^ of osygeu ; and as the lun^ aUairb almut a fourth of 
the oxvf^i-ii inliulitl, it »[>))euri< tbut the avcragf amount of oxy(;uu 
absorbed daily is nearly 2 poiiuds. 



NITROGEN. 

The principal tionrtitueut of the air, nitrogen, takes no iwrt in 
reHpiratioa, and is not increased in espimi air; but althon^h it is 
iiiditlV'n^'iit and int'rt, it ix, nevcrthelew.. by no niun).'< unim|M>rtaiit. 
In the lir.-t plaet-, it serves lo dilute the oxygen, wi that the luitur is 
rc«pirable; and in the wnnul place, it plays im inijmrtunt |Miri in the 
growth of pluiita, the original boui-ce of all nitrogt-noiiii fixid, for that 
which wc consume in llie lorni of nit-at h fntm aniniaU lliitt huve bnilt 
up their tissues from vegetable i'lMxl. As a diluent of oxygen, it serve* 
to prevent too gmil activity of that I'leuii-nl, which ciinnul hi' brciithcd 
with impunity for any length of time when present in mi atmosphere 
to a greater i-xlcnt tlinn its normal amount. 

How nitrogen is absorbed by pIuiiCs, %ve know only in pari. Ccrtiun 
low forms (nivcelia, etc.) st^'m to absorb it directlv fi'om the atniiis|(here 
when cxpiviil IViflv to light luid air. Siiinc of the higher forms ({htii», 
beans, clover, etc.) acipiire it through the agency of certain micro- 
oiyiiniiMiin uhii-h are pri-sent in niHliiIvs in tlieir rool.'t, and without whicK 
tbe}' will not thrive. These miert)-orgamKin» tiikc llic nitrogen from 
the atmosphere iind give it in some f-irni to the plants. That this is 
no, is pivA'iil bv the l:K'r that the (ilanls will tbrivi' in ii soil ijitile free 
from nitDigeu (in clean i^and, lor instance), and store up in their tiwoietl 
an iinionni of niln>gi-ii tUr in cjcti'n.'i of tliiit which was origin ally prffi- 
eiit in the seeds, providc'I these micro-organisms are prwcnt iu the 
niKliili-s of the niots. If they are not presi-nt, tlie plants will not 
thrive, but mav be niiKle to ilo so hv the applitntion of water contniu- 
ing cultures of the organisms. Of the doubtless niany Bpeciee which 
can fix utmospberie nitrogen, or which »i<l in doing xo, the Ibllowiug 
may be mentioned : B. mfijathtrmm, H. fluoraicetu Hqve/ariemf, B, pro- 
tewt vutffnriit, H. buli/rietui, II. mt/txtda. It. maientfriciM vulgahta. 



CASBOK DIOXIDE {CARBOyw ACID). 



2S7 



On (hi' otbpr liuiul, ccrlain ]il:iiitif, grown m the o|>eu air in fmis 
ttn Tmiu iiitnigi'ii, iiiul (>n>t<-cu-<] tVtim receiving nnimoiiia niid iiitnilivt 
fn-m llii- niiii, will kIiow iii> tnon- nitnip.-ii in tlu-ir whole orRunissitidn 
im nws |>re»ein in tin- »(h-c1h iroiii which thev i^prang. The siilijcot is 
[iwwhiob li9iJ!i l«rn iiivi^tlf^iUHl Inil [wirily, nnd tViUin; n-M-iiHi will 
|Aat>tlp»4 kIhiw that, under uiitural conditioiiH, hII pUiut life tiikei* up 
in Mimr wiiy nmro <tr loiw niti-ogen I'min the atiiioHpliciv, iw well a-'* I'nini 
utm^nous c-umpouuda In the M>il. 



) 



ARGON. 

rp lo thi* time of it« iliMtivirv, (he element arffon woa included 
irndi-r nilnigt-n in th*- lablfM of eiiai]>n^iuon .if the air. How much is 
tBMtil, if* n"t vet accunitelv ilet('niii««il. It wii.* clisenvwed in IKiM, 
PJ Uinl Itayh-igli and Professor ltain«ay, hy wlioui laU-r it was csti- 

ilcJ a» eoiniNMlng jiIkhh O.l'i jwr nont. of ihc atiiiuHjih«n>. I^nhic 
(iv.s irs aniiMinl art 0.!M, nnd SchlwfHiig as 0.84. It i« (|nile ineit, 
1"! oDitiit Ih- nuide to eimihtiie with iinv other (tleineiK. iilthoii^h it lia.i 
Viv «>iuhine<l by Berthdot with l)eiin.<nv under the influence of electric 
tflargv. 

HYDROGEN. 

Afwnlinjt to tlw vxlennive rcswirelies iif .^i^ni) Gantier, Iiydroj^D 
i'lirv^eni in sn-a air and other pun- air in tiiir^^^-iaiitiimnnnt — ahoiit 
'■"1.', pi-r woU It is W'lievwl to Ik? due to i^His fenueutative pm.- 
"■", nnd to be contrihiitet) also bic minem^P>ring)i and volcanoes. 
t^^iLH kniiwa, itn pn»«n<!e ia devoid of t^anitiiry iiii|)ortiinee. 

Olln-T ■■lenient^, as kryition, neon, ami ineiar^mn, uUn dif^wivercd hy 
IV"f.-^i<>r HuinMHV, wironiiuu, diwovered hy Nanni, and several otlier:^ 
>f> i[iterei<tin^ iwlely from a purely ecientitic standpoint. 

CARBON DIOXIDE (CARBONIC ACID). 

Ul kir eontuiiL' carliou diu\idi' a" a coiit^tnnt constituent. The nor- 
- <\ ivtrrnp' iiniotitit in pure air b hnt^fR^htly in exivws of H pnriK in 
■ ""HI. or oNint 0.f>,"J pc-r eei)(,,aml not 4 psirtw, aif commonly ist^ateil, 
^- lilllr an 2.0;l, ami even 1.72, has l>een nlwervcd iu the air on mmin- 
• ii-!i.|», al(lKiii<;h p-m-mlly we exjicct murt- rather than It-"* than tti« 
" 'Tnitl amount ut hi^h elevationii, 

' [irhiin (Iiitxid« is a result of oxidation of or|!tinio matter, Hn<l nwe« 

«• |)n.«-iiiv in llw atiuoHphere to rei-pinition, fennentation, eomhustion, 

ud i'Ik iiiimi aetion in the soil. An aveni|;e njaii exhali^ iilHitit 20 

in an liiuir, and veri- nearly a kilofrrtim in a day : women exhale 

IUm] i-hildrr-n and aged [lersons alill less, Tlu- amount exhaled ia 

hy miiHttilar e-xertioii and dimiul^'hiit by n-Ht. Hinin ih'iicI out 

f*r in pnt|x>rti*in to weiRht than other animals. The ropiration of 

lillixfu nuil millions of hunmn iKringM and itniuml.-t U eoD.-ttanlly throw- 



S38 



AIR. 



ing into Uip alnKH^pbt^rv otuiDtlivt* tons of tht' gas ; pvm' ton of coal 
in buniinjt yields more thao 07,000 cubic feet; every cubic fcnrt of 
emil giifi yields iihoiil double iU vnlimic ; t-vvrv |iniind nf uindU- m-urly 
tlircc times its wcljilit (2. (till); every ga)lou of oil and kei-oHeiie. and 
ever.' |Hew of nvKxI ii.-iil ,-is finl, conlnlniti'!* lU [>ri>|iiin.iiiii. Hngo 
voliimcit iirv wilt forth nuitiniially by tlif soil air, whtcli contnini- it 
in abundance, and by mineral springs, the watei* of wbieb contain it 
nndtT ]>iv-.'*.*uri'. ■ It bus lu'cii o.itiniiitei] tbtit, from nil »ourw.*, 5,1100 
million tons are disehai^il annually into the atmosphere. It is sligluly 
more abundant In eitii-j< llmii in Ihe iniinrry, and at ni^lit ihini by day. 
It ii< bigbc^t in amount nt a given lorjtiou during autumn, and lowest 
in winter. It is more, abundant inland tliiin on the (.imst. It inereai'eA 
stimrwhnt ns we ttj«*iid fruni stw-lvvel — aeeording to S^lilagiutwcit, up 
to 11,000 feet. Its ivnioval fnini the alinosiilui-e is mostly ihroiigji 
llie iigeiK-y of growing Vi'gt'tation, but niuteriallv nUii bv iibsorption by 
bodice of water, which, at ordinan,- tein])erature and pivssure, will take 
up ita own volume of the gas. It lin" 1kx-u t^ileubiUil tluit the oecaii 
eoutnius about ten times iis much as the whole atmoi'phcre. All gri-en 
plautM nlisM'b it by day, and by nn-anfl of tbeir eblorniilnll br<-ak it up 
into ciirboii anil oxygen, tlie former being uwd tn building tiwnr, and 
tJie latter returned to the air as a waste prnduel. Thin process of nutri- 
tion got^H on only under tbu intlnenM- of light, and cont«e({Ucntly by 
day ; but there is also a ivs]iir!itoiT fiinL-tion that is active botli tiny 
and niglii, and lia» tlio same elfci-t on air iv that of Uie nspinition of 
animals; namely, the consumption of owgen and discharge of car- 
bonic ni-id. But Ihc rcxpirtitJiry proec.-<.-< lias but u trivial iuBncnee in 
eoniparifion with the cblorophyUtan function. It is esltiuated that an 
acre uf woiHlland withdraw* In one .-ieiwon about four and a half tons, 
retains mure than one and one-firth tons uf earlMin. and nttinjs tlmv 
and a (iiiarler tons of oxygen to the air. The slight iuereaw at night 
is due ^up^HKi-dly in [^mrt to iti< vxhulnliuii by plant.H in their respira- 
tion, and also to currents of soil air, which ascends tis soon a^ the air 
ot the .■«nrl;iei' In'f'ome.i ivilder, and consequently heavier, than itself. 
During the day, the stnl air is e<iidcr ami remaiu.-> .-tHli<mar\'. 

Carbon dioxide is a heavy gas. iucApable of supporting (H)nibu»tion 
or respiration, and ser%'lng no n--efnl pnrjMisc in animal li^nucs. It 
constitutes about 4 per cent, of expired air, in which it ii* an excretion 
of the IiikIv. It ix in itself inert, and inc.ipid>le of exerting any i>i>i- 
sonous action, but will eanm- asjibyxia when prcx'nt in miHieiinl amount 
to interfere with the atmospheric oxygen in tlie pcrfornmnec of its 
function. 

An atmosphere of ivspiivd air, containtng 4 per cent., of carbon 
dioxiilc and alxnit 1 fi per eiiit, of oxygen, will not BUp)mrt life longi-r than 
a short lime, since the blood cannot gi-l snflieient nsygni for ibe needs 
of the cells and tiwiues, and, in addition, cannot r'n\ itself ot its ('(-^j. 
Gas exchange bctwci-n the WimkI and iu>pind air dejtends u])on the 
ten.«ion of the ga^ in both media, and, therefore, as scmiii as the tension 
of Ihe OO, in tlw atnio.-<phere exceeds thai of the CO, of the blood, the 



I 




OZONE. 229 

blood corpuscles cannot excrete it, but must retain it. Id consequence, 
a^yiia occurs. 

The questiou as to how much CX)j is [termissiblc in air, haa been an- 
swered \-arioiisly. We aasume 3 parts in 10,000 as the normal amount, 
lod all in excess as impurity due to respiration and combustion. A 
Mil of 6 or 7 parts in 10,000 is rcgnrded by the best authorities as 
tie permissible limit, and 10 in 10,000 as distinctly hatinfiil. When 
tbe amount reaches 10 parts in 10,000, the air begins to be "close" ; 
Mdwhen it reaches 15 in 10,000, it is likely to cause headache in thiise 
DoaccuHtomed to impure air. In crowded assembly rooms, as churches, 
theatres, and schools, the amount may reach 100 parts in 10,000 ; and 
more than twice as much has been found in a Swiss stable crowded 
iridi men and animals. The air of the hall in which the German 
Poblic Health Society (Deutfcher Verein fur offentliche Gesundheits- 
pdege) met in Nurembei^ in October, 1890, contained 24.10 in 10,000 
at the beginning of one of the addresses, and 43.20 at its close. 

A lai^ amount of carbon dioxide may be present in air without 
producing any ill effects, if there is plenty of oxygen present. Thus, 
fi^nanlt and Relset have proved that animals can live in a mixture 
of 2.5 per cent, carbonic acid, 30-40 per cent, oxygen, and nitrogen. 
It has been held generally that COj up to 20 : 10,000 is in itself 
Winless ; that the dcleterioiLS agents in polluted air are organic mat- 
Ins thrown off by the skin and lungs in conipany with it ; and that it 
wves as a convenient index of their amount. It has been the custom 
to By, " Tbe more carbonic acid we find, the more oi^oie matter we 
■fcr." These poisonous organic matters, however, though much sought 
•fier, have never been isolated, although a number of obser\'crs, using 
■nlty methods, have from time to time obtained erroneous results. 
iSk subject will be considered farther on. 

OZONE. 

Otone is a normal but by no means constant constituent of the air. 
" i- generally absent from the air of large towns and cities, and is 
•wDost never present in the air of an inhabited room or near deconi- 
P*ing matter. It is found in minute amounts (maximum, I : 700,000) 
" tbe open air of the country and sea. It is most abundant at sea and 
■Wwoods, and somewhat more abundant on mountains than iu vallcv* 
*•! on plains. It is more abundant in the uioniing in the colder 
fwtha, and in the evening during hot weather; it is more abim<hnit 
"winter than in summer. It is stated that it is mnst ahuudiint di- 
WIy after a thunder-storm, but beyon<l the fact that it is j)rmhice*l by 
■pa.'«age of the electric spark, there is nothing to substantiate this 
■tement. As a matter of fact, the origin of o/one iu the atmosphere 
■ BDlmown, 

Ojone is an allotropic form of oxygen, consisting of molecules con- 
*Biing three atoms of that element. It has been hqnetii-d under grciit 
Ptvnre (127 atmospheres), and in that condition, and, indee<l, in the 



230 



AIR 



goMooii-i fomi, has a (3<H>{)-1)hic i-'ilor. tl \» ]]nKluce<l by th« (nBHRgv ' 
tin- elcrtric K|Hirk, by slciiv nxklation f>f ])lioii|itinriii^, iin<l in tlip I'WlroU] 
ywin of water: hut. as ba* bt-cii «tiil. it* uripiii um n rmniwl iNiiistiliiiiil 
<if tbo .ntmoRiibcrf b.is not bct'n ox]ilaiiip<l sati-racmrily. It lia^ au ixl^r 
Dot unlike that nf ()iiiitc<) obtoriiic. It baw vi-ry Mnrnj; tixidtxitif; |N>w<-r, 
niiiHi more bo than oxy)2(.-n, which It excrd»«s nxM iKlivcly buth on 
iiu-titlx iind 1)11 orf^iiiic nmttcr ; bi-ii«' its al)!^^l1<<c Irnm tiu' »ir of iahab- 
itc'l nioiiKi and of tl«rnwly |M>fm])imi nrtuiv, cbuij^-*! with orfrmiii' nialfaT 
iimi ilii-l lit' nil Srtrirt, !-■• losily <-x|iliiiiijibli'. To thih |>rn|K-rly, irtt diiiii- 
iinliiiti in niitnnin, wbcii (k-ciiiniHiottion ])nKliii-i.'' an- )^-iivniUi] «k*I 
ai'tivfly, may pro)>cTly be attribiiiLtl. Its prvi-eiiw in tlie air of «ny 
])lace i" fiiir L-vi<K'iiiv xf frtttlmn fruiii oxldimbb' nialtcn*. 

t>ifi>ne lias aii exceedingly irritating eflect on the rw-]iinit«r\' mikwu" 
jiii'inbniiu-n, and ulii-n inhahd with oxyj^'ii in the pmjiortinn of 1 part 
in '240, i|uickly i>riMlui'CK d»itli in nniiiiiiU i^iibjwtMl to it. It l> hr- 
lieved to exert a ]H'rni<?imi!s intliienet: in inHammatory condition!' ol'ili' 
luii|r^ 1111(1 broiKrhi, even when prc-viit in nut much more, if »iiy, tluD 
the onlinan' amnnnt in the atnionfihere. We aetiially know lictlr ur 
nothing of the elVert.* of o/oiie on the system in ibi- iiininintKoixliniinlv 
l>res(-nt in iiir, bnt the absurdity uf the exprewtion »o ofteu n^^'l.tlail 
oiie liiis " gone to breathe the pure oxone " at a bcnith resort is luiiiiif"^'- 

Fer0Xid« of Hydrogen flip.) U believetl to exist in Biimile 
traivs in thf utniosplnre, and t*i exert SOim; iliillieuov t» the prociwiof 
oxidation. 

AMMONU. 

Ammonia i» constantly prtwnl in the air in vt*rj" (■light tnwx*. " 
cxiiitt; in the free state and in eitmbinntJon as nitrate and carboiuto 
Daily aiiulvM^ of ibc air nt Mi)iilffonri.« for live yuirs giive a" h nml 
lor ammonia 2.2 milligrams jjcr HKl cubic nictere. It provei! U< I* 
highest in amount in .-ininnu'r nnd towcsi in wtnttT. It j? di(nmi*)i'*' 
ill niiny wtiitber, luruuMi' it is «ln-orbiit by the rain during jHwagp 
thnmgh the aim'i^phei'e; it is inereiv.'Hil with rLning teiu|M-Ritim- •"f"' 
time atK-r rain has ntxxisi falling, A» it is one of the pr^Hhicis >^ 
deeom|)ositiou of nitrogenous organic matliT. pt>rhaj>s nowherr iii"'* 
olwrvablc than in fllal>li-s, when' it is pluinly |M-nvjitible to lh>- «■"* 
of snifll, it is huriUy necwusuij" to point out that ita sourwes are vnrioo* 
and innumcmble. 



NITROGEN ACIDS. 

Nitrous and nitrii- actils ari' nUo |ir*^^scnl in -imall traces, due in pit 
ti> the union of atmospheric oxyj;en ami tiitrogt-n through tin- agen 
of elwtri^'jd disehaiyii«, and i» jxiil to (he ii«tioii of ozone on anmioui*' 
Nitric aci<i IS foun<l in i>om)inml!\'c abundance in lHiiIdin)r< liahml l»3^ 
means of the arc light, but it is not prolial>le that the amount prwnif^ 
Is of Hniitan- im[iortaiK'e. 



AgUEOVS VAPOB. 231 

AQUEOUS VAPOR. 

Aqoeous vapor is a normal coDBtituent which occurs Id variable 
imooDts, infiuenced by a number of nutiiral conditions, the chief of 
vhicii is the temperature. It is an invisible giis, lighter than air and 
vtri' unequally diffused. Its sources are numerous ; some comes from 
tile evaporation of water, some from soil mowture, some from the 
fangs and skin of animals and man, some from the leaives of growing 
pbnta, some from combustion. Indoors, a considerable amount k com- 
lumirated to the air through the conibutition of illuminantH. 

Aorording to Professor Foster, an adtdt man give* oif, under ordi- 
nrily fuvornble conditious, about 4 pounds of watery vapor fn>m the 
tkra and lungs during twenty-four hount ; 2} [MHin'ls by the skin, and 
lie remainder (Pettenkofer and Voit say 10 ounces) by the lungs. An 
■dolt healthy tree of fair size gives off an amount which in enormous in 
fMnparUon, The amount of water exhulcd by plants has been esti- 
mated by Hellriegel to vary from 250 to 400 times the weight of the 
dty organic matter formed during the same time, which means that 
dnring the growth of each ton of green grass or leaves of any kind, 
there have been exhaled therefrom many tons of water, and that in the 
pndnction of each pound of dry matter, an average of 325 pounds of 
nter has been discharged. The evaporation of water from foliage has, 
■aong other important functions, that of keeping the temperature be- 
low the point where the vital processes would be interfered with. 

The amount of aqueous vapor which a volume of air will absorb and 
M»in depends on the temperature. For each d^ree of temperature, a 
Tolome of air can take up a definite amount of vapor, and no more; 
•ml when it baa taken up this amount it is said to be " sat^irated." 
^ higher the temperature, the greater the amount it can hold ; and 
We when a volume of air completely saturated is subjected to a 
dinge in temperature, one of two things will occur : if the temperature 
^increased, it can take up more vapor, and hence is no longer saturated ; 
B it is diminished, the aqueous vapor Is in excess of the amount re- 
^•ired for saturation at the new temperatiire, and the exo&m will he 
VMdensed and precipitated as moisture. At 0° C, a volume of air 
'""' "P xiir **^ '^^ weight of aqueous vapor ; iit 15°, it takes up twice 
* ranch ; at 30°, four times, at 45°, eight times, and at 60°, sixteen 
taes as much. Thus it appears that, with onch increase of 15° C. in 
taperatnre, the cajxicitj- for aqueous vapor is doubled. At 1 5° 0. 
(59° F.), a cubic foot of air will hold nearlv 6 grains of water vapor ; 
*30« C («6° F.) it will hold twice as much. 
Eraporation cannot go on when the surriiunding air i« saturate*! ; 
•trfore, the presence of a body of Wiiter will add nothing to a ,«atu- 
*d atmosphere. But plants and animals can continue to give off 
• wpor to an already sattiratid atmosphere, which, however, eon- 
■"w and deposits the excess at once, perhajw on the \'ery surfiiro 
•we it is originated, as on the leaf of a tree or <m the skin of man. 
iw difference between evaporation and transpiration, which is the 



232 



AtlL 



proper term for the giving off nf %'api)r hv »nimah and plants, is that 
the Olio i.* nu-rclj- ]))i_vi'i(»il, while thv otht-r i» n viljii prtwces <ltir to thw 
aclirin of liviti^ cellK 

'fhe rato ot" eliminitlion of water l»y ibc InhIj- in n Mate of nM di— 
|K-tiilK iiptiii till.' ainmint of hiiTiiiiiity prpwiit in thp air. Determina- 
tions bv Riibi](vr and von Irt'\va-->(-licw ' ili-nion^tr.itt'd tin- grml inllii- 
enw of linmiilily in thi." [wrlit'iiliir. At lo" C in moiirt air, the iljiily 
elimination Ml to '2H') grams, while in dry air at the same ti-nii^ralni-e 
it rose to 871. Tin- nil<' riiuw with tlie ti-nipi'r.itnrc in botii iiinist 
and dry air, and the more promptly, ihe gi-ejiler the dryness, Tlie 
outer air contains eommotdy fnirn (>0 in "'> i>i-r n-iit. iit' the anmiint. 
mrw«iiry for ^atonition. In some plaws liote<l for the dryness of 
the air, the amount is nineh liolnw ; in ntlien^, wliere the opfioititc i» th« 
case, it in above, 

Kelative humidity is tin- degiii- nf nppninrh to hatnralion ai any 
given [enijN'ninire. Tim*, ■• relative linmidity MO" means tlmt at rhc 
observed temperature, the air holds but 80 yior cent, of the amount 
whii'h it <an t«kv up. Absolute hnmidity if the uettiid weight of moit»t- 
ure in « given air spaee. 

Aqueous \apor exerts a nuwt iitipcirlant iiiflnenee. By day, it nl>- 
w)rhs inirt of tlie sun's heat and temi»rt- it ; hy night, it aets as a pn>- 
lecting blanket in the earth by pivventiiig too great toss of heat by 
radiation. At night, the earth gives up part of the heat whieh it has 
absorbed during the day; and when the air is veiy dry and the sky 
verj' elear, the tem|ieralure falls much more than when theit- i* more 
vajMir pi-eseiit ti' |in-vi'iit bins by nidiation. In llie Sihara, afttr ihe 
hottest days, the nights are generally verj' eool, the teni|>«Tatnn' (nil* 
ing .■"omelime!" ;tn to 40 dejrree.-" C in a few hours. At high altitudes 
also, where the blanket of vapor is ihin, th<- fall in tiniju-niluii- at 
night is ver\' niai-kwl. Absemt? of aqneoun vai)or permits the eooljitg 
piiK'e^s t") Ijegtii a* soon af the :<iin gels low, and ice may form in a 
&w hours where, during the day, the sun's heat had been intolerable. 
Thif is seen in tin- gri^it deserts and at high attitudes. 

It is noticed eommonly that the lirst fnwlii of autumn nnd t]i0sc 
whieh eonii' occasional ly in tlie middh- and later [Mtrts of spring occnr 
only on very clear uightf- with low huniidity. 

An amount of watery vapor approaching saturation gives rise to di«- 
wmfort, whether the temiK-mture l«' high or low. The ".iticky" days 
of summer and the '' raw '' ones of winter owe their ilisagrei'ablencs!* 
to thiir high ri'tiilivi- bnini<lity. In a. Iiot sjitnnitcd atmosphere, while 
tram- pi ration ean priw-eed, evaporation cannot, and hence the eooling 
influence of ex-aporalion is lui.'oiing. The sweat stays on the skin in 
the li<L]uid form in«t(^d of puissing into the air as a \Tipor, and the word 
'■ sticky" becomes singuUirly appro|iriate. On the other hnnd, wJlh 
low iiiuniditv an<l high ti-m|ifnilnr[<, the sweat <loeN not condense and 
remain ou the skin, but passes into the nir, and tninffpiration h nut 
impelled in the hing». Hence the gnat bcitmbility of dry beat as 
■ AreJiiT fiir UTgicDP, XXIX., p. I. 



DUST AND MICRO-OROANISMS. 233 

ompared with moist. Saturation at low temperature has as great, i^ 
aot greater, influence on bodily comfort. It does not follow that since 
one Ms the heat more acutely with high relative humidity, this condi- 
tion will enable one to withstand the opposite discomfort of cold. 
Indeed, the reverse is tme. At low temperatures, saturated air causes 
(greater withdrawal of heat than dry air, and intensifieH the sensation 
of cold ; for moist air is a much better heat conductor. Cold dry air 
is much more comfortable than air some (legree.i warmer but materially 
Bioist In the very cold climate of eastern Siberia, the air is so dry 
lliat 50° to 60° below zero F. is no hardship, provided one wears com- 
pletely dry clothing, while with moist clothing one would perish in a 
verj short time. Some parts of Siberia are both cold and damp, and 
beiice uninhabitable. Atmospheric moisture has, therefore, directly 
(^^ite eiTects ; it intensilies the effects of heat and also those of cold. 



DUST ASD HICBO-OBaAKISHS. 

Another normal constituent of the atmosphere — one of enormous 
importance — is dust; normal, because it is everywhere in the atmos- 
l^ere, and because a perfectly dnstless air is an artificial product obtained 
only with the observance of great care. The individual particles are 
Very small, but at the same time very variable in size, ranging from 
those plainly discernible to the naked eye, to those of extreme minute- 

Dost is organic and mineral, and has its origin in countless processes. 
It includes particles of animal matter, vegetable substances of every 
nnd including bacteria and moulds, sea salt, matters swept from the 
»il by the action of winds, those dischai^-d by volcanoes,' others from 
nxDufacturing establishments, from chimneys, and from the millions 
rf meteorites which daily fall from inteq)Ianetary space. The ordi- 
oht combustion of illuminating gas yields millions and millions of 
pwtides of carbon for every individual cubic foot. 

Organic dust exists only in the lower strata of the atmosphere, but 
IW of mineral origin is everywhere. Micro-oi^nisms are very 
•bundant in the air of inhabited rooms, and in general in that of timiis 
•"deities, less abundant in the countr}', and l«ist at gn-at heights and 
«sca. Ex|>criment8 have shown that at an elevation above (>,.'100 iWt 
Mt air is free from them. Pasteur expoR-^l a large nunilwr of fla.^^ks 
rf troth at an altitude of 6,00<) feet, and obtaine<l a growth in hut one, 
'yndall exposed 27 flasks at 8,000 feet, and got im growth whatever, 
W-Fiwher* has shown that on the m'ean, 120 miles from land, tlie air 
■Osnallv free from organisms, and that at lesser distanfcs — !I0 niilcs, 
waample — it contains but few. 

The air of cities contains thousands in every cubic meter, agiiiust 

Alter the prest eruption in Java in 18H/), n liazc uf oilrpinelv fine parlirlcM of 
W«, cMimated to be from seven to mure (han Iwt'ntj miles above the earth, was 
lAle in all parU of the world for iwrersl months. 
'ZdlKlirUt fur Hjgieue, I., p. 410. 



A I It. 



Fia. 8. 



less than a hnndrei:! in the wimp vohimp of coiintri' air. It has been 
fuK-iibiUHl that, ill di'iiM-ly jh>{>iiI;ii<'(I pliitiv, MH•\^ »:• Ijoutitm hikI Miui- 
chcj^tcr, uti imliviihiiil tnhuli.'^ in thi; voudml' of un hour upward of 
4,0(10,000 of ^rms and s|>i>rft*. Ilut thifl figure is enormously in r-\(!»*» 
of ihc lipnrf pivcTi hv KHigjrc,' wlio cslimHtiw liiiit in M-vcntv years 
nmn may iuhale 2^1,000,000 hactcrin, which, he wiy>, is altnui wh^t cmel 
swallows ill 2."i c'c. of onliiijirv milk. 

The number of bacttriii in air i* inttueiiced von,' preatly by drj' winds 
anil ii<)neoiis vaiw>r. The fnmier, sweeping ihern up fniiii ihf xiirriicc, 
inc'iiii-si"' liicir iiiiinlR-r; thf latlvr, hy iNUHk-rfing on them and on ihe 
<!ii"t parlieleti to which they adhere, caii^B iheiii to fall lo the ground. 
They are wiishe<) out tif the nir bv Riln, aiicl nrc killi.il bv long expin'iin,' 
to bright suii!^hine. Mould;^, on the other liaml. have been observed by 
Miipiel to inereuM' rapidly allor a niiiistiirni, »nd ro lie miirh IcMt 
alfivteil hy witidB. 

The average iiunilier of oi^nism.« fnuiid at Monlwmris in tin inve*- 
tjgatiuti which liutcd six yeiirs wait 4o-"> jtor cubic nider. The lowwt 

results were observed in Fehniary and (lie 
high(9it in July, niiring ttio i«inc |K'riiMl, 
the mimher in the air at the center of I'arLs 
was ;t, 1)10; thi- siiiiilh'.-i figiin-s wcrryichlwl 
in Januarj' and the high<?»-t in May. 

AH org-.misms are les-s nnnifmu." in the air 
at night, Kinw then there ix Ic.-w tiieclianiwd 
disturbance of the <«nliV siirfatv. 

While the mimbcr of Imelerin in oiitdwir 
air may be fairly high, it should l«? br>mG in 
mind that the niiijority of Ihcni arc of the 
harmless variefiw, and that the [Kithogenio 
kinds etiiistitiile only an hilinitisimal pro- 
portion . 

Du.4t, as has Sepii said, is of enormous im- 
portance. Without it theiY'wt)u!d W no ntiii, 
no fog, no elouds; the air would be siitu- 
nited with moisture, and i-vcry objtt-t would 
be tMniinually wet. 

DiiM is largely liygroseopie, an<l, (here- 
fore, altraets the watery vapor of tlie atniuf^ 
plKTc, thii.» l)econiing the mideus for a drop 

it(» prewiicc iii the air, the aqueous vajwr 
would GondenM! withont rain on overy tree and plunl, eveiy rook, 
pvery dwelling, every living cruitiim, and, in short, on ewry object lo 
which air has access. 

That atninspherio dii«l is neeess-ii-y for the piiKliiction of liiin and 
fog, mav Iw ileraonstmtcil ver%' sitnpU' liy conih-nslng moisturi' from a 
aaturatod atmosphere thnnigh lowering of the tem])eniture, »ui\ iH>ting 
' Urundria <lcr Ily^ieue, 1607, 




CARBOy MONOXIDE, ETC. 



23d 



what oocurfi when diist is present or absent. Fur this purpose, n simple 
ftp|wntuit .iiic^li a.'i ia iihuwn in Fig. 8 is »11 ihal ii^ mgiiirpd. This oitn- 
siete of a lar);«' flusk fitted wttli ;i niMxT ^topfK-r, thn>iiir)i nlijcli {la^s 
two pitia-n of glaM Uibing, to tliL> free endti of which pk-cpti of ruhlxT 
tiihin^ with i>mcIiix>cW» arc nttm-licil. Tin- yliL^s luhtw pniject iH-viml 
the shnuKltT iiuu the Itody of thi- tlnek. If we pour into the flsisk :in 
jiuiount of wiiU-r nithiT ninn- lluin .'■iittli-it-iit to lill tin- lurk ulii-n the 
rt;i.-k in bivfiled wiili the htopjier in popitinn, Wf have the conditions 
nwcssiry for oirii|ili-lo sjtiunition of'tht- ctinlimtl air with wali'ry vainir. 
If now we withdraw by suction through "uc of the nibKcr tiiijcs n 
sninll amoiHit of (lie cnnLiinfd air, the tfjupcnitun^ tiills at once; and 
inasmuch xis the air within is ahtwiy MiUinit'Lii, and mihi* tiie lowcrinj; 
of the ti-jn}iinitiirf of a .■sitiiratcil aimo^-phero is :itoi>mpaniul by cun- 
densalion of i^wirt of its moUliirc, siioh a t^ondeiisiition iHi-nrn wifhiii the 
fla.-d<, and w imiiiiftwtixl by the ibrniation of a distinct haze which fills 
tlic whole iiir s|Micc, If next wc rciorc thi; ori);irial piviwiiri- hy rnid- 
milting Miflieiont air to abolish the juirtial riicunni, the mist disapjKiirs 
in>1iinllv. TIk- prodiicfiyn :ind dissi|Mi(iiJii of tin- niL-il ("Idud may Im* 
repeated iadefinitely so long as nothing is done tu remove llic *hist tnim 
ihv air; but if we ww^h the utr thiimiighly by shaking the tta»k vigor- 
ously for !i few minut^v, and then rcpait the exjiLTimenl, no visible 
mii<t U product^. 

CARBON MONOXIDE, ETC. 

Other matterfl found in air include, under certain conditionH, traees 
of snlphiin'tliil hydn^'ii, .'•iilphnnius, ^nlphiiric, and hv<lnK'h]orie iieids, 
carbon distilphide from rubber factories, marsh gas, cjirlwn monoxide 
from ilhiniiiiatii)^ ;pi«, liimf-s uf xiiie, arw'uie, and pho^plHims, oi^nie 
viipury fruiii otl'eusive trades, and other gaseous un<i »oli<l matters too 
numerous to nitmtiou. 

The most iin|Mjrtunt of ihene is carbon monoxide, a verv |Hiwerfnl 
poison, ot^en present in the air of iiihahitiii i'i>i>oi'- fi'iini leaking ^"as 
pipe'', imjH'rli-iri i^imilinstion of Illumirialing gas, iiiiii ilelii-ls in hctiling 
appanitiis fivl with lxniI. It is yielded in gieat abundance by huniing 
charroal, and is giv<-ri olT in small aniounti^ from stoves of «iflt iron, 
which niiili'riiil in a reil-hnt etmditiou alisorhs it in eiinsideruhle amounts 
from burning eoal. This wa^ noticed fii-st by I>r. ('arret,' of (1ianil)<'-iT, 
whi> deseriln-ii an ontbn-iik of siekiies^ trin-eil by bim to this nuiso, 
I^ter, this pro[)erty uf cast iron was cstablishod l>evimd a douhi by 
otfiers. Another hy no mnins in^ignifiennt MuiriN- is harning tohaeeo, 
1 graui of wbieb, aceonlinp to Grfhaut.- yields H2 ee. of the gii-. its 
presence m the air of rtmrns in which smoking \s carried on was illus- 
tniled by Knnkel.* in |SS8, before a wieiety of wiwitists, by es[>o»iiig 
M small amount of blood solution to two puB's of tubncoj smoke, and 
itemoDstrating the absor^diiwi oi ilie giis by nuiaiis of the s[>eetn^'«tiiM'. 

' ConipWs BiiBiii", IStVi, |i, 7B8, 

' Anunle? irtlvcii-riL' |iubliqu(r, ISTS^, il \\h. 

* 8iuun>:>hcrichi di-r jihj^ilailWh-iiinliriniw-lie CtnvIWhaft ta Wiirxliiirjr, ISSit, ]l MSt. 




236 



AIS. 



Tile lllu^t impurtiint Koiirre of till is illuminating ga«, wliicb contains 
it in varying aniountit, affooitJing to its nmile nf inamifft^tturc. Utwlcr 
<in]iiitir\' i-DiiililiiinK, tlif knkniii- ul' pi*- fntin the Dmins Into llic tujil unci 
tlionce inl.i the !itnK>#iihore i- (moniU'iin, IVltenkoItT ' reckoned (hat 
in liiuliv joinloii nVKtvinK iil li'iij<t. a lif'tli of tin- iitinii^il ontput ie lu»t in 
tlii- ^oiinij, and WaHseHlihr- hai^ calculated tiie nuniad loss in Paris 
due to leak." iw I ."i.DOO.nOfl ciibio mi-U-rit. Ijiakirfn- iiccnrs rmrn im- 
pcrfict joints, taulty cwk!-, and fornHJed iron \nfen. hvskh^ that tine 
to leakagt, wf iiavi- ui rcrktm wiih ihal diif to ini|H^rtV«;l ('oml)U;H|ii>ii. 
Wliik- mi Affsirid or other Itiirner aclinft nonuully gives off no irsice 
of carbon niomisidc, a certain projmrtion of the gan will t-*cJi]«: oxida- 
lioM anil niinglr with the air of tlin njom tORt'tlicr with <ither ini^mri- 
ties, if the gas supply in not projicrly rt'ijnlaied. The nse of pw 
stovei* is rwjiorijiiVile for nion- or k'ss eotiliiniination dm- to iniiK^ricct 
combustion, for when a cold object ia put into the rtanu-, the tatter is 
ciKiletl, and jiart of its enrlioii monoxide i» given olV im fueh. Imjicr- 
tvvl combustion of kerosene Is still another sonree which should not be 
overlooked, for a BUiokiny lamji exerts a very <hri<li-ti intliieri<'e on 
the res|iirability of the air of a room, aside from the discomfort caused 
by the particles of soot. 

|j(ws than O.'2't ]K'r cent, by vohinie in the air will cause {K)isoning, 
and but 1 per cent, is rapidly fatal to animal life, owing to the fact that 
it unites verv rwiililv with the htemoglobin ul' the MchhI corpuscles, 
li.inniiig a st:ilile chemical con)]>ound, eju-boxvliipnioglobin, which will 
m-ilher lake »]» and carry oxyg<.n tii the tiwuei? nor jinmmtc (lie elim- 
ination of carbon clioside. A» a consequence, a^phvxia occni"s. 

In Ihlal nvfv!^ of poiMniing, enrlmn monoxide priHlnees a nipid [Hir* 
ffnehymatous degenemtion of the liver, kidneys, spleen, and hwirt. 

Carbon nionoxltk- lm--> Iki-u pnivii! by h. de Stint Martin * to he 
prevent in minute ammint^ in the \Amyd of animals living in cities. 
Nicloiis * has gone farther, and demonstrated its existence hi that of 
animaU in the eoniilnr', and. indeeii, in about the »umc utnountx (0.16 
volnme per cent.), Xicloux lind^ by ex|jerimen( that it is not derived 
from lilt- ait-, lint is ilivelopcd din^.-tiy in tliu sy.->lem, and that it» 
nmouut in iliminished by bringing aljoiit slight asphyxiittion. I'otuin 
and Dnmin" have sho^^n tiiat, at ordinarj- leiajKn-atuivs, it is oxidixtd 
gruduHlly to mrlion dioxide. 

t "on tarn illation of the air »f <lwellings with gas fi-om leaking street 
mains is ipiite eomiaoti, iind fatal ix^ults are not iiifretjiient, the gns 
tiuvelliug through tl)e soil for considerable distances and l)eitig ibawii 
n|i through wllars liy the fia-ee of a.^pimtion brfiiight into play by the 
<liHV-renpe between internal and cxternsd tetii|Mniturc.*, ManywiM-s of 
fatal poisoning have Ixi-n reeoitlcd in whiili the gas was aspirated 
tlimiigh the soil for more than u hntidrti! I'eet, Such awideiits are 

* IVbvr ili« VcririfliliiK mil l,»iii.-hlitHs, Niml mid Siiil. jHiiiinry, 1884. 

'IteuTwIif Vicrtcljiilir-«[>lirifl f iir (>ffi-ialk'lif tiwuudbtibipUttw, XV'II., 18SS, ]>, 309. 

' t'lmplH rendus fXXVI.. p. 103(1, 

' ihia™, rxxvi., 1.1.- 1-^26, ise& 

» lbid.:m, CXXVL, p. VM. 



"SEWER GAS." 237 

nUunliy more likely to occur in streets which, being well paved, 
present an obstacle to the escape of the gas upward. The odorous 
WDstituentif of the gaa serve a very useful purpose in pointing out the 
duger, but sometimes they are held back by the earth and cannot per- 
fimn tliat ofBce. Professor Wolffhugel reported, at the Sisth Congress 
fif Hygiene, & case of poisoning by gas which had thus been robbed of 
iti odor by the absorptive power of the soil. Water gas has much less 
oJordian ordinary coal gas, and this fact, together with its much greater 
conteot of the poison, has led, as was predicted, to a notable incrcat^e 
m tbe number of fatalities due to gas leaks. Since its introductiou, a 
voymaterial increase has obtained in New York, Baltimore, Brooklyn, 
vk! Boston. 

" SXWXB OAS." 

Another impurity is what commonly but improperly is called " sewer 

pt" This is simply sewer air which may be more or less foul by 

Ktmn of containing the emanations of sewage mutters. Its chemical 

composition depends npon the extent to which the gases of dccomposi- 

% are generated, and upon the rate of ventilation. It may be almost 

*< pure as the outside air ; it may t>e as rich in carbon dioxide as the 

*r of badly ventilated rooms ; and it may be mnch worse. Fi-om 

'Oto30 volumes of CO, in 10,000 are found quite commonly. Dr. 

". J. Russell found as high as 51 volumes in 10,000 in the air of one 

of the London sewers, and Letheby as high as 53.2 in that of another, 

*liile in an nnventilated sewer in Paris as high as 340 volumes ha\-c 

•*en reported. Sulphuretted hydrogen and ammonium sulphide are 

wlinarily present in small amounts or mere traces, and may bo wholly 

•hsent ; bnt in old nnventilated sewers, they may be present in notable 

Maounts, The highest recorded, 299 volumes in 10,000, was found by 

nRDt-Ducbatelet in an old choked sewer in Paris. Marsh gas, 

*Bunoiiia and compound ammonias, and other gaseous products of dc- 

*ffl[»iiition of organic matter, may be present in variable amounts, 

•Wording to circumstances. 

Sewer air contains micro-oiganisms and animal ami vegetable debris, 

pt as does the outer air ; but, as a matter of fact, the number of 

Wteria is invariably small, and they arc often wholly absent. This 

■« shown firwt in 1883 by Miquel, whose results have been corrnb- 

"Old by those of a number of other investigators, including Carnelly 

•"•i Haldiine, Liaws and Andrews, an<l Percy Fninklimd. The first 

■wtioiied conducted a most elaborate chemical and baclcriiilogiciil cx- 

Wination of sewer air, and proved that from both |«>intf( of view it 

•Wifsres favorably with the air of schools and small (iwellings, and 

«»I lacterioh>gically it is, indeed, far superior. It <'<mtains fewer 

"•Jaaisins than the air of the strcetj* above or of any kind of dwelling, 

•"I such as are present come entirely or chiefly fn>m the outer air, and 

*t froni the sewage. 

Uwg and Andrews arrived at the same cmiclusions after a similar 
'^warcb. In each sample of sewage examined, B. roli vommiuiM ^vna 



238 



AIB. 



found in nnmlierK v-aryinji from 20,000 to 200,000 per cc., und closely 
ailit^i s|KfifK in )»vi>ii jf iMiltr aliumiana- ; liiit ni-illur (lie oni* nor any uf 
iLo otlici'!' wiut fomiil in tlir nmiiy sutiipUvt oi" air c-xiimintil. Tlicy 
foinKl, lartlier, that the miniher of oi^^ni^ms existing in sewer air 
(]<-|H'iKlri entirely u|miij t.Iic niinilu-r [m-.'>i-nL in the oiiUide inr in the 
immediate vicinity, and ihat while wowiiKe hactma are largely of the 
liignefyiii^ varieties, mu-Ii are [imrticidly alisent in tlie air. 

llie chief im|x>r1anee of " sewer pis " lie* not in its power to pro- 
duec diaease, l>ut in its ejii»acity tV>r beinjr the vihit-le for ixlon* which 
ikc the uir disji^recsiMi', Iml n<it iiewJtNirily dan^'roiis to health, 
(cept that apjtetitc and dige.-iliuii, and iu'nce general untrition, may 1* 
iiitcrieri'd with. 

As a matter of fact, sewer air has Ber\*e(i for a long time as a moa 
convenient Aeii]H')^iat in inve.<>li)|iilion> of the eimHi- und sprcjid of Mnt->1 
breaks of typhoid fever and other infections diseasci', and as a most 
iiK-ful aid in explaining (ilwenre ipt(7<tion!« of viirinn.'* wort.-. Many lir- 
lievers in the wwcr-«ir tbcor)' of di/^eni illation of typhoid fever hold 
.that the coarser dn^t parliehw e;krfy llie gi-rni.'* on their Mirfaee, and 
Kuuy t)e hliiwii ubont tliri>ii[;h e^inciderahle <li'flanees Itefore the oi'gunisnis 
lose their vitality ; but the givut olijwtion In thii* explanation i.- that in 
ot'wcn* and ce.-w|MiiiI» the tvphoid liacilhis i)" de»trovi.iI sjieniiiv liv nihcr 
orpinisnis, nnil that, even thongh ii be present in an active state in 
li([uid r>)'wa{;e, it in I'Xtreincly unlikely thai it will Ik' n-leiiw*! therefnim 
into the air. No ordinary' stirring uj) of the water will throw the 
p-rnin inlii the air ; nlthoogh, luviitling to (he R'w.virehc.'' of Knirddanil,' 
the bursting of gas hobbles generated by deconip-ifition will throw into 
the air Iniees of eheniieid jiall!< which have Ihi'Ii nilxeil und di.-wdvitl in 
the sewage, and in the same way may throw ont Imcteriu as well. But 
it ha.- been shown by Niigi'li that liaeteria eannot Ik- given off tmm 
nioisl surfiiccs. 

Another ex]ilanation, offered by Dr. C. R. C Tichboiirne,* ia 
pthat tlie ilismse gumis are *c«ttcrwl into the uir by the tl-rmcnting 
sewage, and carried by a mist formed when the warm sewer air, 
Mtnrutcd with moiHlnre, mn-t;* the oolder external air at thi^ poinl» 
where ventihiting outlets are plaeetl. Then raeh minute droplet of 
^mist, carrying one or nmre microbe.-, in transiKirti-d thnuigh longer or 
■fhortOT distances in the air, perhaps into dwellings, unil cventmilly, 
by the influence of the heat oi' tlie &un or by other natural agenej-, 
biiHimes di»i>i)nile-d ji» vajwr, and Icmvcj' the orgjmismn )<ns|H'nile<l in tlw 
fltniohphere. 

The innjority anci the b(*t nf the (jt-rman invft<tigiitor», ft.i KlQgge, 

Itubiier, GSrtner, Soyka, Pi-ausnitz, and others, maintain tliat wwer 

air and M-wer ga^s« are inca|Kible of i-onveying the gcriun of typhoid 

fever und other infective diwsibcs. It is inie that some of the 

Ljpees given off in the pntn-fiiclivi- pr(H'(L-.-es which go on in sewers 

llife more or lews ixiisoiiotu', but whether ihcy are (U|iahlc of produc- 



' Pnin«<liii|[H .it iliw BojfHl S-wipi*. 
' Dublin Journsl of Mc^lioal Sdcncti 



1H7S, 
Sdcnctv, J uly, 1897. 



"SEWKB OAS." 



iiif injurious eSects (lej>eniL-< very much nn tho ainouTit iiilialcd iiiiil 
nil tli(> (t^rwi of (xiitM'iitrtitiiiii. Ill iinv t'Vi'iit, tliw arv irrtjiinlv in- 
oiplilc '•( prHliicing aDV inii'L-tive Jiseiwe in die abceiiw nf tbe s|K'i'i(io 

In iiiiy wfll-(xiii)'tnicCM] and pmperly veiitiluted sewer, no ^reat 
nnmuiil of puir^fiiclioi) vrill ^ «u, ^iiicc ihe ^•w'np^' iimtU-i's whih piif^ 
"h toil nn> ilii^'luirKL't! ; ('iiii.M-«|iiviilly nut niucli gas will lie fvolv<!<l, 
onJ, "itli |>nnn-r vonlilalioii, whatever is evolved, is fwxm Uiit^tjiiitiil in 
tl» o»iUT iiir, Oll'.-nsivr jFi.-«.'" "ml mli'iN an- rnucli imm' liUrly to Iks 
^iTO off Uy unclottii imvcntiUitecl hotiHe-pliimhin^ llmu l)y wt.-ll-l)ililt 
*wi"ni, 

II is nSHertetl ruininonly that the inlmhitiuii of snuiW timniintri of iIiIh 
wrwill prodticc lii^Klarhi', iiiiti-niiii, los." of aj)|H-tit<-, son- tlinmt, iiU>ii- 
>uitiiiri)i, ilinrrh'ea, and other symptom.'^, iiiiil tliiit it tuny Ih- tlic cxoilin)^ 
•-»r luixilbiry lanse ol" typhoid ti-vi-r, ni«i.Hle^, diiihthiTiii. wairlct Tever, 
•JvMfitf-ry, mid odier infective <liH^'tiw»i. Unt in the ctwiw which are 
'»«*c|«<J as pRrting the aiusal relation, iiirereiiee has Inken the place of 
}>n>ir, nn nihrr aiHiii.« of inftvtion iK'iii^ a-'xvrlniindili'. I n not it T-inglu 
CHbir Itaa (1k^ Knp|>ii-te<l relation lieen denimi'itr'.ited iMcteriolu^ieally. 

lu nn^'Wi'r to thv well-knowti >ud>litini liiet that the workmen eni- 
filuytil ill all the liiye Dy«tetn« of i-ewera^re — iiicn whoM- occujiatiuu 
iii\iilvpK the daily and eon.'<lant inhalation not of traces, but of hir^ 
v<»liinM'H, of scwrriiip— 4ireu>^ a ola^'i uniiKii:illv hi'^dlhv iiiid ftmn^, with 
l)it,di nitsn a^'V al death and a low dcath-nite, it i>- aAfiertt'tl liial they 
l>v>v>tne rmniiinixitl by daily i-ontact, anil tluLi e--eji|M-. If weacee|it thi:« 
tlirunr, however^ wfi should gu liirtlier, «ud say that large (Iohch are a 
Jbvtiefit in that they confer immunily, and lliat, th^refoix-, all preuui- 
I agninM tlic a<lmi''Mon of wwer uir t^i the uir of dwelUnpt are niin- 
nvtnl, nDil -■ihoiild Ih' abandoned. 
Thi- air of pro(H'rty eonMniet<-d »ewer» is in oinjilant motion, brought 
thwt by differeticc* in temnenitnre and mechanically thniu^h influx 
of nrwuec. During the eoldiT months, the t<'ni|M'r]itun' widun the 
Wiwt i* hi);her tluHi that of ihe uir nldive. and it is intliienei^l materially 
rthrliM-t llial llu-enterinjj M'Waj^- is laitp'ly warm ; therefore, *»'wer air 
kU to ri-i' and eciia|K' tlininf;li the o|H.'niny* in the man-hole coveni. 
Mriai iIk wami namoa, the natural interelinn}rc in mueh leMM'iatl, ttinve 
*« Uie condition.'! as to tem|Krmlnrt^' are reverced. At night, bowewr. 
"til mpwrn:, the tetnpemture of the air nf (he (*ewer is bif^ber than 
'w 'if lb)' atniosptii-re above, and itmi' ventilation Kile's on by natiintl 
••' \hie ywtr niiin<]. Much air iw dif^plaeed by tlie eiit<:riiig we^iagv ; 
"Wt.didrejpmlinK the vlfert priKlnec-d by the warmth of iIk* wwune, 
'*f\rry itibie fool of sewiige which entei-s, a cubic foot of air !« forui>d 
'%*ati as iIk' »eiva^^ i-* disebargt'il, more air entvTK to take it« 

U«iaf( to ll>e prevailing belief in the nnxioiui eharactcr of M^vnr air, 

'^i* liinniTly tin- tiixtom to phiee liiiKkets of charcoal in tlie out- 

^•fatftH of tlw ntaii-holeM, hut as this material loses its alworplive 

ty with acows of p]iii--<tim-, tliu plan wan nlHtiidonvd. It was aUi> 



240 



Am. 



rpgimlet] »» nn iidvfiDtdge lo connect the sever with clumneyii, which 
act as ventilators, but in l\w light nt' fiirihcr kniiwlinl^- aiifl liocuiiiw 
uT exvcN^vi: uctiun, that mctlxxl uf vciitilntiun iV-U intu tliHiuH!. 



OBQANIC MATTERS. 

Amniij; othpr itiipiiriliu.* jrivcn itll" I*) ihi' air, the orpiiiii- imtttcra 
from tlic procp»«s ul' tlie hotly iirc, in u way, of coti>:iiicrable imjior- 
lanoe. Tn<»e iucltuie jwrticles of ejiitlielimn, Iho tY)nniitiient-* of i>wMit 
(hiityric, i'aj>rio> t'flpivnif, uiid ii»|irvUc iicidK. liicljik-, bnlvmtc. and 
other Halt,-* of aiiinionium), and volatile matters from foul laouth.-*, 
ih-i-iiv iiif; li'i-lli, anil liic ilif^'Slivi* friii'l, and ('xt^rcrnenlitiini" matter* 
de|M>bitc«l 1)11 miclcun clothin;;. lu atklitiou to the«e. it tuiH been 
asserted that other mailcrti of a poiMmmui eharaeter aix- (rivi'ii oH' in 
the |iii«. -- I'f re* [)i rut ion, which nmttvn^ will Ih- rcferrerl to later on in 
the tli-( n i'u of the etfecth of impure air on health. That the air of 
inlmhiteti (toiitined siiaccs may coiilain oi;pitiie aniriKil nnitter, i^ ji)i|«ir^ 
oni to the wiisi-s when one enters such an atmospliere from one not 
thus contaniinated. 

Effects of Vitiated Air. 

Tlie etfeettf of fonl air on the system aiv of gTcaX Iniiioilanee, and 
v.-iry in depnt- within very wide limit*. For proper aemtioii of the 
hlixid, it in neoessarj- that the oxygen of the air shall he pi-esent in the 
normal {)n:i|H>rtion in the free litate. Hud not in chemical union with 
earlioii as a wstnie pi-odnot. Farther, it is necfHsary foi- the pi-ojK'i- f-x- 
eretion of the t«rbon dioxide of the blond th;it the ditl'crcnw in tlie 
tension of llinl [piH in the air and of that hi the bloml shall be as wide 
as (Mssible ; that i» to siy, the lew ihe anioiint of i-nrlion dioxide iu 
(he incpircil air, the greater the fiieilily with which the blood eaii dis- 
enisigt- that which it carries Ui the lnn{p<. Any inlerfc-rence with thiif 
nii»i imiif)rtant function of the bo<iy must have an injurious eflect on 
the general health, and it is neevpti-d p^nernlly that impurity of the air 
is, wilhont doubt, the nioiit important of the pre-diwf wiping cimw* of 
di*eaw. 

It is well known that, other condition)^ bcin^ equal, in projxiilion as 
a pcojilc arc dniwn to employments indooi>*, the disease-rate and death- 
rale are iwreawd. This i* jiarticnlarly true an iT-pirdc phthi.si.'", whieh 
in pixrniinenfly jissix'ialed with oveivrowding. 

Overcmwding means the af^sociiuion of two or moiv [Kiiple iu a 
spiiee so eonfined as to prwlude the adniiw-ion <»f a (^mstaut supply of 
frerfi air sufficient in amonnt to mnintnin u pni|H'r dilution of ilu-ir 
eseretory products and a normal supi)ly of free oxygen. It wji» recog- 
nizul long ap) as a moil im[K>rlaril factor iji the produetion of a high 
di'iilh-rate amonjj oceii|iiiiits of erowde<l jailj^ barnieks, and Ix.ifipitHh' ; 
and experience hii?^ dcnioustr.iliil n-peatjilly that ineroase in spaee 
idlowanee is followed always by decrease in siekne«-- and drnth-r«l<-». 
At vne limC) for vxamjile, the Kn^lish army averaged 11. deaths ])er 



EFFECTS OF VtTIATF.D AIR. 



241 



1,000 mfoi itriiiiinlty, from phUiitti^ alone ; more cffioieiii Iwrrnek vcu- 
tilution ami in<T«i>e nf uwraRC nir sjkicp cjiuscfl ininiwli»t<? improve- 
ment, and the (ihtliisin-niW IVll yiiKlimlly lo 1.2 jkt 1,01)0, The 
Biimc pcncnil rc«iilt litw been ob»(Tv«l in the uniiicm of France, Rii^ia, 
Germanv, and Itelgium. 

Wluit i.< Iriie of ovcrtTowdiiig u{i|>1ir^ not nlonc to Itiiman In-inffs, 
but to aninialw as well, ami it is a well-known fact that prnwded stahU-s 
)Jiow hi^li nicirtHlily ainoDfj; eows and liot-H'.*. It lia." mi<-)i a rcJiiiirk- 
sble influence on egg pnxhirtion and gruwtli of fowls that practical 
ponltr\'men arc ex<N'i><!i»jrly earcfiil on this jwiint. 

The iinmedtate effect?^ of inhalation of impure air are disoonifort and 
opprewion, whicli miiy amount lo headacho, dizzinpss, fainlnww, and 
fvcn nauKca. Continued fV|mMiri' i^ likely lu hriiip about a gnidiuil 
impairment of health, iJinwn by lallor, languor, aoiciuia, akin troubles, 
loN( of iipiH'litc, and din)inl»hisl jtower of ri'siMRiire lo tlir exciting 
caUH« of disea-e, and tins is esjK-eially true of tliose who)* daily work 
i.* c«rric<l on in emwdtii ^jiaiH'*. 

It is cust"man' uj cite ac extitme cases of ovorcrowding and its 
effects, tho Klaek Hol<' of Oilcutta, the ship lAni'lontlerry, and the 
priwvn itt Audterlitx; but the eonditions tliiit ubtaincil in eaeh of these 
insljmi'p^ were most unnnnal, and the ea.-eM aiv of hiBtorieal rather than 
i<itiiit:irv inti-n>t, ^inee the eoiiliniug of a nnnilKT "if ]ien«oTis in a J^piiee 
from which air h i)raetically excluded ean have but one outeoiue. 

The Blank Hole of Culeuttti i* tli« name npplimt to the militjirj- 
prison of Fort William, where, in Juri*', 175rt, Surajali Dowlah con- 
fined 116 iHT^onji over nii^lit in a f\r.icv of lew* than 5,900 cid>ic feet, 
wHth two small windows in one side. Within an hour, all bnike out 
in a pnifiiv"*- sweat, and were lortoriil with f liirst and dillicull breatliing ; 
in three and a half hours, a majority were delirious, and when the place 
wa.* opem-il in ihe inorniug, I'i^t nf llie prisonerK were found liead. 

In the citse of ttie Loiiifondn-iy, which, in Pee^'nd»er, IX4S, lett Sligo 
for Ijiverpool and nin into a storm, 200 stiiTigt- jiaiwenger* were ii.in- 
finwl over nijjht in a s\ttux IK by 11 by 7 feel, with no mean.s of ven- 
tilation. In the mominj;;, when they were n'lenscd, il was found that 
over 70 had cxpircil. 

In the other estrcmp case, that at AuHterlitJ!,;iOO onptnriHl .-wildiers 
were oonfinnl in a umall cellar, and within a few liouni all but 40 were 
dead. 

To what one or more condition* of impure air are the onlinary 
cBV'crM tliie? We have «een that CO„ ii- in itself not an active poison, 
and that it« action U to inli'rfiiv with tlu- pni|N-r oxygenati'Ui of the 
bl(Mid within (he Inng^. The aipieou^ vapor of refplnition and fnmi 
the «kin. and that jin^hiecd in the cnmhm<tion of illnminating material, 
constitnte.i an iinport.niit |wrt of a vitiali-d atmosphere, and is rcBpiw- 
sible for at least a ]»art of the di-Tomlbrt pifuluccil : but it in also true 
that a defieiein'v in watery va]>(>r in the ;iir of uell-vi'iitihited riH>m» 
ban eqna! or greater disadvantages, an will ap|»ear in the consideration 
of VcnUlation. 



242 



AtS. 



Concernine lb« effect of ufioal unounte of ordinary dart in in- 
Itabilod roonii), tlieiv ii« little to l>e AUid. Tlii* nitcnM>rgiiiitii]itt, mcM 
of whicli an- iion-ixithofrtnic, viirv i» niimWr with cfticicnc-v uf wn 
tilution. In ]ii)n- air, the l>af'toria «ml moiiltU :ip|)mxiiii:itt moh nihcr 
in luiiiitxT; bill in viti:it(il iiir, llir luK't^^'m iiintruric in niimlxr. uliilt 
lilt' iiioiildii are much Itstt nffiwud. The I'xpcrimcntt* of Ciinicllj 
Huldauc, am) Anrl<Tw>i] »)iowc<] u pmgrcawivv iiirrt-uiv in both hiiol>:m 
am] muuldo vrith diminished ventilation. ThuH, 



CtaneUrof ilrifttn 



Exlcnud air . > 

4-tWIIMd hMMM 



Kunthtr tirftiitlain* in 10 L. air. 



MmiMl 



BmMU. 



JUUtil 

■ouidiu 

tMOlL 



The increase in liiu-torin is not (lue to rat[^rntinn, though n (Bimr»* 
don in tlicir iinniljcr mifflit Ih.- tltns i?x]ilniD»l ; for the gnat iiiujoritr 
iif iiilialed l«icleri;i an? (ilti'n'il out h_v U»- nor^-, »iiH the vx)titr<l uii n 
ulmiH>t wimpli'ti'lv i'n-v fmiii p-rniti, iiltliongh tbcy nuiy be thix-wn""* 
in the act of cougiiing or Mieeinnjf. 

Invu<tif^lion thin fur ha-' iioi provwl that the lnwrtcria of iiifecliifl 
ore commonly introduced into the system lhn>ugh the mo<iiHro "f ' 
Rpircd air. 

Ah hiw heiii mentioned, it is held hy many that the effects of rilial 
air are not due to»irlM>n dioxidi', but to the nrpitiiiMnittlen^aiKlaqiii^Q 
vajKir given off hy the Itiu^ ami skin, ami tlmt thcsi' arc iMinfflK 
ciinvwiiciitly by delennining the amount of earlHm dinxide wiili «iii« 
they are dischai^'d. It ix wiiii nU> tliat, while (Hitiwidernlilc t-aHwl 
dioxide (weajH'^ even under the moM imiierfeet system of ventii;iti<>n.tli 
nrganic matters and watciy Yii|Mir do not «j reatlily !!«.■<■< oiit, but »( 
deponitnl on wall.-", furniture, hanpinjp*. and clothing, where they fitO* 
ami heeome nfTencivc. As proof of this, in Hted the faet llisl a nmpiil 
which a |h'isciii han slept without ndei^iuite vnitibition lui^ an unpleMi 
smell in the morning, and tlint thiK jK-i-sinta even after prtJimp 
airing. 

Bn'wn-Sff|uanl and d'Ansonval. in 1888, obtained from comlrtrt 
tion of the aqneons vajHir of men and animabt n liquid which, iiij«« 
into rabbits, cauMil dcilh with grtmter or Iww rapidity, aivonlinj; t>il' 
ttixe of the <Jiwe. Tliey believed the toxic clement to l*f *if the hm"" 
nf n volatile alkaloid, and that it wn» exhaled dismlved in tb« ik|ikO< 
vapor of tW brwith. In the «une year, Wuhk, r<'i»(>rting a mbW 
reMnreh, claimed to have found a toxie ndti^lanec. 

Merkol.' in 1 SflS, <'laintiil lo have olitaiintl |M>r.itive results, and tO 
ctudvd lliut n-f^niivd air rn>n) ]>cn»in:s in health contains a miinile (|U>I 
tity of a volatile oiganic base, which is poimnoofl wlien frop, but inn< 
' Arcliiv (ur ItvjitniiT, SV,, p^ 1. 



EFfECTS OF VITIATED A/It. 



213 



uons after conlart with aa acid. I>r. Sivieralo ' colleoted the aqneous 
vjifNir "f till- biMitli »f pcreimw MifU'riiin Irom ilixii.^i-.i of rc.->|iinili<)ii, 
biilli with ami withuiil fever, nl' ]>ersunrt with im refi|>iratorv ilii«efiM.>, but 
with fi'Vcr, :iiii) nt' [>cr!Mni.-> in Ixiiilli, iiiul iiijttlii] it into rabbiti*. That 
fnun thow' with respirat<'rv di>;eii»e'!' |>r(Hltifcil fever iintl iliniiu lulled 
n-ftcxeK biNliii^ llirt^p to nix itav.'- ; that fVimi casen of fever with no res- 
|)init*ir>' iliw'si'ie i?hiik?<I little or iio (listurljiiiiw; ami llitit fixuii jR-i*>iia 
in lieallh pnKhucd im rc-iiilw whatever. 

F(inii6iii.'k ' 'ii>iKrhi<lc.tl, afWr iiiuith Ktn<lVi (hat no piiMiiiunn niil>i>iiiiice 
oripinat&i in the lungs ; tliat the ammonia somotimoi found is not a 
{mxlnct itf nK'taUiIJHni, but of (lii-iiiu{>onilIon in ihi^ mouth eavily (rari- 
ous iwth, etf.) and in the tmchea jinil luii;p- atler tnii-lKtiluiuy, uml in 
puliuonnrv tnl«'reulo!.is ; (h;it, in the exjmrinKntfl which le"! to the 
theory of ati unknown alkaloid, nmnionia was iiih.iI, uuiI nii|;ht hiivi.- 
caurxnl thft ob«-rvwl offecis ; anJ that tJie results of overcrowding can- 
iKrt bo diip tti any ouo t»iu*i'. 

Many other eX[H'riinenter(i, Freiieh, Gernuiii, Italian, .Vmoriian, and 
En^li.-<h, workiufr ninn^ ibc sninc lino, !>ut with extra [tn-cautions u> 
rs'-hute matters from the nose and moutli, have failed) to obtuin toxic 
elfeets fiiim the iv indfiiHitl vajwir ; otlieri* have denionsti^tecl thai the 
Iiin^ (.■xbule no orj^nic matter exiropt in luiuutc aiDouut^ and tlrnt 
these have no |Miiiii>iious intKienee, 

.^rloinfj, however, hii> [iiii-sniil the subjeet farther, »o a* to include 
the sweat oonslituents ami>ng the deleterious ajj^-nts of vitiated air. lie 
snaked hi di>tti]le<l wsiter the mider>ihirt of n raan who had s|>eiit ii lon^ 
evening in dancing, and injected the infusion into dogs; they becanm 
drowM', Milli'reil fnini violeul iliiirrlneii, and shorllv dii'il. The ilmwiTs, 
simihirly treated, gave a liquid whieli, inji'cted into ndtbits, pi-oduned 
clonic npasms foilowi^l by jiai^dysin and death. Should them- n^inlU 
Ik- eonfirnicd by :i more Neicnttfio re»Hiix;h, in which the jKWwible influ- 
ence of the IkmIv bacteria and other agents are eliminated, it will 
apfH'ar that the sweat ]m!«i>.'iej' a hij^li ilefTii-e of toxieitv, I"ntil Mieh 
confirmation is reporteil, however, the weight of evidence h^tdn to the 
conclusion that the iniurioiiM aetion of vitinkil air in iliic to the dimi- 
nution of oxygt>n and t^i t]ie increase of cnrlwn dioxide, both of ivliieh 
(actors, alone or together, interft-n- with the intake of oxygen and the 
exeretion t)f carbon dioxide from the lungM. Yet, diminution In 
oxygen, which even in Vtrv criiwded rooms dia-s not pficii'd verv 
&r, is met by incrwi-'ie in the rwpinitorv fnnetioii, which, however^ 
nninrit increiise the difference lietween the tension of the carbon dioxide 
of the air and of the IiIimkI. Not even in very imiH-rH-elty venlilaliil 
niin(«< lUn- llie oxygen fall iiuieh below 20 pel- cent, by volume, and 
thus we see that the whole range of lluctualiini in the oxygen of [aire 
and of vor\' foul air U but little more tliaii 1 vohinie |kt i'cut, 

Smith and llaldane' have showa tliat in a leaden chamber contabing 

1 ' .^n'!iiv« Iwtiennp* ilc Itiolniiii'. IW.'i. 

■ *Ar.'liiv(iir Hy((i*""'.XXXVllI. lliKlO),p.I. I 

^^^^ ' Joiinial of I'Mthulu;^!' iiiiiri Uat-'lciiuluyy. I., 1892. I 



244 



Ata. 



air which had MiReroi] but flight (linitniilioii in oxypt-n, l>iit uIuq 
mnliiined .1H4 jianii of carbon dioxidv in ]0,(H)l>, two mvti suSvred fi«i« 
licttiliK'ho intm«iliMU-ly »ii iiitc-riiiK. 

.\y a nile, viii:ircd iiir ix am^nciated with High ttftupemtun.' luxl mt^ 
miioii nitti lujiU'oio vn)>iir, wbiHi Inlti-r ititi-rri-n^ wilh ivniiirntiat 
I'ruiii thv §kin. l^>^ ofivu it ii^ usMut-iuUtl wilti Ion' U-ni|N'n)liin*, nq 
with tbiit oonditioii c<)m<-.i nii in<-mii.ted tienuind for oxypm to id«( 
the r(-(|iiinMiuM)t» ni" (Iw oxidation procwwo^ 

It Kvnii^ probable tliut when' ilie (TirlHin dioxide b not pr»icDt in tnr 
pniU i^xi^-jw, mill lh«' <>xyj;iii ti* iioi imirkHDy di-tiHiiil, llw f-oncla-iin 
arrivcxi at l>y 1>in, Weir >[iteholi, Iiillitig>, and Bcrpey w true ; niiniriy, 
tiiut till- 4li»ninifi>rt .luflorpd is due largely and diivfly to beut and lii^ 
agm'.ililc wliirii iin«in^ fniin tlio oocn]unit]« in xiirionf viavf : fnnai Nil 
breaib, iincWn ^kin, iimUsin i-li>th«», swent, and pu*^ fix>in llic l)l'^«'i^ 
SiH'b nmv imbn'c wr\ iWrvif^ivvttlAv wninitiiiHs, aiiinnniiiig even W 
uuu)tea, ill th<nro who an.' not habituated in mich iiifluciifc* ; bill. «n tl"' 
otIuT hand, llu):><> wlio arc iu.'Cii)4(iiiic<l In such iiir milioe no dinximfuili 

Disaprifable r^mellr- do not act dirMtly hh a caiiM- of i^jiocific liiwwfi 
but apiwiir 111 iiavi- sin iiitliHiicv cm the a|>iM'lile, and Itenne on tin- (Sf"* 
cnil Wfll-bciiig of jktsous not acc»stonii-<l U> them. Much t» diw nl"-" 
1(1 the imagination ; ii disa^ntidtlt' smell tnnji a souixi* kitown i" t* 
(•l<!uii {clicmicalM, for iuftancc) has not nnliiiai-ily il< much itiftui.>ii'< 
a.t anothei' of i-i|iially riffi^nnivc clinraetcr eupixiMtl to bi> froni tiltli. It 
Mi.i-nin prntiabli- ninii llmt thi.'!**.' i* nilirb lo tmrn cuiioiTiitng the ml 
cHbclti of diwi(ir(«c:iblc Hniells^, anil that tliev niay tx- nmiv cxtwi-ivr tii«« 
wv now coiiiiiioiily Im-Iicvc ; hul in (iixh-r In determine this nc "W 
need methiids which will rcviiil the naturo of tlii'r oclorifoTOiiit siulislMnl 
and make ilh'ir isolntion ixisNiblc. 

OlhiT cniw" of ()i)iciinifi>rt may Iw »>tifrht for in tJic pn*ieiii»* 
tmoeM of ciirKi'Ti monoxide fmm heatiiift apparatus or iiHionipliip ci** 
buHtiiin of illiitiiiimtiiig ^, and in cxl-c^vc dr^'ntaa of the air dm- « 
funuicc or »t«ini heat. 

It slioiikl not bt- overlooked tlinl itiipuK* air inay affect the vilaliq 
and l«ii'i<Tii-icl:il power of thi.' cclt>- of the nir-i«|j*wt|ie* and "f the 
iiK-iitary tract, and thus lesw-u the jiower to resist the action of iofa-li' 
material. 

The Air as a Carrier of Infection. 

On the ap'iioiF- <if air in cprHidinjt infcciiout? tiiattcr, niiH-h hit* l« 
said and written, nnd miieh cain-fiil rcwwreh haf 1n?«-ii cttiidiu-tiil. ' 
th<r conclliMion.'' rcncrlied are by no iiiuu»> in U)j:ix-cnu'rit or ixiiicWi** 
It i" conceded f^tivndly Ibiit pathogenic or^nitiin)' iu the air are i 
hcivnt to ]uirtteb'!' of diiut of variolic kitiiU. and lluil their relentioDi 
viniit'iuf dc|Hi>d.-» ujMiii the iimouiit of hyunwcopii' iTio!?>t«ii'c with wlii< 

Ihev an- iiHMU'iHtttl. The i liitionw favorable to their continiiiiiwf 

liviii); organiffni^ arc naturally moiv likely to obtain in indotir air, WA 
imiM-rfect ventihition, than in the (uiicr air, where ihey are dilu 
and blown alHiiit and cximhchI to thv disinfectant aetinii of the din 



THB AIR AS A CARRIE K OF ISFECTlOy. 



245 



rays of the sun. Indiiors or oiitdoorfi, the more tlii>y are proti-ctcil bv 
hygntWHipk" iliiwi |iiirli<'l(s*, tlic I'liigcr ihcy will n'taui Uit- iimisttire 
which is <.'N*ntiiiI to their viiihil ity. Il !ip|>'-)ir>^. U«>, llmt, fiiruiiliini!' 
iK'iiig Wjiial, t'lruiiii micrd-or^'iinisiii.-' ivuiin vit:ility htngcv than olhiTs, 
sotiK- Ik-ID}; but slifililly, "tlici" very li^iiiii-iouK of lilo. 

Witli reji:ar(I to llie tmiia mission ol' piihnuimry tubercuhw^iH through 
the air, it »houl(l Ih' wild ilinl whili? thi-n^ (^iii Ik- no ilonbt tliiit thin itij» 
ease in eonnectcd pnx'iDincuily with overcrowd iiiji and vitiated air, 
there is ii very dtn-idiit diUVn-in'i- of o|iiiiion iL-i lo thi- mclhixl tif cim- 
veyaDce, --tome eomCTidiii|f that du-t, tinil ollier« thnt titbeiviilimi* 
niBttTini, tlimwii into tlu- iiir In coujfhin^, t^jK-iiltiii^, and i^meKiii^, ii> 
the vehicle. 

Biiehncr hiis toinid U. liihereuJoMx m an activt- I'tntt- in the duBi of 
a nvtin u yenr atW tiie death of its oceiqiunt t'rotn llic diaensc. (J. 
Cornet ' di'inonstr.iltil its pn-M-iiee in more than a third of 147 samples 
of dtist oolleett-il in lno^pitidf and other pnlilir inMilnl.ion.-<, hmiI in priviiU! 
houi^e^ inlmhit«d by phthirnieal persons, and sueeeeded later in produeiiip 
the iliteiise in 10 out of -1^ ^niniii-jiipi f.x jhu(.<i1 to air containing du^t 
from <Iri«<l tul)en-uloH.- liputuin. Some of the animals were placed 8 
inehcH from a ^lan^ vessel eontiiiiiing drieiJ pulverin'd npuluin from &a 
adviineed ease ; others were phiced on (^helves J< to 28 iucbc^ from the 
floor of a room, on the carjH't of wbieli, spntnni, mixnl witJi dnst, bad 
been »pre»il nnd dried and, at the end of t\vo days, stirroil np by 
swwping ; others were allowe<l to stay in the i-ooni without disturbance 
of the dii<-t. 

Klein obtained pof-jtivp ly^ilti) with jiuincji-iiipi plaits) in ihe venti- 
lating «huf^ of a (-otiKumptivtV ho»pilal ; but Heron' obtaine«l but 2.7 
per i>enl, of jxi-itive i^esnlt^ in 74 jpii!ii-ii-|iiir" iiKM-ulat«l with iIiihI from 
the venlilatin)r Khul) of the I^ondon Ilor']>itaI f<ir DiNesi-e* of the (_'lie--^t; 
attd Kirehner ' got but 1 jwjaitive result out of 1(1 pijjs inoenhiii'd with 
the dnxl fniin a mililnrv hoHjiitnl. Kli'tj^-, on the other hand, wiu 
wh^illy nn-iu<vessful In induein); the diiwast- in jfuinea-pigs expo^ell to 
Mn-b du;<t ; and conchided that the Iran.itiiisMon I'mm one jicn'on to 
another in ehlefly by means of the finest dmplets thrown hito the air in 
fl|»eiiking, etniKbinii:, anil sntezing. I"'nim latrr i-X|>erimcnts, «)ri<iiietiHl 
iimlcr bi;^ !tn(iervi*inn by Ijwhtsclienko. IleAinann, SStichcr, and 
Jleninde,' he eomluded thai in ntoins in which tnln-reulous sjmtnm i.i 
dried on the tlocr or oihcr plsn-cs, and where the air i» fille<l with eourte 
du^t through ilrv clMminj; ami air currents, or, as in r.iilwav ear*-, hv 
continual niecbanieul jarring, infcetion timv arixi- ; and that, mtdcr them- 
vonditiunii, lon^f-e'iutinned L'X|KiHure offers a certain degree of probability 
of infection. Tlu-n'roi'e, dry cleaning is to In* avoidcil in riuaiis in 
which ciinHuniptivi-^ are employtil with olber*. anil the nutms "bould 
tiol be occupied so lonn iw the air is [x-itvptibly ihisiy. The jtriat |mit.- 
ttibility of infiftion through iMatten> lhn>wn ofl' in compiling and sm-e^ 

I * iicilH-tirift ftir Ilvirienc niui Infcclioiukninkliiulni, XIX., p. 1&3. , 

I Mfaidon, XXX..P. lOT. J 



S46 



AIR. 



iiig w iriiiUiwl ii[xiH iw of pnninioitiit iiiijKnUnioi-. Tliw ilanffop i« 
Im* [)m'ciitul l>V i¥(|uiring tlie |K'r>>iii) rDUi^luii);; to htild a hauclki-rt-hii 
or tlitr huiiil Ih-I'ii-i- tlif niiiiilli during tlic not, iiikI hy tlw avoidiitiw 
()ii; |Hirl uf otlii-rs uf uppiYKtcliii)^ «ilhiii u iiirU'r. 

Aribweriii^ I'^IUggc, Cornet ' contoiulit tliat ihv tiunibcr nC Iwu-i 
thrDWii ii)li> ()k' iiir tlunit^ Itii- set uf rongliiii)' luiwt Ik- txlnniv 
liniall. He miifH'd l>i cnii^iniiplives to liolil dipJios bftore lit*- itmii 
tvliiI(.-o>u^liii)|;, tiiiil oliUiiiitii '2 |icir>ili\'<- [>>iilt.-> llii-it-fn;ii) on iiiomlaU 
into giiiiii3i-pi>^ ; rf|>L'atiii;i thv U-sl willi lo uthcD^, Iw got noiie. 

^elgen' alno disitt^rti'^ M'itli (Ijl)^' »n t4) tliv (xu'i'iltilily of tma 
nii;;:!{i't|i nf f^vnnp in );i-nond tl)ruii;;li tlie air, nnd Itclivvci- tltnl it 
arutiMi'd timcli i)y cvaimraliuii •>t' wali-r ln>m ."ni'Gni-T- ii|Hin «lii<-li tin 
UK dv\nt!iiut\. IK- olitiiiiH'd |witivi- n-Mull* Inini irnx-tiljiijoti nf drt)( 
Icto cundeuectl on llio i1[i|mt i^uriitce of a vc^ecl in wbiuh a culture n 
Jt. jiiirnrnaifuit Iiud U-cn iixnibutt'd. 

Kx peri menu condiirteil by Ki'mijter* coiifirni FiitgtfC lu tiU i-'timsM 
of till' diinf^iT of Intl1.«n)i.1^illu l>y driiptft-->. In onlcr ti> ^iw lln- ri 
pi-lk-<l drupleb^ a c-liamc^or wliich would admit uf Uifir Innng trnml, lit 
ri»!HKl liih inonlli uttli li<|uid rlcli iti /(. prftiliffhuaui ur H. tngcmit*,')! 
witli viTv dtliitu eaubtic hkIs, and, in urdtT lo tisci' tlicm, he osptw 
Petri dinlii-.-^ and glit-.-* platon i-oati'd willi pliciin]])! it halt-in. whicli np'nt, 
Inrninp pink in ninlart >vitli an alkali, wonld flmw not orih 'li' 
mimlKr ofdniplcth, hut tlieir size as well. It wajifouncf tliat no iJni!>" 
lftj> are thnivvn out in oiilinari' cxtuilntiun nor in vowel funnulion. I"'' 
with iMnisonants, as (, i, and p, the number is very great, aiid is latjirfy 
d<'|>cnrli-iii upon the amount of loivi- witli vvliicti l)ii- nir lutdi-r pn-Min 
iu tbc montb wivity is relfafrctl in tlicir fortiiation. and, tb^n-forc, a\*i^ 
tlie nuiiHtir of pi-oiiouurin)f. liOu<liu-HH and rapiditj' of >jK'vh \vct 
but little iuflucnee ; M-liis|)erin;; mny, indee<l, umk-r i^ome (.■oudiii'iiit 
CHUw a grrarfT iitiniber nf droplcti^ ilinn loud s|)w?cli. Even willi Mil*' 
dH«d Ppcii'ii luid a quiet atnioKpliciv, il wn» found tlml ibe oi^ni*iiU 
expdlnl reai'lK^l the nior^t distant |iai-Cn of llio r<H>ni, wbicli uiin i""' 
tliau :^<l (i'l-t in H-idlb, am) in all diiii'liotts. Tbcy wiiv foiuid I 
remain in riUs|>euhiou iu tbc air not longer tbnn nu hour, and il '*^ 
notii<i>d iJint ibey fell upon tbe plativ in )2tou]m, i<onic-liiu<« lUi diudi' < 
■10 eIo«e togelber. wbieb cuggeKts tliai tbey full not as diy dn^t (■irtii'l* 
but that llie dropleti* ilieniM-Ive.-*, with tbeir eiuiiHiiu^l or adlMW 
orgnnisinc, air de|Kwiied. In eonubini; and fHK-cKiiitr. inon- drnJiW 
are csjietlod than in speaking, and tbey are pmjeoted to a pnaleriW 
Iuii4<e, liitfiUiH^ of tbe [rreater force engiigetl. Tbe pns-autioiis rffl*" 
iiieii'led apply not alone in tubcreulosis, but aUo in dipbllx-ria, v\»(^ 
in>,*-i-ougb, Mnd other dUe«w-s in wliiib tbc nwjw^live »]»ifitie orjpii)'^*'" 
are louixl in the nir-iHU^fUgefi. 

HuU'Jiii-oii ' found that luicteria, sprayed in niiniit4> dro|>lrtH ilf< 

* BrtUocr klinUV WirlirnKilinn, KUjr IS, IffiKI. 
1 Tiil'tiiiO mMIt-nlr. Mny 10. 1«>1I. 

■ Zvit-t^hiift riii llT|ci«n'i> iinil liirii-iioiiiknitildidHfl, XXXn'. (IWO). \\ \V>. 

* lliidciis XXXVf. ( Itiiil 1, J.. -i-lX 



TffE AIR AS A CARBtF.n OF ISFECTfOy. 



247 



objwK pcrisli in u 8lii>rt time, liic niiiin f&cV'T in llu-ir (tcHiniction Iwiiig 
the inHiienco of sunlight. Sitraywl tlii-c^ly into (Iip air. niOTt "f them 
wi^ix- Iuiiik] til have IxK-onic iloiKi^ilKl williin n hult' hmir, whca llm Hir 
of tile room nas allowctl to reiiiiiiii iindUlnrlxtl, Init itniiilient uf tJiem 
wt-ri- ki-pl in wn.'^iH'nt^iiin t'm' fon>Ult'mlile |)t>n<H)B liv flight unavoidablfi 
air oiineiil- in iht- liiwi-r "tntUi. He ^"liowcii (hut, with Invdrinp iiir 
uHrrcnl--", the -iiirtjH'TKJtxl Iweleria may be ouiMlut-ted through vcr)- iini-- 
nivr «rcviw!t, as into cluwjtj Ixirwi ilniwci-:", imd tiiiin ihk- rniHii to 
another through kt>yhoh«i aud cracks. Whll*- tlie dangur of dis<^iiii- 
miliiiif IwKittTia by wiilking hvit un infi-cu-ti floor was foiuul Ui l» 
(■light, th'isft thrown up by tlie cliwtic rebound of the b*ianU tiiiliiif" to 
intVi't |ilat«'» j<n«iK'ndiil 4 in<'h<« jiliovf tUcm, oi-diiiary swi!cpiiig was 
found to contaminate the atnios|ihcrf throuf^hoiil it* whole extent, vvca 
to the Cfiling, llnw r'onftnniiig FiOgge's statement a& to the uudepira- 
bility of dry cleaning. 

('Io!*cly !«iniil«r n-.-«iills wero obtained by Kir&tein,' who concludes 
thai (irdinan- air current* cannot detach livinjj or^ininin!i from siir11tci-jt 
iijKin which ihey have U-en depo-ited and become dried, but coiictdes 
tliiif, when the baeteria an: .spniyiid u|»on tine ilu.st jtarticW, they may 
«isi!y be borne alioiit in the air. Vet how slight the duiiger of this 
Rii-thixl of iiitWtion is, so fur at. Iwifit a-" typhoid fi-ver in cono'niKl, in 
^own by the ntarkod i-:ipidity «Hth which the typlioid urgunisms div 
when tti'Ul forth in the forni of Mpray. Other non-fli>ore-biiilders, 
(■praywi into the air, wlainol their vitjdity for only u ci>ni para lively 
short lime, iH-cauw of the inflncnir of liglit and air ; nn<] lii> !R-Iiev<« 
that the marked sensitiveness of the tubercle iHieilKis to the influence 
of light maki'-* I'sirly ili---«truction of thin oiynni.iin most [in^bablc when 
it is thrown into the air in minute droplets, and that thus may be ex- 
plained tilt- fact that, even in consumptive wards, in whieh there is, 
without doubt. « eou'itaiit <lisr'hiirjre of bneilli intj) the air, Httcmpt;* to 
dct'x't living organisms in the ilust, etc., fail, excepting in those cases 
in which the Mpiiliim itjiclf has, ihrongli lack of wire, becoHio dis- 
seminated. 

Positive result* of examination of droplet--* ex]H*ll<'d by fonsninptivn 
pulienlit during coughing hiivc lK?t'n recorded by Curry,' Boston." and 
others, Ciirrv ex]«Timent«l with I'J jwiliinti-, who eonghrti lowanl 
plati.'S sutt|H'niliil from I to 3 fi-et di«tant ; he found the iMicilli in ihc 
larger droplets eX|ielled bv half the subjeots. Boston, observing liiie 
droplet;* being i-ji-eti-d from the mouth of u [mlieiit with a<lvanc'ed 
dine-tw^ in eaeh act of eoughing. ronclnded that siieh constant spraying 
at the table and cUewlwrr might afloiil an explanation why jiiitii-nti* 
in ihc larly <i:ip' of the disejiw? did not do well in the institution where 
IiU observation'- weiv nia<le, iij which every possible attention is given 
to venlilaliou, light, and disinfection of sputum. Hy nicani* of tt ^iinplv 
<Iwico, the spray scut out by oO patients was collected, and then siib- 

' Zcttwlidfi fiif Hvfficiii- ami rnrfrii<in.kranliliciion, XXV. ( 1900). p. IS3. . 

■ llnaloii Mi'ilH'al n'litl Sunii.-iil .t.»irnnl, Ili'UiWr I;!,1SW. I 

^ * Jounml uf lilt! Anii-riraji Mnii'.'iil A-wK'iutiuii, iSvpt.. 14( IIWK A 



J. 



AJM. 



jtvt«(l Ifi irxatuiiMtiun for tbe t'pn-ific oi^nt^m, nliiHi wit<< f>iuti<l \a rl 
ftt eeat. of the case». Tbr amallrst niunbrr fouml in any »pei-im^ 
WW 4, ADt) in fdlr a thtnl On- iNw-illt were wry nuuMfniiitt. 

RarMuJ'^' ex|hfiiuvnti« <riih wln-realnus mws have pn>v«! iIth 
tlu-r, till, wnd fiirtfa tfar ladlti ID gmt numbtn* in Um- mt «]) 

ExiN-riuimt* nxMlurtnl ml Um' AdinxMW'lt CuttHgv Siitiitiiriiiiu hy 
th. I. II. llaucr,* for i])c |>urp»« uf drtornuaiu^ ihi- tU^n^i.- •>!' lUiijitr 
■if infection wiieti all {K>>^il>lc ^xtnibin' mrtnirr fiir dbiitilVx-iiiiu of 
i>|tiitiiin an- mfon^-'). Mipjmirt Uit- vifw thiit duet in tbe mt w iiT 
8eca>u«bn- imp! irtamv, )>ut dial, wU-iv cmrdneaeM in iiu» r^pml <ii>> 
tKitif, ibt* flunpT ii> K ml uM\ A cucnplt^ exam i tuition wa# madf uT 
tl»e gniup of buililit^. some of whii-h hml Iwvn txTUptttl bv onwomp- 
tivcM fmr rtt^'Mi vkus. I)ii!>t mtw 4<i>lkrl<-<I froui |ilim-» nuMl likclr tu 
be iDlVvtcil, :iri() nitb it Al i^ioes-pi^ nerv iHix-^iUtc^l. Four iii'>cu> 
biKxl witli •iiL-t fmtu tbi,' infirtmur (a buil<lii^ wbt-it* nil lltr at-turk 
sick nrv #«nt), umI from the main buildio^ (in whii<li urv a jarlnr, ^t- 
di^-r(Nim and Hbmn- ). dini of other infMimi^ <>u tlie tliinl to ibe 
nixdi day. Fivr nf the Icn iDucttlalcd wilIi drift fnwii tin- oldist ««- 
ta^-. wbieii was <H<«7ti)>i<il by a luao who had bt*« (?»iiipUinc<l "f fi" 
pnuuiwruiwi* »pittinf;. IxT-amc tubcTCTiloo!'. Thum- i»iK"iilat"i willi ll«' 
doet from the ntber building gave ncyatix'v reMlts. Dnrin): i-lrvtii 
ynii*, not one of tlM- 20 to 2^, atteixlnat^ an|>Ioy«d had de^ekpffl 1^ 

A> Ui ty|Jiiiid ti'vrT. ton, (ipintfinii arv at variaupir. I'r. Julii 
Brownlee ri-ported bt-finv tin.- (>Ia»g^>w i*liil(>(u>]i)iicul .Sx-kiy an «■ 
prnntrat pn>viug that the iipecilic Iwcilli <nn live in urdiniin,- tiuu. 
Bachn«r is i>( the opjninu that nriibcr typhtitd nor oiht-r foverHn'" 
tiiiin U- .-pniid. 

iVrhap< tin- most exK-twivt rcsM.ttrfli nn iIm- »iil>}ivi nf tninpiuiwof'i' 
of this and other disea^c^ is that comlurtcd by I>r. l-Aliiunhi (ivmnni. 
Iti Ilia cxpcriiui'ntv, be usNd variuun kinds of dti»t and dirt, nnd fi^'"' 
hi* result*, he ruiictiKlcs thai tin- typhoid pcmi »» nimble l-i willi'-ln'"' 
OtHUplete dri'ing, ainl hence itinnot bf tran-nniitinl !•■ man lbn>U(;li d"^ 
Wlffiwntly dr}- r^ W div^ininnttil by nir rtinvuL-. K\|>>-nniciil shi>«w 
thai iIm- ^nn van live for a long time in moiv[ )^nrPHitt<lin^, ncn ■» 
an np]wr(-ntly dr^' c<ondili()n, llmi i», wlirn adb»vnt to or enc<om|K-«*^ 
hy nmUKt* whi»'h cimtnin a wrtain iimiKint "f moi«tnrt'. wn-h ii-'* cintb- 
ii^, particlt* of din, and fi-wl tilili. XIo?ii of tbc Ikk-IIU div ue dni"? 
pn'jn^'uxrs, but fytnr nn- nioTc "r U--^' ir-i-'laiit. iImmi^Ii noi mii*«iniy 
dnngiTcHis on adniif«^ion (o air i-nm-nt-. >-\ncv then (vmptete drj'iii^ ■a' 
conHHpient death occur. Hh-}- an- dnng^cmns only in vaae of iulf 
dixrtioii into tbc ^-stvm tlimugh n>utac-t willi tbe Angvrs, food, •' 
Bating ulensiK 

' rnivendtr Uodim) Mi|!uinr. Novemlwr, IMO. 

> Mollol tkvonl. DmriuIxT 2S. t»».\ 1] 

uwl lii.'iy-il.'i'ltnioklwtkii. XXIV.,p.403; XXV., pL 430 



THE AIR AS A CARRIER OF INFECTION. 



249 



li\'ith rcgar<] to diphtheria, Gerniano foiini] that the bacillus with- 
»tuiKU long (IrviiiR in mcmbniiif*, tisT<iiL«, nml ilnst. c-vcii whtii the 
drj'ing prr»«*?' is atwifiHtl liy sulphuric arid ; anil that iti^ ivsii^tiiiH-e ift 
f;r(?at«r «c<;uixiinf{ Hi the uininiiit of ciivcloiHiig mnlfriul wliirh rctuiiU 
i>\i(l:iliriti. Win-ii frnii|ilelfl_v drv, it ]>n*frvew its vinileiK-i.' ii]> to tht? 
liiiK' it ilies. Hi'Mcr liin lii-liel' tlijit thiis diHi.^iiNi.* itiiiy Ih- iliHHcniitiiili'il liv 
air currents. 

W'ilh r(^itnl to j)iioiimiiTiin, erv.'<i|K>la.t, ami other strejitociK'nin iiifli- 
tions, Germano liiidt thiit the rwistance of the orgjiiii^m In the liiyinn 
(mxif-ss is iilways high, though it varii-s with the melhoti iVtllnvvwl and 
tile nature of the eiivehipinj; inuterial, and iniiv jiersi.-il a nnniUT nf 
niouthn. Transminwion tlirongli the air is extremely pi-obable. The 
fiiplococci, ill Kcriend, bi-ar dning for u long time ; :*i>ine vui-ictiin live 
longer when drial than if moist, and some possess but little rceistanoc; 
but tlif nipidity of the drying pi-ocisn with niedinrn ti-ijijHratniv dtws 
not affect the result. He found that the ebnleni in'piTii^ni retains it« 
viriileiirt- only no long as it n^inainri moist, and dies ijoiekly on drying, 
[Mirticularly if the prows* i* htt»te»e<i. He coiielndtil tiiut dis^eniinu- 
tioii hy air is nia>*t highly improbable. 

(Jerraano'i work witii the plagiif bueilliiK coiifinnH the n'«ults an- 
nounced by Kit:L<tto and W'ilni. This organism does not wttlistimd 
drying, but live^ a long llmi- in u moist eonililloii. It r(-riiain.'> active 
fairly long when drie*! on cloth, Iwcause then complete drying rw|uire^ 
a long time, iind thus m;iy In* e.'C|iliiiflod the daiigi-r of infwtion reoog- 
nized to exwt in infected clothing. 

OrrnuiniiN fxperinients wilh the diplocooen.s of epidemic cercbrtv 
spinal meningitis agree in results with those of Jiiger, who found the 
orgituism in tin active etmdition in a handkiTi^hief six wcek.x after use 
by a ]Nitieut sick with the diwiiw.-, Oeniumo showi^ that it Indongs to 
the clas^ of baeteria which ojuxwe the gmitest possible resistance to 
drying, whether the pnH-iTki is plow or quick, and whether iwfisted liy 
the iiction of snl]ihurie acid ; and coiichi<les that it may without diffi- 
enlti' (iitvr the air in the fop-ni of ihist, and ihii.'s .spn'itd the infection. 
This view is sup[M)ite<l by Buchanan,' who argues fix)ni the fact that, 
of (iticiiscM whieh ca.mt- luider his oiiwrvHt ion, .'>7 wen- in nic'ii who 
followed cKriijNitiou* in whidi they were ex|«'wd to du»t, the -iHciHc 
or;;-jnisnis are thus conveyed. 

l*r. Max Neis*«'r,' working in the «tme line ac Geiniiinii, wilh an 
apparatus* of his own de^-ign, which maintains a constant a^pimtion 
i-iirn-nt of ihisiy inf<s*ti-il air, disjigretw as to the pneiiriiiicneens, inas- 
much as. while mice, inoculated with infected dust, dicil from the in- 
fii'tioii without cJciTpiion, 2-1 others, imx-nlaliil with the dnst after 
it had been m>nt thn:)Ugh the uppanitus in n current of air, ^vc ul>wv- 
Intely mtgative remilts. His e\|>criments with various oi^mi^ms led 
him to the conehision that du*1 infci.-tion is iin(iowible witli tin- oi^ni- 
isms of diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, plague, and pneumonia, but 

' BrilUli Midi<-n1 Jounial. S<;pti:mbrr 11. hKH. 

' ZalucLrift fUr IlyKiviiv iind Trileeliucisk rank b<;[ leu, XXVI., p. ITA. 




250 



AlB. 



possible with Staphyiocoerut pyognta n»rvti«, B. pyoeyaneus, B, 
Uuxieu, B. hUnTruf*m», and nK>riingooncciit>^ 

NeM^tV)^ coofldf^mtM, fo far ai- tUey relate to diplithf^nn. are op[ 
tn the reniiltA aliiiiinod liv Uiohanlii'ro and Tollciiu'r,' \\\ut itnuU'. r ^ti^ 
of c^iiniinutionH of thv iiir uf iliphtlicm uiiixU of tin- ll^pital Tn>i^ 
6cau. In oDe m>t nf fxpei'imcuis, iW ^'ardo lta<) not beL-ii <li9iufK-t 4 
lor wvvnil wifko; 1111(1 in iinotkof, tht- cicjiniinntioiw wm- mwlr nf^ 
ilisinrccliiin had Win <.t1iTi1.1l imt. The n.-Kidl» «howt<) tlml iidii 
di|ihtli<-Hii iMK'illi u'l-ir- |inH'iii in llw »ir nliich had t»>t tindrn.i>i 
tliMiifn-tion. Tile lin(.'lcriolofpi^l tuite wi-rc ountrullvd hy inuaibilidi 
ex|M-nm4'»t.-< with aiiimniK 

Willi n-gunl to (he po^f^iitilitv' of eprtitiling cholvni giMro^^ tliMi^ 
the :i(p-nov i)f' Hi4»vin(( air, Dr. N. William* Iw-n rejorted that, whiit 
tluil iiicniiM hat bttii n-jrai\l«l n>^ «wt fuvoralde, in aitnal cxin-rinuiii 
it finis. Mixed wnth dn' duf^t, tin- (iemis live but a &hi>n tinuMml 
perish ninn.- qiiicklv wlicn a nirrcnl nf tiir is cotHlnclctl ihniugb At 
mteu Wlicn the dun* is diiiiributed thntugh Unv' voluiww of iiif. At 
^■rmn die rapidlv, and whvit t\w iin|>n'^nati><l dnst ii> U-t fall upon a 
(iiitlabtc cullurv, only 11 ven.' >.mall pi-oiwrlion of livinf; OTi^niiaa." cw 
be found. In otln-r wonis, clinli-ra gonns adherent to dnrt [luriid" 
flcMtiii); ill mid movwl about by air, do not niitin their activity for an* 
leufrth of time nor Ihrou^ii any considerable distanw. 

Tlur <'XjKTimvnt* of Honwll * indicAtv (Imt th»- rbntcn nrpuii.-m fini« 
no favoring omditioni^ for it« passage into the air from it* sitimtioDin 
privy vault<>. 

I'iie Mib)<>rt of danger of cbolera infection by (ln»t from baled np* 
yvan considonxl tlioroiijjhiy at th<^ Drwden Cholera ConferenctiainJ'' 
wtm foniid ini)MK«ii>le then to quote- a single cow in which iofSKtwo 
e-oiild be tnicfil t<i this »(>nrc«, 

Aepording to Pr. E. W. Ho]X',' niniiwpheric dnM is lantely rwp*' 
ribk* for the !«])n«d of infantile diarrhcwi in citiw* and large lo"* 
where, from unavoichible caucoi*, the air Ijecomes moiv or le« Wffl 
with filth. He presents evidcnw of the lut^Knation of rainliill ""^ 
iti< attendant vleiiiiHing of (Ik- atiiiot>j)lien; with dintinifliod muttivliiy 
from choleraie diarrbn^, as follows : 



OrM. 



JUBSID 

at[rt«nl«ir. 



Extreme vcun. 
IStll 



18^ inohw 
10.0 " 



1C.I> 



CUbUUow. 



niers. 
Average drx Bam< 

Wtiiar Hiimmer. 
nrirfi >ii[iiiner. 



ABniia) crnnaf t^' 
Ihlfd qmrwr of rt**' 



373 
ATS 



203 
810 



■ QttMt* dm MoHillm tnr<ir>(il». NV 10. ie<Mi. 

* ZelDChrift r^it lI.Tnii-iii- rtnil Irifivtioh-ktiiiikliritrn, XV. (1893), f. 16& 

* Alt»i(«ii u>» dvm j>[itlinlii|;-niuiluiiiiM-bi-ii hwtilut ni T&btiiKm, ISH. 
•P>i)>llclInllh,Ju1v, ISOe. 



EXAVINATIOX OF AlB, 



351 



Influence of Tog. 

I)u.*t niul iniii»tiirtt tup-rlit-r in tho form of Pij; afl'oct tlic hcjiltli nf 
large coin mil nitiee in a niiirkod dt-gree. Jii a wlill air nrarlv or i-om- 
ploMy n:i(iinitt<il witli tu|iii>niis VH|ior ami itinliiiriiii); iinliii:irv iliot and 
^nioke, a fall in ttmiwraliiro caiinios tiidi psirticle of dust aiitl soot lo 
btioome llu- niiclini.^ of a niiniiU^ i)ni|ili>t of (>iiii()i>nM-() moisture. Tht^^e 
counties ilntpletK tn a isliiH- of "iixpcuiiiion furni a inure ur lo(f« iloii»c 
blaiikot of ti^, which impfdo^ dispersion of ilie inipiiritii's givon off 
liy iiiitunl prot'i'SKtw ami a* [iiiidiu'ls nf ccmilnirilion, WhiU- ordiruirv 
coiiniry and weasliorc fogs are not known to fxert deleterious etlecte, 
in ^miiky oiticv, like Ijniidim, the tii-H' \* qiiit'C dit)i.'-n^nt. 

it is a we!I-recogniKed fact iliat, during [wriods of heavy fogs in 
man ntiiotii ring wiiH-rs, tlie nnirhidily and niortaliiy from re.-^pir.Uory 
di«"ase are incn-a-ed very greatly, and that, as the atuiospheri' oli-Jirs, u 
sharp d(fiin(> follows. In London, for <-xaiiiple, the usual deaih-rac« 
fn>ra all caui^i^ has Iwen known to hewunc utinoHl doiiMiil during a 
fortnight of oonlinu<-d densp, smoky fog, and then to return to ita 
normal lignre with the advent of elear wmllier, ihi' ini^ri-iuie being diie 
parlieularly to bronchitis and other affeetions of the r(v|>ir,itory tract, 
altrihiiKil to [he irriluting iiitlueiiee of the finely dividtn] {>art4cle.4 of 
soot and the acids which accompsiny them. 

During the prevalenee of thi<'k fogs, the air being nectwsarily in a 

J nan C condition, it has been observed that the (nirbori dioxide eontent 
inerwisw progressively. During one wic-li )MTiini following bright 
weather, tho air of London ai'quired, in four days, three and a liidf 
timeit it6 normal content of thi^ gti». 

The importance of smoke, both as a promoter of diifcnse nn<i on no 
eount of it* corrosive and disfiguring aetion on buildings, and also on 
nwonnt of the obstrnctiou of light, ha* Iwl to much legislation and t" 
the exercise of inventive genius for deviling moans for the prevention 
of iLs dii^mrgo in obji-etionnble amonntd iiitii the atmoi'|ihere of cities. 
Many patents have been grante<! for Bmoke-eonsuming device, the 
majority of which have bii-n found to work unsaiisfiuilorily. The 
nio«t cHi'ctive invention, which gives promise of solving the pi-oblem 
most oo[uplet<dy, is oni- which h:L-< bcvn brought to the attention of the 
I)i-)iartment of Stiite by Consid General M!1»<)D.' Tliii< pn >»:'*« e»ii Bint* 
in distributing healed and sliglilly ej^rnpit'-seil air through hollow grat« 
liars to the whole lower jinrfaw of the furuacr-. Not only is praelindly 
perfect eonihnstion attained, but iniinen^te saving of expense is ]>ofislblf, 
sinoe what are onlinarily un.-salal>l£ low-grade cnals can be employed to 
grmt<i«t advantage. 

Examination of Air. 

For all praetical puqtoscs, the examination of air may be restricted 
to the determination of the amount? of aqneous vapor «i>d eiirlH>n 
dioxid«. The essential element, oxygen, fluctuates within such verj- 
' Commkr Hvpotu, J8WJ, ji. <9!, 



232 



AtS. 



Damiw limits that it- ftitimation is a matter of pofdv sdenlifie tnt« 
giiul, ttiun-ovrr, iIm- jinxiz^? l< iiik* which (IcnuimU a tuudi h^ 
dcKTK uT tuanipuUti\'e $kUI titan is pcis^>»;ec<d by tbow to vrbooi the 
tit-'k of making isanitari' rjuniiivttion.'i onltimrilv full*. T\w ebief or>E 
«ltuu-nt, nitnqrt^D, i^ prariiciilly cim^tunt in amount, aw) it» dcrtcnni 
lion wiiuld fvrve no uvfiil jmrpiK, ^VhaleA'er is the caDf« ttf ibe 
drU-t«'riii(i.« cBV-ttj' (if xn ulnnwphcfv viiiatwl bj- nwpJmti'iu, whctiter it 
be carbon dioxide or the or^anio matters given off by the body, this at 
luL-t i> tx-naiii. iluil ibr amount nC fuHiDii dinxid*' wrxts as an imk*! 
of impurity, iind that the amount of a()U<vKi- vapor ie of mn<^iilcraf>lp 
.sanitan' im|M>nam-f. In 8^>e<-bil m.-^^ it U iiii{)onant K< look for that 
mwl (lnii}^rou» contamination, t^arixm mimoxide, wbirb, comii^ rvcn 
in verA- small amoimti^ from leaking ga.- pipes and otbrr soorces, exerts 
a itcriilcilly dcb^b'ritwiT' inRnenoi;. In tlK- mind« of many, the te*t ft>r 
ozone is also of importance. 

In aiMiri<>n ii- ctuiiiii^t aDalynU, ibi.- determination of the amount 
of du»t and the number iumI varieties of nucn>-or]ganwDe prewot ma^^ 
be of ioleresi and importance. 

DetemunatioD of Aqneoos Vapor. — Aa ba» Uvn stated above, 
volume of air at a given itmperalure can bold a definite amount 
moUuirv, and no morv, and wbm thid amount is preeent the air i^ mid 

Pn-fli 




to beSMtacatod. TV amiont which a vnlnaK of an- eootains eoaMi* 
tafen Hb ab^Imr baMafity, and the diSemice btt> ye o this and 
^ y^—t which it i» poiMtUe for it lo hetd h kiwn a* h^ Atai 
ill fc ii iM I TV rat>> which itr abinfaitc hnnudity bean* to iu 
onatmt » kiMww as its irlaiin bam'ulity. 

mnrt IMH^tatte of Mafstsr* trr Wai(Ua|. — Prefiai* two widfr- 
tBaatbnl Sask* of abo«rt 150 «c- ""f**^ ™ ^» (dUmwf mannrr: 



EXA.VL\ATtOy OF AIR. 



233 



Pruvidf i-ach with a tightly fitting rublxT stjjpper with two perforations, 
through which arc iiir-frunl iw<' jiiti'CH oi' gla.-f> tiihing Ix-iit at ii right 
Hiigk-, Olio iif those reiu-hc" tu tlit- biilt'im of tlii' Husk, imd si.-rvrs as 
an inlet ; the other extends only a whorl diwijince Iwhiw the ftto|)[H'r, 
:iiid »crv(.i> il* itii inillt'l. Fill tin- tliLikn with i^imill pii'iv.'' I'f iiiiiiiira 
wlii<:h have bwn halted to a high teiiijwriitdre over a Ittinnen burner, 
iIni[)}Hi] whil<- hot into ■■<>ii(fiiliiile<1 .Hiil|ilinri<r acid, n-auivi-d thcrdi'Diu, 
and i|iii<-kly dniincd. The two flai^k^ thus tilletl, and with !-tiip{R>rii 
tightly Inscrttil, urtt tlii-ii lo ?«e tionneeied hy nleau^ of a shoit jiiw-e of 
nihbcr tubing, the inlet of one joining the muh't oi' the othei'. They 
are then weighcil. The flawk with the free outlet tul)e is now to be 
<-onn(i'teil with an aj-jiinitor, by niiiiiis of wliii-li from 20 to ■'»0 lilvn* 
of air art- drawn llirough. As the air oouie'- in contact with the |iiniiiee 
Mtlnnitcd with Mdphunc acid, it* nioii^tuix' l' iiliM>rlKvl and rt'tnine*). At 
the eX]>iration of the aspirating piiicoss, the flasks are disennueclwl from 
llu' «.-s[3inilor and ii^iin \vi'i<i;lK'ii. The inorejL'^ in weight rejirvscnts 
the aniouni of moisture in the volume oi' air 
nmil. Theap|NitatiinH.->hown in i'"ig. !'. Know- 
ing the tenijx'i'itture of the air, one «iu then 
ea-ily determine the ivlalive humidity by refer- 
enec to the table Ik.'1ow, wliieh gliowi* the maxi- 
mum humidity }>osnibleat different teni)>er)itures. 

TAfiLK OF MAXIMUM WATER CAPACITY FOK 
TEN I-ITEKS OF AIM. 



Ttrnptr*' 


Com- 




Tfmpcn- 


rum- 






•fioiiilIni 


(•noM- 


lun HM1I1- 




Onn*. 


—10 


14.0 


ao2i 


13 


65.4 


0,113 


— 8 


17.6 


0.027 


14 


4;.2 


0.120 


— 6 


21,2 


0,082 


15 


U).0 


a 128 


— 4 


24.8 


0.038 


U 


00.8 


0.136 


^K.S 


SM 


0.044 


17 


62.t! 


0.145 




3S.0 


O.MS 


18 


(H.4 


0. lai 


^^^" 


S8.8 


0,062 


10 


66.2 


0.182 


2 


36.4 


a.(m 


20 


B8.0 


0.172 


3 


SJ.4 


aoao 


21 


W.'i 


ai»2 


4 


3»,2 


0,004 


23 


71.6 


0.1 03 


6 


41.0 


0.0<[S 


-23 


■;3A 


0.204 


S 


4a.H 


0.073 


24 


l&Ji 


0.214 


7 


44.0 


0,077 


2fi 


77.0 


0.229 


8 


46.4 


O.0SI 


3fi 


78J* 


0.242 


B 


48-a 


lt.OM.1 


27 


saa 


0,2.'ifi 


10 


00,0 


O.WN 


2H 


1*2,1 


0.270 


11 


51.8 


0.100 


2» 


84.2 


0.28fi 


12 


Ki.d 


UliUl 


30 


8S.0 


0301 



DetermiiuttJos of Relattva Hnmldlt? br the 
wet ud dry Thennometer Bulbs. Tlii> instru- 
ment, which is known also as the psychrom- 
eter, consists of a pair of aiMrunile tliL-rmoni- 
Here on an upright ^up]Kirt.. Tlie bulb of one 
ia free ; that of the other ia covored with a 




I'aJ l;U^.>Ul^■ll■I. 



264 



AlK. 



layer of mufllin kept inoisteuetl by means of a piece of wicking which 
ilijts into II ?niull vwwl of wiiUt hnn'iilli. (Sii- Ki|r. lU.j In a witii- 
mtej atniospliere, no cvai>oraliini can 'jcciir J'rcmi llic wet niii<iliii : hut 
in one not Mitiiraiod, the i>riH'i'.-w jfin* on willi varying rapiJiU'. ]vva[»- 
oration ^ a proce«- which requires hiiil smd wmi-i-s a lowering of the 
leniporatnrf of the moiril .■iiirfact- ; the more rapid its rate, the greater 
tile alls tiiic-t ion of licm. The lirkr the iilinnsphoiv, iho grcuUT the rato 
of evajMration, and, therefore, the j^rtiiter the IJill in Ieinj)eraiure, If 
the ini^tninient if pljuxfl in a »utunited atiiiosphen?, the Iwo iheniiom- 
eters will give the same reatiings ; but in one not saturated, the wet 
thermoint't^T will tiill gnidtinliy urnil the tem{H'r»tijn- of the snrtii<v of 
itxbiiil) \s nearly ai- hnv us that of the dew-|n>int ; tliat is, tiillt. to that 
ixiinl at which air at the inil)e;ile(i tem|K'raIurc in ^o satumtwl that a 
tiirllicr hiwei'ing would lie followetl hy eondciiHition of inoirturc. A» 
a matter of tact, the wet thermometer di>ea not fall so far in a quiet 
air, sinw ils bidh bet'oine^? finrriinndul hy n layer of ^tdigriant xjitnriili-d 
air, and I'eceivo.s more or Icfis h«it fn)m the nnrrounding warmei' 
atmosplien;. Aj^nn, in a Kutuniled al monphei'c.-, the wel tiierrnomete.r 
may stnnd itHghtly higher than (he diy one, owing to the &ct that its 
covering protects it from lo»f of heat hy radiation. 

nLAISH^KS TABLE. 



UMdlDror 
drr bulb 




I RMdtnr vC 

Aty biflb 




K«witda Df 
At J bulb 




VMniit. 


Vautt. 


FmIot. 


ibunwiMMr. 




lbL<rmuiiivl«r, 

1 




ihenuaavwr. 




10 


S.78 


41 


•iM 


71 


1.70 


11 


8.78 


43 


S.-J» 


Tt 


1.76 


12 


8.T8 


43 


2.20 


73 


1.74 


13 


8.77 


44 


2.18 


74 


1.73 


U 


8.76 


4$ 


2.10 


76 


1,72 


I& 


8.7S 


4Q 


2.14 


76 


1.71 


16 


870 


47 


2.12 


77 


1.70 


17 


8.6a 


48 


2.10 


78 


1.0» 


18 


8^' 


40 


2.08 


79 


1.09 


19 


8.34 


no 


2,08 


80 


1.08 


20 


?.)4 


61 


2.04 


81 


1.08 


■il 


7.S8 


62 


zo-i 


SS 


1,07 


23 


:.60 


.13 


2.U0 


83 


1.87 


h 


7.38 


£4 


I.IIS 


84 


1.60 


24 


G.92 


6& 


iM 


86 


I.6A 


8A 


6..Vt 


56 


1.94 


80 


1,66 


SO 


6M 


67 


XM 


87 


1,61 


27 


5.61 


6S 


l.M 


)48 


1,64 


S8 


fi.l2 


59 


IJUfl 


m 


1,G3 


29 


4.(B 


60 


\M 


90 


LOS 


30 


4.16 


01 


1.87 


91 


1.62 


81 


s.eiO 


m 


1.86 


8Z 


1.02 


St 


&3S 


OS 


1.84 


03 


1.61 


as 


8.01 


04 


I.SS 


94 


I.fiO 


M 


2.7T 


6S 


1.82 


96 


\M 


M 


■iOO 


06 


1.81 


m 


IM 


38 


•160 


07 


1.80 


07 


1.50 


37 


2Ai 


68 


1.70 


m 


1..'p8 


38 


£30 


69 


1.78 


99 


1.68 


3» 


252 


TO 


1.77 


100 


1.67 


40 


239 











^1 


^ K.V.1 J/AV.l r/0^ OF ATR. 866 V 


^H For the puriKi^e for which if 1.4 intendiKl, tlii! intitnimcnt is I'xpcm-d ^| 


^V tiiitti t\ti_ 


wet thtnrionietcr t-wwcs t*i fall, uiul th«ii the n>ailinji i>f biith ^M 


^M is uouxl. 


I'Vhii thp-si> iliiUi, with Ihf a.'^iiitiuK-e of Ohtifhir'.-' factors ^| 


^M (*w Uibli- ou pugc 2.'>-l), ihf (lcw-|)(iiiil in ciwilj- «ilciilat(.'ii in thv fulluw- ^M 


^H iD^ maniter : Miilti{)ly the dlfiVrtriio; in the two reailiii)^ by llie lliclor ^| 


^M iipjiii.-iitf 


th(> %iin' ill the tiihlc i.i)rrc.-<|K>uiIiiig to the t<-[ii]K'r»liiri' of the ^M 


^B (liy hulb 


and subtract the product fruni thi« t«m[xtntturc, ^^^H 


I 


TABLE OF TKNaiONa ^^| 


^^K T«ni|Hin- 




Com- 




^^H 


■triimllng 


^H FahnnbcU, 


a^llivm C. nimuij. '" '"'" 


KmhrmliDll. 


dsgrm < . 


H 


—17.3" 


0.046 


1.17 


61- 


ifte" 


0,374 


9.W ■ 


H 


— 1«.7 


0.048 


1.22 


62 


11.1 


0.SS8 


9.86 ■ 


H 


— l«.l 


V.OS 


1.27 


58 


11.7 


0.4113 


lu.24 ■ 


^m 


— ia.s 


0.032 


1.32 


64 


12.2 


0,418 


10.62 ■ 


^1 


—15,0 


0.054 


1.37 


65 


12.8 


0.433 


11.00 ■ 


^1 


—HA 


0.0fj7 


1.45 


66 


las 


0.449 


11.40 ■ 


■ 


—13.8 


0.060 


1.62 


67 


13.9 


0.46S 


■ 


H 


—13.3 


0.062 


1.57 


S8 


14.4 


0.482 


12.24 ■ 


H 


— HU 1 0.065 


1.66 


59 


15.0 


0..'i(Xl 


12.70 ■ 


H 


—12.8 


0.008 


1. 73 


BO 


15.6 


o,r,]8 


13.16 ■ 


^1 


—11.7 


0.071 


l.SO 


01 


16.1 


0..53: 


13,04 ■ 


H 


— ll.l 


0.074 


1.86 


62 


1B.7 


O..^! 


14.12 ■ 


H 


—108 


0.078 


1.98 


63 


17.8 


0,576 


14,63 ■ 


H 


—10.0 ' 0.1)82 


2.08 


64 


17.8 


0.59fi 


■ 


■ 


— 0.4 0.080 


2.18 


U6 


18.3 


0.«17 


15,67 ■ 


H 


— 8.ii 0.0BO 


2.28 


66 


18.9 


0.l!3e 


16.23 ■ 


^B 


— 8.3 0.0H4 


2.MS 


67 


10.4 


0.H6I 


16.79 fl 


^1 


- — 7.8 ' O.098 


2.49 


68 


20.0 


0,Q84 


^^M 


H 


— 7.2 0.103 


2.G2 


69 


20.6 


0.708 


17.96 ^^M 


^M so 


— e,T 


0.108 


2,74 


TO 


Sl.l 


0,733 


18.«S ^^1 


^1 


— 0,1 


0.113 


S.87 


7X 


S1.7 


0,759 


19.88 ^^M 


■ as 


- 6.6 


0.1 IS 


3.00 


78 


S8.2 


0.785 


19.94 ^^H 


^M £» 


— .iO 


0.123 


3.12 


7$ 


S3.8 


0.812 


S0.«8 ^^M 


^1 


— 4.4 


ai2si 


3.28 


74 


23,3 


0,840 


21.34 ^^M 


^H 2S 


— 3,9 


0.135 


3.43 


76 


S3.9 


0,S68 


22.06 V 


^ft SG 


— 3.3 


0.141 


3.a8 


76 


24.4 


0,897 


22.7S ■ 


^^K S' 


— 2.8 


0.147 


173 


77 


86.0 


0,927 


23.55 ■ 


^^B >8 


- 2.3 


0,153 


3.S8 


7S 


SIl8 


0,958 


24.33 ■ 


^^^ » 


— 1.7 


0.1 iIO 


4.06 


79 


86.1 


0,(190 


^■>.1.S ■ 


^B so 


— l.l 


0.167 


4.24 


SO 


28.7 


1.(121! 


25.98 ■ 


H 


— 0.8 


0.174 


4.41 


81 


27.2 


1.057 


26.«$ ■ 


■ 


— 0.0 


0.181 


4.00 


8S 


S7.H 


1.WI2 27.T4 ■ 


^M 8S 


+ 0.6 


0.188 


4.78 


83 


S8.3 


1.128 ' 28.65 ■ 


■ 


1 1 


0.106 


4.03 


84 


28.9 


I.lei5 , 29.59 ^^M 


^1 8S 


I.T 


02IU 


•VIS 


85 


S9.4 


1.203 3»..» ^^M 


^M sa 


a.2 


0.212 


3.38 


86 


30.0 


1.242 1 31.5a ^^M 


^M 


2.8 


0.220 


5.fi8 


87 


3ail 


1.292 1 3.-<.sa ^^M 


^M as 


3.3 


(1.329 


b.82 


8H 


31.1 


t.%>3 33.00 ^^H 


^B 


3.9 


0.238 


H.04 


89 


.•il.7 


1.306 34.69 ^^H 


^H. 


44 


0.247 


6.27 


90 


.^a 


1.410 35.81 ^^H 


^^C 


&.0 


I).2.*i7 


fiA3 


91 


32J) 


1.+.M 3i!.95 H 


^^P 


&6 


0.267 


6.78 


92 


33,3 


1.501 ', 38.18 ■ 


^F 


6.1 


0.277 


7.04 


83 


S3,B 


1.548 


30.31 H 


■ 


6.7 


0.2»< 


:j2 


»4 


34.4 


1.596 


40.n3 ■ 


H 


7.S 


0.2fi9 


7.39 I 05 


35.0 


MI46 


41, Ml ■ 


H 


T.8 


0.311 


7.B0 1 96 


S6.6 


1.697 


4a09 ■ 


^^_ 47 


8.3 


(1.323 


aw 97 


S6.1 


1.749 


44.42 ■ 


^^K ^ 


8.9 1 0.335 


8.51 98 


36.7 


I.80S ' 4Sl77 ■ 


^^V * 


9^4 0.34S 


i.U 99 


37.2 


1JU>6 1 47.14 ■ 


^^^ » 


IOlO 0.361 


9.17 1 100 


3T.8 


1.911 1 4&54 ■ 


L J 



25C 



Kio.ll. 



Having now dctcrminoil the dc-w-pnint, tlic i»ox( !*tc|i tn i»i uMVrtiiin 
tlii> plastic t«if>ion of tlie \'apur pret^cnt in th« air, that i», llie ti'tiskm 
of the <Iew-|>niiiI, 1111(1 ttu> U'li.iion <>rthitt nt^t^wiiri- lor SHiumtinii at tiw 
lrm|H'r,itiin:' nf tlie ilr)' bulb, which data can hv ubtaitml by reference 
to the tilhlf oil |iug«- ;i.Vi. 

Krojii liitsK- ncvi-rjil <latii llic n'lativt- humidity is ralctilated a* fol- 
lows ; Oivide thf tension of the dt'w-[»oiiit by that of saturatiim at the 
aetiiii) tem|H--niturc, niid niiilliply by 100. 

Example : 

RcnitiniE of dry ba!b — HT* 
I{«iilinK nf wel biiQi - 62." 
Ik'w ixiSiii = fiT— (fiXI-eO) = «7— 9 = 6e» 

KoliiUve hiimiiJiij = "'^ X IM = 72.02 ptr c«nt. 

Up 'hi J 

More u*vunit« determination may be made hy employing the 
** whirled " or '■ sling " tlii-riiKunclt^T'. Thiwt- ne^ IJLst^nm Ui a iitring 
rtf [iiirh a li-ii);lh llial ihi- distaiiot' from the biilb^ to the held end is 
exactly a iiieter. lu ubi-, ihi-y art; whirliil in a honiHiiilal plane lOO 
tinied at the rate of one revolution |wr w'wjnil. By iheir ii*c. tho 

ermra mt^ntioin-d as liki'ly to oecur when tbe 
iib'^-milionf nix- made in i<l!ll air iin- eliini> 
nated. For all pmetienl pnr[iose6, the use of 
thi- thvriiioiiii-t<-r> in the iiniiimn' way ^ivt>s 
Bufliciently aeeuraie results. 

In making ddemiiimtinn^ out of doors 
when ihe teinperatiire is below the freeiuu^ 
|Hiint, tile wi<'k niitv Ik- di.iiM'iiKi'd with, and 
the Iiulb is then wetti-d by dipping it into 
water, the i-xcwss iK-iiig rcmov«>d by means 
of filter-fmiKT or common blottinft-fwil'er, or 
water may he npplii-d with a eamiJ'&-hair 
|)encil. Bilow thi> fneKinn-puinl, hnwcviT, 
thf- rehitive humidity is of little hygienic 
intcR-Nt, since the ttnioiiiit of niiii;«tun- wliieh 
ail' then can contain is but slight. 

A very (•onviMiienl iiiAtnimcnt for quick 
approximate dttenninalinnf! witlioul tiiv 
1 1 (-1 ■<■-■«.■. ily of tables and eoinpntalion is 
known as tlic hypn^phuiit iif Winlock and 
H I idd lesion. It consist* of a |)air of ther- 
riionK't<'r» and a i-yliuder, i]|)on which is 
inserilxO a scries of 2« cohtnin^ of fi^jiire* 
nnnilHTctl fnini I to '22, any one of which 
may, by ii turn of a knob, Ik- brouphl into 
appof^ition with a lixed seale on the easing. (See Fiji. ll.| To a«cer- 
tiiin the n-lative humidity, note tin- dilVen-nw in llic nwdinp* of the 
themiometcnt, turn tin- cylinder, until tlic column lidvinp; at its top 
ihe nnnda-T eorrcspondiug to the dillt'i-enee ap]H-nrs iipp«M^ite the scale, 




I 



tlyRKptinnt. 



EXAMINATION- OF AIR. 



257 



and read tlio ligiiroi^ opjiiiMitv the number corix'i^pouiliug to the tem- 
peraliire of Uip wet bulb. 

Kuadiutc of dry bulli = 72' 
Kcoding of wM bulb = 80' 



Fi«. 12. 



le cylinder la turnetl until oolumn 12 appeiirs, Oitpoaite CO of the 
waif, tlio n'si'ling U 4(i ; and llii.* i.-t njiproxi mutely tliu {wrwHtup- of 
Baliir.ition pri*eiil. 

Determination of Carbon Dioxide. — For thv c-Mlix-timi itf .-MmipUK 
of air for tliis dileriui nation, it !» well to provide ii number of bottler 
tif iilxiiit » fpilliiu i-inHH'Itv. Tliiwt- slxiiild, lirsl of all, Iw iiiiiisiiiTd 
very caivfully. This may be done by filling lliem witfi iw water anil 
noting tb(t niiiiilKr uf i^. ifijuired, or by deteriuining by nieann of plat- 
form scales !i«'nsitive to 5 grams tlio dilferenix; IkjIWi-cii tiieir weijjiita 
i'niply mill lilbfl. It is well to plaee a dir.tinfrLishit)jf number ami iho 
figuri's ilenoting it-' wipufity on «ii'ii IwilUf, liibir on ii laUl, or, Inllcr, 
by uic9in!« of a wriling diamond. WTiea used, tJie bottle aboidd be 
perft-olly cktin and diy. 

When it is net-ei^sanr' to employ the Aam« bottle again, time being an 
objwt, tile ilrving pnxv.'s is biL-itcncd vcrv inu<-li by wifliitig tirsl with 
water, then with n little uleohol to remove tbe cniaH amount of water 
which will nor dniin away, aii<l, llnally, wilb a little ether for rlit- rtv 
moval of the re><i4lunm of aleohol. The small amount of adherent etlier 
mav then Ih.' remov^il bv blowinfj a (■iirrriit of air 
into tbe bottle bv nieaiH of a Iwlloww, A numlwr 
of tightly lifting riibl.n-r eiip« should Ix' providiil 
in place of corke or rubber stopjjers, though if 
Ui'»4r lire* not at bund, ihi- lalt<>r may lie nst-d ; but 
note !^liould Ix- made of the Vfihmic of air which 
they diriphicf whin ihey aro inserteii. 

Solutions Required. — I, SijumnN of liAWtrM 
Hydratf. — Ditwolvo about 4,.t grani» of liiuium 
hydrate ami O.o of barium chiori<]c in a liter of 
dixtilled water whieli previouwly has iKfii boilc«l, 
in order to (.'Xiu'! any rjirlmn dirixi<le which it may 
contain. It i.« well to preiiai-e an amonnl siif- 
fieicnt for fnturt' mi-d*, «iy 1 liter!?, and to keep 
it in 3 bottle <uch ae is shown in Fit;. I'i. This 
is jinividdl with a rnlilKT -tf^ipiMT with two |ter- 
furationic, through one of which a bent tulx-, reaeh- 
injj til the lM)ttom, and intende<I for witlidiiiwal 
of the reagent, is inserted. Through the other 
is carried a tube ext^-nding only into the neek, 
and I't^mmnuicating at it« miter extrr^mily with 
a U-tulte lilied with pieei-.'i of pumice Koakcl while hot in a strong 
iitJution of caustic potoah. The deliver; tube i»iTic« at its outer 
17 




Boltic for bnrliin 
lil<lnt«. 



25Si 



AIR. 



eud a )>icc« of clcMely fitting nililMT tubing, vrhi<-li in kr[K clawed fr| 
im-afw <>r n pinfhc«>ck. 

Ill witlidrawiit^ th« ruigent f4>r ane, a I0<> m-. ]ii[>i-tli* U inseitrd 
itil<> Uh* fnv rnd of thi- nibbrr tube, Htctinn U kjiiiIimI, anil tlv 
panchoock U (ipen«l. When iW |>i]>ettc is tillwl ti. iIk mark, itw 
fMvsstin' U nituiv^il from ibi- iiiiK-hc^M'k nnci iIh- )ii|H-tu- n-liwnL Ai 
tl>e reagent 'is wiliidrawn, air Hows in tlir««tgl) l)ti- other ujwnint:. mil 
is robbod of itct csrboii dioxide by contact with lIm- (nii^tii- jKitnHh with 
wliicii ihp pumin? Wm Utii rluirgiHl. Ttii« n-ugi-nl iii uttA ("t tW 
ahx>q>tion of tin' rarlMni dioxkio coutaiiiwl in tin- Min)]ile of air under 
t'.viiiiiiiuilion. TIh' rtiK-tiou i» rxprvKM-d by tl)c following fomiub: 

IWl,!!,- CO,=B.t<\+H,0. 

The fiiiM^ion of tho hsrium rhioridfl b exp(aitH<d 1>r]ow. 

2. f*rA\T»ABD SoMTioN OP OXAi.ir ActiJ. — I>i>»ol\-i- 2.R08 pnini* 
of pure nxniio ucid in a liter of diiitilird water. One oc. of ihii^ m<1ii- 
tton U <<i[uivulpnt to (t.H 4<e. of ciirlion dioxid** ; tlinl in to !<sy, ^<ll 
nmtralin- t)ie mnie amunnt of ImHum liydrute as will combine iriA 
carbon dioxide to form bariiiiii cartionaltf. 

:t, SoMTION OF FllENl>I.I>IITIIAI.EI>'. — Dtt*«lve 0,5 (tlBDl rf 

plu-iHilphlhalein in UMt oc. of ali-otiol. TtiLi Miltition i^ ib«tl wU 
"indicator" of tdkutinity. 

FroMBs of AsalyaU. — The pro«?ss of aaalyBifl depends iipoo tbr U 
that hIhii a volimic of tlH> t»riiim Imlnilr M>luiion i* bn>tighi inl' 
cudIjM with »irb(>n dioxide, ib' nlknlinity ic diininiiibe<l by tli'.- f"noi 
tion of iKiriniu rarlioiiiitc, wliirh i> a iit'titral Ixxly. Tin- gn-aM ll> 
amount of uirbon dioxide to wbtcli tl ii^ expiiuetl, tin- gn-att-r will be li 
mliiction of its alkaline stn-ngth. A pivJiininary iU-ttTTiiinnli<>ii'i 
tbf iitnonnt of nxiilie arid Hilution wlm*]! 100 cc. of the niip'tit i*i 
neiitRiIi»> )H niaik' by titrating '2'i ec, eontniricd in an Krli-nmeyer &ii> 
and rolontl by nxnnti of ei fvw dro|i(i of tin' phenol plitliHttiii niituti"! 
and multiplying tbe n«till by 4, AtW the rnigvut ba» U-iii ^^'ill 
jfoted to tin- influetKv of llw ga^t in the air iianiple, a Mniilar detentii 
aliiiti l« niadc. The differenw In-twwn the two nviilto, dividwl by 
indicat(« the number of cr. ol' carbon dioxide present in tbe umnul 
of iiir raiployol. 

Tile sample of air is obtained in tlie following manner ; One i>f li 
liotlles above ineiitiomil is phuinl in tlie siiimtion front whieh tiiei 
is to l>e ubtainetl, ami its air content U di«pliux-d by tneaiw of a WIIm 
provided at its oiilli-l with a niblier tiilk' of sufficient length to pw 
nearly or <|nite |o the bottom. .\ luilf miiinlr's [Hintping i» MiRieiFl 
lo insure that tin- 0rigin.1l air is replacvtl by tluit under uhsi*n'nlii< 
Otto i" j(omirtimc!< admotii.'<liii) to lie mrcful iml to bnmtlie in tlie ii 
lion of the month of the liolllc, but this i<^ an iinDi-eoswri' [>rK«utini 
ninw till* eiim-nl i-'Hiing fnin the l»>ltli- i;- ninrh 1ih> |Kiwerftil to ndni 
of the eiitniiiii- of jinv :iir (■xei'|)< that pr<ijH'lhil bv the l>ellow». 
mill li ' i"*'' '"^' i">'' ■• irv pn.>uiutk>n to be otto^>i'V<'d is that I 

o|«>r iw lii- limith to ri-jK'li tW inlet boles of the 1; 



^UitlSATlOS OF A IB. 



259 



lows. AfV-ra Iialf mtmiU-'s [)iini])ing, tlie niblK-r cap U affixed, and 
the bottle luiiy then \x earried lo the lalxtnttori-, or, bett<n% the treiit- 
moiit of (ht- coRiainix] iiii- may Ix' [mHHtxk'il witli on the sjkiI. Au- 
otber iDcthcKi uf coll<«tinK the saniple iii ol^en recommended in jikoe 
of the one described. It oonsisln in filling; (hi- Imtrli' with wtitrr nnd 
emptying it wlicrt- the uir is to Ix- taken. By tins jmxt'm-, the space 
orij.'inaily ix-ciipicd by water is (illed with air, but ihc nu-tluHl is nhjee- 
tionalde In tliiU (he water eJiiniiil dniin niray completely, and that that 
which remains serves to dilute, slightly it is true, the charj^e of barium 
liydnitv next to l>c inlnHluced, and tlitin britigti in hd error lit the very 
outset. 

Xi'xt, 100 (I-, of the iKtriiim liydrate i^oliition an* inii-oilmxid by 
drawing aside the edp- of the nibber cap and inserting, into the opening 
BO made, the jwint of the fill«l pipi*tte, and allowing itj« eontcuI« t*» 
flow nnaide*] into the bottle, Tbe bi^inrier will often incline iuiidver- 
tently to jpiin timi-, and asnist the emptying of the ]>ii»ette, by blowing 
into it, thercliv vitiating his re-''ii1lH w:lh the impurities of bis own 
respiration. As soon as the pipette is emptied, it i» withdniwn and the 
*dge of the cup ir< replaitil. The bottio is tlicri Himken ihoroiij^hlv tor 
about ten minutes, cai"e Ijeing observed not to wet the C!i|). since in lliat 
ftveiil some of ihe n-ugi'iit may cseaiH- by cjipillary atlmeiion. \t liie 
end of that time it may )m' assumed that all uf the container) eiirbon 
dioxid - ha.* U-eii bi-onghl into eoniad with and absorlM-d by the liariiiin 
Imlratf, which ic then to Ix' poLired quickly fnuu the bottle through a 
fairly largi' funnel into a gla.-t— stopiM-n-tl IxUtle of nither more than 
100 oe. capsicity. The soluti'ui, which is now more or less turbid fifmi 
Ihe pre.wnee of barium carbonate, is allnwe«l to stand until, ilimiigb 
wttling of this subii^tanec, tbi- sii{HTnatiin1 liquid is clear. Three 
micoesAive portions of 2-') ce. each are next to be withdrawn by infMin.t 
of a pi[wtfc of the pnijuT siw, and, aller addition of (he indicator, 
titrateii in Erlenmeyer Hsisks with the stiindard oxalic nciii solution 
until the pink <'olor «iu.t(Hl by the former is imuU- in ilisupjuiir. So 
long as any color remains, one knows that 1»irimu still exists iii the 
form of hydrnte, and that the eonlents of thi- fhi-ik art- .siill alkalino, 
for pheuolphtlialcin givcj' a pink tinge only in the presenw of the 
alkalies. When the pink color disap|M-ars, the pnieess is linishttl. and 
iJie nwlinjjof the bnnlte is noftxi. Thcthn-c portions of '2-*i ee. «ich are 
titrated in turn, ami the mean of the results is multiplied by 4, The 
diffV-rcnc!!' iK-tweeii tlii.t jinMlnel and the Hgnre obtained in the pre> 
liminaiy- test of the strength of the resigcnt, divided by 2, Indicates 
ihi- number of oe. of carltou dioxide in the volume of air taken for 
analysis. 

In filling the 25 ec, pipette from the l»ot.lh' i-ontniiung the mted 
rop'Ut, great wire shoubl lie oKservetl not ti) stir up ihe Mtlimcnt of 
barium carlionate. To perform the o|M'riition propiTlv. it is neeessarv 
(« inwrt the jioint. uf tin- pijH'lte welt below the siirfiiee, and to fill if. 
dp lo Ihe mark, or just Ix'vond it, by one iminlerruptcd act of suction. 
If om- Klofts to n^.iin breath, juirl of Ihc liquid already within tbc 



200 



AIR. 



pipette will escape dowDWnnl during llw iiiu-rviii with i^ufficitiit foiro 
to Mtir up ilic ^ttlinipnt. Wbt-o tin? pipette is fillwl, tlit- jwiint of iJw 
lotiKiK- »hi>u](l Ih- upplit-d lit it^ upjMY <-»<!, iiihI tlic tip iflnxild \\v-n I*- 
wiiliilniwn from tU.- bottle Tlit-o bv pWiiig the end of the il.reliii|.ir 
wvor th* opening of the tip of the pi{tett<.-, the i-M^ite <tf ils contiiitois 
pre\'eD(«I. while tlie finvliiiger wf the otiier hand is reptacin^ ibe j>iint 
uf the toD^ie. Tile reason for siieh careful avoidiinec of *tirriiif;ap 
the sediment is tliat the preM;?inv of huriiim rarhoiiale intirxhidP J 
(•liglil i-rivir in tlit- titiTtti'ni. The slight excess of oxitlie acid prwfit 
when the color of ihe plit-tiol|ilithiili-in i» diKrIargwl itttack'^ tin- *iP- 
]h-ih1(hI luiriuni <»i-b<inate, terming iKiriniii oxulate and wttiog ftwlbf 
cutiibioed mrbon dioxide. Thus: 

H^O. + B«COi = B.(;^, + HdO + 0(V 

The fVoc I'ai-lxiii dioxide theii attaekii more of tlte earhonale aod fonn 
btiriiim bieiirbonate, whirh, l>eing »nliible uiid iif alluitiiic rceclion, 
causeii tile ])iiik enlur to rtuppciir. 



>B« = BaH,(CX3,), 



Wufum <ll4iluin 
kvilnlrt Fkrliouilcl 



2Nb(hi - 2ir,c,o. ^ B»cjOj + Orixji + r:«/V>. ■< 

ifoilliim 'Oil II? tButiUB iKoiUun 



Tttt rMMB for ftddtii^ biirhiiii chloride iii inulciiig ttie biriiim 
bydrate solution is tliut nioifl iMiniiin liydnite mnluinis, in udilSti»a ^, 
wnmll uiiioiiiitA of earbonate, truees either of csiistin soda or of cuiwliej 

i>olash. Willi) lillitr nl' tlit':>e !>iibMttiiiov.-( i» bninglil ii)t'> eonlnd irilbT 
Kiriuiu rhloHde, oiuiiiul iWuni position ooetirs, and we Iiave u« rr^ull*] 
bnrium liydniie lUid scxliitni (or jHktitssiiini) diWidi'. If ilie iiupurttrj 
wi'i-e disrepitded. It would raiise errors, as sliown below. The linHiioiJ 
Imlnite noliiiioii when titrated with oxalic aoid would beliave accordiBfl 
to tJw following formula : 

Ban J I 

.jKlnlrt 

In piKcticie a vm- slight vxotf» of oxalic acid !» al»o pn^iut. ni'X 
ttw mieti()n then pi-ocwnla still fartlier. TTie swlium OMili"' irui'k' 
the Ixtrliim <»i-l>iin»te, forming Ixiritmi oxalate and st^idiii:Li .uliuaK 
Thus 

Nt-xt, the sodinm earhouate neiitraliws the traces of free oxalici 
and iinr sur|ilu!i mtitK'n a napiieantmi,^ of tlw [Hnk color and 
sitiilM fiirtlM-r iwldilinii <>f oxHtii.- iK-id. ThiK miMSf (he fonnaiion ' 
nmre siHliiini o\iilnte, whieh in its ttini attacks another )>ortion u^ ' 
iMirinm i-nrboiuili'. with the mnii' ix-Milr.-> a.-< U^fon- ; nm] M>l)iri^'< 
coiitiniuv until lh<- last trsiec of su-^iietitlctl carbonate is deeomf 
If the hydralii eoutains no impurities, the addition of chloride 1 

UUIHVtoMirv'. 



EXA.VI.\ATIOK OF A IB. 



261 



CoTrectioni. — In figuring tlic rt^iilu of tlio doU-rniiimtion, ccrltiiii 
corrections are iieoessary. Firei, tin- vitliimt' of llif liurliim hydrate 
iistil (100 Of.) must ho -lubtrat-l*-)! Ircm the «ijiai;ity of tbe botllo, .-im'f 
it* introduction (iispliipcs an ii|iuil vnIiinR- of air ; and next, allowaiiwis 
mii.*l lie uiadt- fur any dfiiai'luri- from staiiilnril tviiipcnitim? and Iwiro- 
mptrio presfsiire, uiiiw Ihr iii|iiii'iiy »i' tliv wuiipk- Imttli' !:• rcckotiwi for 
air at 0° C. and TUO mm, presstire. In ortler to make tbe newRsary 
correct ii> I w for l4.'Ui|icriitiin' uiii) jircwiiri', tbe thcnnonietvr unil iNirom- 
eter should be noted at the time of taking the nuniple. 

lu deter mining llie ainonnt of ivirrw'lioii, w*- aiv glided by two 
physical laws : that for eaeh dcj^;r«." of tenijjorature, air expand!^ a con- 
Hl&nt friction of itw own volume (I^aw of Cliark's) ; anti llml the vt)l- 
uiue of a gas is inversely |)ro|X)rtionntc to the prcMiiR- {I>a\v of Boyle). 
For each di^iv I'entigraile abov« or below 0" C, air exjMnHlH or eon- 
Iractj* 0.003l)(j48 of it« volume; an<i this lijjnre is known as tlie eo- 
elScient of e.\|iansion for ej-iitigratle degrees. For each degree Falirf'ii- 
heit atwvc or Ix^low 32", air expands or «>niraels 0.002036 of it» 
volume; and this is known a^ the eoefiicient of expansion for Fahren- 
heit dt^wM. Thus 1 lil'r "f iiir, IkilIiiI to -lO" ('., will e\|nind to 
I -4- (40 X 0.00:1<>G4X), which ei|iiids I.14(J.51I2 liu-rs; or heated to 
lO-i" F. (lOr F. ^ 40° C), it will .■x])and to 1 t ('2 X 0.(K)20:i6), 
which equals 1.146492, as before. A^ain, the tame voliimo cooled to 
— 15° C.,will eontrai'i (o 1 — (to y O.OO.'lttii-JS), or W-lo cc.; orwKiled 
to .5" F. (5* F. = ir.^'C), it will lx*omc I - (27 X 0.002030) or 94.J 
oc., a« Iwfore. S<> an apparent volume of 1,1100 ii: at any temjN'nititru 
above freezing is in reality a smaller volume e\|Kinded to that size; 
and at any tenijKrature below. In a larger volume brought to that sixe 
by contraction. 

To correct volume for terajierature, we must diWde the appartmt 
volume by I plus the prmhii-l •>( O.OO.'JHii (S timi> tbe number of 
degrees away fn^ni 0* (.',, or in eane of temperatures below freezing, 
hy 1 minu.t that amount. If the Falirenlii^tt snilc ii* hmxI, the appro- 
priate coelTicieut an<i iJieton must be substituted. Thu« wc may employ 
a set of forniuke as follows : 



For tempcmnircs ohnvc 0" C . . .1'= 

For ttrapemtlHW b«loir 0" C . , . . 7^^ 

For tempeniUim. titwuv 32* F. . .V^ 

For (fliiilH^niliiivj. VIiw a";" F. . . . F = 

In the above, I" = correct volume. 
}''= ap[)art!nt vohinie. 



V' 



1 + 0.00iiAM&C* C 



I - 0.003iMt8.f a 

I" 

\ 4- 0.O02030 '((• F.— 38) 
V 



I— aoo2oa6(32— rF.) 



Ina»muel] as volume is inversely proportionate to pressure, the true 
volume at any otutwvwl itremurv in obtained by multiplying the 
a])parant volume by the banmietrie pressure expressed in millimeters 



S62 



AIB. 



or iiifhi'B, and dividing the pr«du«* by "GO or by 20.92, t» \\tt «* 
niHj- U'. W'l- iiiny uw, iliwi, iliis tuntiuU: 

»- »" X a 

TOO 

Applying it, vre lind that an appareat volume of 1,000 o& at "■'>(' mni. 
\uvtmw* 

790 

or lining tlip othor «<«!(■, (lie barwmelor btMiidiiig «i SS-IS tiwhi» (29.M 
in., T-3U mm.), il l>oooiii4w 



! = S3;<v. 



If tile Uiroini'tcr rwidN Uifiher than the stiindani pi-ewmtv, tiic inir 
voiiitrif will Ik- nrwirt-r thuii iIk- iipjutri'iit. 'I'liii.i, .Hiip^MK-t' the pnwurr 
to be 'AQ'l'l iuc-lu>H, tlieu 1,000 cc. will reprc>*ut 

j,oooxaaa3^,o,o^ 

InKtt^'iid "f going thnni;;h iwo M-niimtr lulvidntioni*, wc may miw 
Itoth correct ionx iit (iiict- l)y mennfl of one furntiila uhi<rh i« u ■.'••iiibiii*- 
tiiiii iif tlif twii kiwlt iilnwiy umkI. For ti-ni]H-mtiiri?< »l>ove ^' ^' 
tlw t-orrcot volume is obtuiiml by niuin^ of tlie ibiluwing : 

V'y n 

(1 t-0.0036tlM.(*| TW 

By changing the pluR »i}cn to initniN, itic formula is adH|tted to tfU- 
pemtunw ImIow (hi-^inK- If the Kalirenhcit tlicrinomctw i^^ iwd, siwl 
the barometric prewture i» ex[HVSH<Ml in inolicH, the lorniula i* asl^i^' 
lows : 

[1 + Ci.0020Sfl (l» F. - 38)J »,9S 
and if the leniporatiiro i» Mow 32". it must Ik- cliRngvcI to 



V=; 



twltf 



k 



n - 0.002036 (Sa - (• F.)] »i92 
In thtiH' formiilie; 

V = ponvct volume. 

V = np|mn-nt volnmc. 
B := iMininirtric pressure. 
f = temjuTalnrc. 

In onier to avoid the tediniiA prooe»^ of miilliplicnlwui iind divisi 
wliicli the working of tlit-.-i- fonnnlir itivfilvcv, ni'uiirM' may In- ti»I 
tht' admimhli- tnbli-N of I>r. Wii!t*-r Ile^-ic,' wherein t-au W fiwtiidlll 
(iirroelion to he riiiulc fiir till tem|X'niturcH lirtwwii — 2^ «ml -V)' t 
and for all prcMurc^ bctwecu 1380 and 770 mm., by simple ivltrnK 
to the projwr o^lumn. 

' >ni kiu liuliiclion oinm (>niivoliinioi>H auf 0° iind 7iI0 iiini. Itnii^wick, 1^ 



A 



KXA.VryATIOX OF ATR. 



v= 



Fnt all pimt^timl piirptiseti, the ooettioicnbt of exjuui^toii may \w 
^hurtonnl to O.Uii3(J(( jind 0.iW!r2. thus uvuiilin^ mucli li^tiriti^ which 
hint very litlU- infliii'iiM' im ihc i-ml i*sulis. 

Example of Method of R«ckoiuiig CO.. — <'n|Mu.-ity ol' Aimptt; bottle, 
;1,SS.", (■(•. '2-'i <•«. of buriiini hvilratt^ soUition rwjuire *J 1 cc, of ittandarti 
KohitiDti of oxnlic iii'iii, hi-imc 10(i (■4'. ^^ 84 tv. M'Ut (■ontiul, 2-j cc. 
nijiiire 17.^ <v. ; 101) cc. ri><|nire i!H.8 cc. 

DitfiTciiw in oxalic uoul nijuinni ^84 — fJS.S ^ 15.2 u«. 

1 a?, of osalic ackl sohitiou =; O.Soc. of CO,; licncc, 15,2 cc.=! 7.6 
«•. of CX>„ 

The air in the bottle coiituiiiitl, ihcn-fore, 7.6 ec. uf CO^. 

Detcrn I illation of volimit! of air takoo : 

Caiwi-iiv of lp.iir.ltf =3,885 

Ainoiiiii 'jf Iwriiim s"liitinn ^= UK) 

Apimn-nt volume of air = 3.7S5 

Obwrn-d I ui rum if Irk- jiriwitn'e 21'.lW liicheB. 

OWrvul tffiiipumiuie ^ U-** F. 

3,785 XjW.tH) ,^ _ U-ifiSR _ ^ n2,03fl_ 

[1 + (0.002(186 X 33)3 X W.91! 1.0«7I*(8X2».92 31.113 
.^t.'MK) fv. ^ xi'IiihI nir vnlumn exnniinnl. 

Then 5,509 cc of air cuiiluii) 7.U cc. uf CO^ II licingciijitomary to 
exprcita nisults in jmrts ptr ll),00(), thia rate ia determined an follows : 

3,609:7.6 = 10,000:1 z = 21.6S. 

Hciu-c the air contiiiofs 21.1)6 vnliimi.s of f'O^ in 10,000, 

Detenuiiiatios of 00, by Wolpert'B Method. — This process is designed 
for what may bo allied ronphly appnixiinnlr work in Uvtiii^ the air 
of sehof)! rooms and similarly crowded spaces. It reijuircs no ehcmioal 
training on (he (Mirt of the iijK'nitoi', iiitd for pnietiral pnrjiow.w gives 
fairly ■^itisfactory result.*, indicating that the air i^i gowl, fair, poor, or 
vory liail. 'I'he n]ipiinitii.« cijnsi.-^ts of a graduated gliHs cyliiKler 
with a movable piston reaching to the bottt>m and kept in proper 
position liy ii mftHllie cup, through tho center of which the shaft pro- 
tnidc^s. The shall i'^ a s;Ia».f tnlie of luirniw ralilier, ojieti a) both ends. 
The roay^eiit used is a nlan<)ard solution of alkali, oolorwl with pheuol- 
)ilithiili-in. 

In making a test, the piston is removed and 3 cc, of the solution are 
introdmivt iiiio the i^'linder by meiinH of a |iij«'tte. The i)i.stoii i.s rc- 
plaecfl and prcssetl down until nil air is exiK'lhil tliroiinh the shaft and 
the liquid ap|M«rs within tin- liori'. The piston i." then dniwn np until 
it-« lower edge is opposite the fii^sl mark, and ia the pnM-iN.« the .»p(ice 
jfo made is filled with nir which enters through the shaft. The appam- 
tils is now whaUeti vi'.rnriiii'ily fur one minute. If the liquid iK^eome* 
et^orle**, it Is prui.l' ihat the air of the room Is liad. If, "U the other 
hand, the color jK-rsisIs, tin- ]iiston is nii-ed to the next grndualiiin, 
and the shaking is renewed for another minute. If ihe rwigent still 
retains color, the |iiston is mi.seti further and more air is adniittod. 
The priwcTt^ is eontimieil until repcati'd addition,-* of air mid reiiewcil 




2«4 



filmkit^ cause the color to be dificWrgetl. At this ptiiiit, tlir ruviin^ 
of t)i«> .-wiiltr indiintcs llw dwniclrr of Sk uir. Tin- pnwlpr tlw uniuul 
uf air iTijiiircd for n'liiplctf ilt«ol<irimtinn, tin* Ivi^ iIh' R'tittivr lunminl 
of impiirily. TIh' n)>|i»niUL-< it> ^hown in V'tf^. M'i. 

D«toTiiunation by Fitz'B Method. — A tinNlilii-uli"!! of tliin jiriKi-v-, i^v- 

itifi n^uUs wliicli line iu dcxn.- agivitiieiii witti parallel aimlvNf lii i!« 

PcUi-nkufvr nit-tliud atwvc (luwribt'ij, Itm^ b»ii> ck-vUntl liv I)r. fi. \^. 

Fitit.' The ajiparatus is verj' simiile, and ouo^i^ti^ of a »iiibII cjliiiiirt 

of fihu^ with n roiimUfl iHitloiu, and n ininullcr niim km 

Flo. 1!L which slipt^inio tWoth^rthrougti ii collar iifnilitH-rtutNng 

which makcH a light joint. Ab the inner cyliindirr ie 

dntwD out, sir «ntcn ihnHtfHi itf ti|>]xT cud, anA i>i 

amount i.* niniAured by the gradiifltious on tlw 'Ptittf 

tiilx", llw lower niuri^in of tlic iniw-r lul* s^r^ing (f w 

index. (See Kig, 1 4.) 

The rtiip-nt UM>d \» n I per cent, ttnlution of linv 

water nuide lu tlie following manner. Alx>utd5K. "' 

water oontaininf; a few drojw of plM-noliJitlialwo wlu- 

lion lire neiitndinxl hv iIh- iiddition, tlmy l>_v ittif, ff 

lime water, whieh causeci a pink color Itiat at fini '''*■ 

ap{xnrv on shaking. As mx»n u." a faint tinge pM>i?i'. 

the oomplete netilmlixation of the ctarbon dioxide of ''" 

wat«r is evitlent. One tw. of imtnrated lime water i* nni 

added, and the whole i» then nuide "]> ' ' 

100 cc. The K>Iiition i^uld he m^v«- 

Deviled, since it reiniiu iu full »4i«>^l> 

but almut twelve hours. 

In uinktii); a le.-it, 10 ce, are introdnfrf ' 
into the outer ex'liniU'r; tin- iniieri'iita 
in^'rii^l «!• far an it will go anil ll<*<' 
mifL-d to the 1 «■. mark on the ««I<V ■ 
whieh means tJw pre(»-npe of 20 pc "^ 
air. liincf the tulie it.-«'lf eoutainH IQj 
The apittiriitny in IIk-ii eloi^i'd by »M 
till- iiid of the fi>n-linger, and A 
vifiurointly thirty time*. If the . 
color persisis, the Inner cylinder is |»imw j 
^_ la-^ to the iHittiim and tl>endniunup 

^firaui'^ q and the optmtion Is repT«ite<] initjli 

color diNijiiHwrs. At this point, 
aniotmt of iiir UKtl ir noti-^l, aiul 
pefijreno' to a table, the number of [ 
nu^.»lr««.ct. j^r in.OOIt i» a»e.r(aiiw«l.* I>r. T* 
aKK-rts tluit, in the hands of an onlinOTn 



,JJ 



Pw. 14. 



h»r. 




c*n;ful man, the proceaa ia aoctiiute within 1 |nrt of CO, in 10,<J 

' Joiirnat of llie Mji«i»rliiuf(ta AiMH-iaiixn nf Itranb of ftnllh IX^ p. \ 

> Tli*jBBM» nw n od iyira|>li-i<7 diitx'tiacu for iwr ar* obbiliuible ot tbe Kni>U Xf 




EXASlSyATIoy OF AIR 



265 



I 



This is subsiaiitbtixl bv Profesiop L. P. Kiiiuieutt,' of the Worwiftter 
PulyU'i'linio IiiKtilutc, who ha» i'iii)ihiy<Hl tin- jirixvN< liiiiiM-])' und 
comrolled it* u«t by others wiib parallel aualyfics by the Pettcukoler 

IIIVtb<Hl. 

I>et«nniQation of Oarbon Monoxide. — Wbik* a nnnilHrr nf ])roi> 

(v*™-^ liiivi- Im'111 di-vi.-iil t'c.r lln- (Ulccii.iii anil deliTiiiiniilioii of <-jii-liiiii 
mouoxiiie, Dono hil^ Ix'cd discivcrwi ai« yit tliiit i* wholly '!itift;ii'ti>ry 
for niher than i|iinlitji(ivc work. The jpi.'^ niiiy be ditocled ((iialita- 
lively by expoftiiifj watvr fontjiiriing a mtmll luiioiiiit iif i'rvAi iiormul 
^ooc] tj) tho air under e-\;iiji inn lion, and then examiuiiig tlie i^ame 
BHth the H|HXT(r'isoti|>e. If tu) i^irliiin mi)ni>.\i(Ji- is [m-.Hciit in tbi.' iiir, 
the charat'twi-itic ah-^tirjition 1)iinds ol' oxylucoiuglobin, *bo«'ii by ibe 
S{HK!triMC(i|M', lire cbnn^L'd to a niiiglc band in the sjMiee lictwM-ii im the 
addition of :i reducing a^ut, «uch a* iimnioniuui snl[)hiile. If, how- 
ever, the giw in priwnt, mi ♦■liaii^* ih-cui'!'. 

The t(^l in applied in the folhiwinft iniiiiniT : A ft-w dropti iif UofMl 
well diluted with water aiv exjHJseirl to tlie air in a jar. and brought 
intt.) intimate' (.'oiitact liy vigoroijK ^hiihiog. A few dnipn of aninioiiium 
sulphide are next adde<l, and the mixture is again well «hakei). If on 
i>)K-ctro«(!<ipi(" oKuniination but a single Ixind i> observed, the abnenoe 
of the gii'i in amount efjual to 3 parts |kt IM.OOO may bo inferred, for 
lhi.-< is iIk- liinii (if di'liviiey cliiiin<-<l. If, however, the eharairteristio 
two bandit of oxyha-nioglohin ap|K-ar, the pn-^encc oi' the impurity to 
that exUtnt is provwl, sinee otherwise the reagent would have exerted 
it* normal effeel. 

Tilt! folbiwing |ir<HVJ's, drviwo"! by FikIof,' U said to iw nf xiifiicdent 
tielicacy t<t deteet 1 ))art in '20,00(t. Fresh deltbrinsttwl bhxHl Is mixed 
with III vohinii's of water and iniroduciKl into a large jar eontiiituiig 
the snciRfted air, \i\vv beinjj allowed tti Maud for about an hour 
without shaking, it is transferred to a small 6ask prnvidtj with a nilv- 
Ixjr 0ljip|M'r wirryiiiR twi> glass lnb<'<, one of wbitJi ilips iHiieatb the 
fflirface and eonnrets at its outer end with a potash bulb conlalninj!: 
pulhidium ebloridv subition. The otlicr tiilN- si>rv<?i as tin iiiitlel, mid 
i«connoctetl with a series of three potm^h bulbs containing resjjeetivcly 
lead aeetatc solution, ilibiK- siilphurie aeid, iind |HilhidI(nn ebloHilf mo 
tlihitrii that it ba'^ a bright-yellow color. The terminal bulb is ctm- 
□ectcd with an aspirator, whieh, when set in iietion, dniws a i-nrn-nt 
of air through the five ditferent piew*. The fla^k containing the blond 
i.* heated on a wiitcr-lytth for fifteen to thirty minutes with o(M>ftsional 
shaking, and meanwhih' a plow cnircnt of air !» ilrawn (liri)ti<;h Ihc 
nppiiRitus. When the bloofj logins to change color, the carboxvlnenii)- 
glohin deeoin|)OS('S aud yieliU it" CO, which reihiec-n the [mlludhuii 
oontaiiK-d in the terminid bulb. The chloride of pallMdium in the linft 
bolb is used for n^moving any tnitiys nf the gas and of other nilueing 
agents in the n«[)ir!iled air. At the close of the oiwration. if the 
blood contained CO, the palhidinni chloride in tlie terminal bulb showa 

* Lom citato, p. R 

* DawUvhu \ irnrlJahisKhrlrt fOr C>flvnt1[cli* (>twgndhtiIti.pllqEc^ Vol 12. 




266 



MR 



u [ircvipttak> of reduced {cillndiuin utid tin- IiijukI bin« it Mimrulnl 
(Urkt^r tint, Tlic I(«d jiifljiri' aii-l diliit'' siilpliiirk- «c(d sor\'e In iwnnw 
niiy trtifi's of i'iiIi)hiirHH-«l liyilmjii-ii »u>\ iiiiini<<nin, botJi wf whicluiit- 
bt;iu<'ei^ will cnii)^- iircripiuilioi) nf iW pallniliiini. 

OtliiT i|iiiililiilivi' li'>l.« of i^mUiTor tcKi (Irlicwv indmlf iW To) 1< mini;: 

1. Mix •') w. nf exjMised bliHHl ■'oliiliuii ami 1o w. ol' ii 1 ihtcmiI. 
Holiition of ttuinit' mill. Tho n-siillinj; |irc<'i]>italc, which mirlwvm' 
tflowly, has a bniwiiir^h-ri'd culor, if CU uuh )>ii-H-nt in thi- iiir ; olbit- 
wtsm it i)* groyiwh-bnuvii. 

2. Mix 10 w, lit" tin- ItliHwI M>hiti()ii with !> co, rtf n 20 p<-rivDl. 
solution of ]K)ta-Ksium ffrro<?_vanid« and 1 «•. of acvtK uHd (I yvji'i 
^liu-iiil iiiN-lic iK-icI to 2 of waltrr). A rcddiKli-bmwii [HVt-ijiiliili' i? in- 
dii.'iitive ui' tbe preiteuce iif the gas, and iine of gray ifh -tin iwii hIxiWi it* 
al).-i-inv. 

;!. tiring t'lgi-tlier ou » i^jrui-laiu plale I drop «u;li of fX])««J Jpfi* 
brinated blood and tiiMliiini liydrntc nolntion of ii Hpwilic gravity of 
1.3O0. With Co blood, rhf color i» briplit ntl, while witli uormol 
bliHxl it ic bnuvniwh or blni-kii^h. 

■I. In |ilitc«- of tin- iiiHivt- ivBpi-nt, ns<'n mixtiifi'nf I gnrt of thi-aai« 
with .'t of iiilclnui chloride colutjon. C!0 blood gives u vnmiiw, uxl 
normal blood a li^hl-Iirown or browiiijih-rcd, roh)r. 

ft. Umw iiir throngh ii tube contninin); a wlutlon of mpnuw dil(^ 
ride, wliifh. in ilie jiriwi-riw <if (X), dep«iMilfi n charaiTterisiic prcdiHlBir, 
whirh, atvii^liiif,' liirth.-lol. i;< (_'n.fl,CX).2H,0. 

Quantit&tiTe Determliutlon. — Nidoux ' has devised u ooloriiiwlw 
nH-llhKt for wliicli ]n' rlniuiH gnuii lux'iirHCv. It is Ihl-^ ujmn (licfttt 
tbul, by the action of carlxni monoxide on iixlic acid, <lelinitc nninunW 
of iodine nrc :«H fixr. Hv comliincft this with iin alkali, aotdnlatrH s™ 
vliukcff out with clilorlbrni or wirbon diKnlpliidr, and then ontuju'w 
the eolor with ttolntionn contflinin^ kno\ni amonntA of iodine, t'""" 
thv fliuonnt of iitdine, the amuiint of CO whii'ji (»u.-H<d itt^ liberaW" 
may l>e i-eckoned, 

fiaulirr' idlows the lilx-nitol iiwUnc to act upon cv>pjH*T foil, »"'' 
determiui-H the uninnnt of CXI fn>ni the inci-ciiH.- in wcifjtit, Hf nl"* 
dMt-nuines the (,X>, prodnwd by the atiion of i<K)i»e jK-ntoxiili' "D 
i.\}; the rwnlt indiculos volnme ffir volmne. l*otain and I>riiiio 
recvimmend s eolnrimetrie method by menns of dilute p-illii'li""' 
eblori'li' wiintion. 

Determination of Ozone. — Tlie allotivpic form nf onypm w* 
upon pota.tiiinni imlidi' in the pn-semv of mointure iind nmvertc it I" 
liydmtv, with lilK-intiou of iodine, uo(K>r<ling tu the folUiwin^ fomiiiU! 

SKI - ll.O - (\ = 2KOII ■ O, + I, 

Tiii-H reaction i!< the l»tjf; of mo^t of tbe pntoemee whidi bav« Ix*'' 
pnijw'*<il for ipi.'tliiativi- and <|niintiiulive detenu inn t ion, mme of wlw* 
may be regarcied tw of value, ■•iniv iliere iia- many sourta* of I'mwl*' 



,<XXV|..n74«i. 

, pp. 871. fl:ii. en. 



< Ibiikin, p. SaS. 



EXAMISATIOS OF AIR. 



267 



be taken into account, sourc't^ im|H'SKil>)i- to (-liniinatt.' nnd of impor- 
liiiu'i* imiwsniblc U> ooiujuite. 

The iinwiiTO iif oxiiiif in the nir !.■« MipiMm^l Uy \h- ilcinonstnvtt'd 
whtn, on exponiire »f (Mtpcr winirat^'il with starch iKistv cniitniniDi; 
(Kttiuwiiini iiNiiilf, !\ blue c-iil<ir gnuliiiiHv it<'Vi-Iii|iii, uwin^ t<i the iiciicni 
of the lilH?nit«l iiidiiie on the starirh. Qimritilalive tleterminatimis nre 
niitilc by <^»in|Kiniit; llii' lint nitli a stjindnnl sinlc, the dt'[itli oC color 
Iteiii^ (Icpondt'iit ii^>ori the iimixnil of iiKliiu- I!bi-nit4^«l, iiiiil t\w n^>ii 
ihi- ainnunt nl' o/jini- prewiU. The |»a)K'r>i arc [nviiarwl in the I'ollow- 
iiijl manner: Fr<nn '2.'* to 10 frmnis of «tim-b iirc taken, awonlinj^ tn 
the r<'CoinniPiuU»tion>* followod, and, after trituration with a email 
itnionnt of eolil wiiti-r, mv iMiiliii fni' about U-n niitititi'H in alKiut 
yOO cp. of walfr, anil lilteii-*!. Orn.- ftnini of |Mita>^iuni I'ldlde in w>hi- 
(ion is nvst iiildisl ^rrtulnally willi oonntant (Stirring. Stri[ih of .-^toul 
filter-jiaper, ivet with di>ililk><l water, lire »i«il<ed tn the irtiirc'h |ire|w- 
nilioii nnril tliey jm- itioi-ouglilv impregnated (about two to four 
hours), tbcu removed with the slid of fnrwiw, "pn-jid flat, iind dried 
in the tlark. When nserl, Ihcv are hung up out of the direct sun- 
light uud expoi^HHl fr>r a dcHnil^- time, then rumoved, NioiHteiii'<l with 
wat#r, aud nomjiared with the scaile. The nbjecti'Ui;^ to the pnx'ess 
an- that a luiiniwr of otbi-r sidit<tani^--i which may Iw. in the air, 
such as certain volatile ot^nic acidj^. chlorine, nitron* arid, and hydro- 
p-n peroxide, ninsf this same chemical reaction; lluit the blue eohir is 
destroyed by other siibftnnccs, iiM )(ulphurcttc<I hyilrojjcn and Kulphiu-- 
oiw aei<! ; and that lljjht, moisture, heat, and wind exert very decided 
(nodifying inliuenees. Thus, wind bring* more air into contact, »nn- 
light blniehi'.-t (lie color, moisture haptens tbe bluing, and heat dissi- 
pates the free iixUne, 

In order to differentiate between omne and nitrous aoid, it has 
been profwutod (o n-u.' ticntni! litmus (violt-t) ]iit|H.'r inHtt'iid of onli- 
nary lilter-pti|n>r in nmking the strips. The KOII formwl in the 
nsulioii will change l!ie violet lo bhie, whih- nitniu.'< acid, chliirlne, 
and organic s'rids will ctjnvert it to red, or bleach it, or leave it 
onchanged. 

Ill "pito of the fallaHw moniioned, the weight of cvidcnw thus fur 
ohidined in onmimetrv shows that the reaetion with stareh is motit 
niiirkitl in jxm- .-or at the MSLshoro nnd at great heights, un<l thiil but 
little reiiction occurs indooi-s. 

Determination of Duet. — Du'^t is dc-tiTminetl quantit^ttvi^ly in 
two ways, auil the n-siilt* are expressed in tcrmt^ of weight or of 
number. In onh'r to tL^ieeriaiii the wflt/fil of the dust eimtaincd in 
im given volnrnv of air, ii chloride of caleimn tnlii-, contaiinng |icr- 
fwclly cliy absiirbent cotton or glass wool, is weighed aeeurately, 
and then altae.hetl U* a WHt<T suction-pump with an air-nictvr lK>tWM>n, 
A large amount of air. siy .iOO ]it«'rs, i* then dniwn through as 

3uiokly as possible. When a suHieient amount has p;is,s(:^l, tbi' tuU* is 
rljichcd and phicid either in a drying-oven or in a desiwator over 
sulpliuric ariil, and kept until il ceaws to lose weight (moisturej. The 



1 



iii't increase In weight represenfai the amount of dust in Uk votuint of 
uir iu>{>initcd. 

To tierermine ihe mimbcp of diiat ]iart)cl»< iu a given volonu, thf 
iiictliixl of Aitkin itf ciiiiilovr-d. 'E'h<- ii])|iiir»(tt.'> iii4-liMlfj< a ■bmlluir 
metallic box with gink's top and l>i)ttorn etched Id ^uiir», InlulbLt 
lx>x, containing uir which lian l)«en IriH^ fix>in dii.ul hy llltnilion lliniugh 
cotton, and is ki'pt sutnnitcd witL moisture by means of wet Ii1le> 
|wIht, a small niawin-d autniint ol' the air iiiicW cxniuiniilion i^ in* 
Iroiliii'iHl. Bv finisirii; tin- ronnEilinii "1" ii jKiniiil Micnuni, tacli jur- 
tide of diiHt liff<iiiit'ii <?oiiti?i! with roiiiIciif'L'd moisture and hem* I'.'ixti 
U> iiill ii|)mi tln' (.-ii'hal fiinan-.^ of ihi.- Uiltiiiii. Tht- number ili-inwitwl 
m oouiitod witii the aid of a magnifying g1a««. The number of pnr- 
tiolcs vai-ifj*, awordiiijf to Aitkiu'^ obpi(-n'ati<)n», from 8,000 l« 1W,000 
|R'r cubic inch in tlit- imiiitry. and from 1,(»00,000 to 50,000,ft)l)in 
oitifs. 

Bacteriological Examination. — The method whieh involv<s the 
least trouble ami reiiniren a minimuiu of appafHtua, and which fur ill 
pntctii'iil piirjWTH'!' givi-* jrrxtiiliwt MalisGictifin, wm^'iftj' in m[h»«ii([ 
^eliitin plat«: or Petri di^he^ for a definite iwriocl, and then oivirili); 
ilicm and letting the i-olduie.i develop. .\ner the pn>]H-r inienal, iti? 
nunilKT of un>«th^ nuiy be eutintid. and (he individual si»eei<» itobtcd 
and fttudied. This method is verj- iweful for eomi»arative work,!!"" 
R->idt» iH'ing givni iis the nunibiT of colonic)' which develo]t iSer t 
given eXjioKure. 

For more uecnnite ipmnlitutive work, l\tri ' devised n pmnew* iif flO" 
tiltnition. A glass tube, 9 by l.fj em., scr\'e6 to iiivry two small filWN 
whieh lire aminged hi the following manner: Tn'o tunall tigbtlj 
fitting (tiaphmgm* of fine wirt- gnnze are inwitwl into llie tuU' ul > 
Idiint midway between the ends. Into one side, a <iiianliiy '>( tine 
ipiinta wnil \i^ jiaeked, and npon it, to kinji il in phwe, juiothcr ■It"" 
phiagiu ifl driven. Above thih, the spaee k tilled with a eotloii pl'ig- 
Tin; tube in now ri'verw^i an<l a .-iecond fiiu-r of Mtiid Li made io tbf 
same way, Atter complete ^terilimtioii, the eoUmi plug in one eudp''* 
way to a ndiher stopper with a ningle jH-rt'oration, through wliicli ]«■*•* 
U glufW tube connected with an UKpiniting jmnip. Tin- oilier e>"^" 
plug in removed anil the piiieeiiB of suctiiHi Iwignii. AVhen a aifc''"' 
amount luiH been ilrawii tlin>ugh, the two fillen* are removed, ew'h ''5 
itself, and mi.vtd witli the nutrient gelatin from which platm aiti"'*' 
to Ik- nuide. The first I'lller slmuld ef>ntain all of the oi^ganism?. "** 
w-cond M.-rving tw a i-onlrol. 

Fieker suggested an improvement iu the eonstructinn of •"* 
fillens Mibslitutiiig for wmd, which to a oertain extent, musk* '^ 
etjionies, pow<lei-ed gliLH>i, which has not this difiad%'anbi^. A >■>"' 
l)etter material is fine sugar, llie n.-«' of which was RUggtstcd li"* 
by Si'dgwi<'k. The advantage of thi« is that it is diseoh'eil in 'i"* 
liqnetied gelatin, and thus disapi<ears from view, and, diereforef 
neither maslcA the cohmies nor run Im' nii!«tnken for tJicin in counting. 
' Zeluchrift fUr llvginii*, III., p. 1, 



EXAMINATION OF AlJt. 269 

iMdgwick'a method of collecting oi^nismH and obtaining cultures 18 
>ne which, on the whole, in preferalilf; to any other that has been siig- 
l^led. His apparatiu, known as the aerobioscope, m a gla^s tube about 
-1 incbe:^ in length, shaped like a hydrometer and o[h?d at Imth ends, 
lie narrow portion, which is rather less than half the length of 
be tube, has an internal diameter of 0.2 inch ; the broader portion has 
D internal diameter of 1.8 inches, and at its free end is constricted for 
o inch to about half its size. Into the outer end of the narrow por- 
ion, a diaphragm consisting of a roll of fine wire gauze is inserted to 
Kt as a plug for the sugar filter. The two open ends are stopped with 
iotton, and the apparatus is then sterilized. The plug at the larger 
tod is next removed and the sugar, sufficient in amouut to fill the small 
tnbe above itM contained diaphragm, is introducfd. The plug is replaced, 
ind then the whole is sterilized at 1 20° C. for several hours. In use, the 
ipparatus is held in a vertical position with the narrow portion down, 
the plugs arc removed, and a measured volume of air is drawn through 
by means of an aspirating apparatus connected by a rubber tube to the 
lower end. When the desired amount of air hiis been aspirated, the 
Bij^r with the Itacteria which it has arrested is brought, by proper 
DUD ipu hit ion, into the broiid part, into which, by means of a bent 
fimnel, a sutficient amount of liquefied nutrient gelatin is introduced. 
The plug is replaced, and the tube is then rolled and chilled on i(«, and 
W aside for the development of colonies. After the proper interval, 
the count is made in the usual manner. 

The methods above given have generally superseded that of Hesse, 
*bo was a pioneer in this branch of investigation. His apparatus con- 
uts of a glass tube, 28 inches long and about 1^ wide, supported in a 
horizontal position upon a wooden tripod. One end is covered ivith two 
nbber caps, the inner of which has a single perforation ; the other end 
i« dosed with a rubber stopper with an outlet tube of glass plugged at 
wi end with cotton and connected with a jwir of aspirating flasks of 
« liter capacity. The tube is sterilized and charged with 50 oc, of 
g^tin, which is allowed to solidify before use. In conducting tiie 
operation, the outer cap is removed, thus exposing the inner perforated 
ooe, and a current of air is drawn slowly through by the action of the 
vpiiating flask, which, filled with water, empties itself into the other. 
By reversing the flasks, any number of liters of air may be drawn 
uimogh. In its passage, the air deposits its iMicteria on the gelatin. 
TIw process has many disadvantages, and can make no great clmm to 
«tnracv. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE SOIL. 

Nixru'iTHKrAN'niNO iIk- <viii.-<lnnt itiid iicneiwiitrily intimate niaaia 
nf iill liii- til till- i^^uil U]Kin wliicli uo biitltl our huliitaliuD^. Inim 
wbtch wc derive in wiich grrat (tart our Mti(>{il_v of drink iiig-"al»'i, 
iiitii wliifli we nut viutt (|Uitiitilii7 »t orpiiiio fillli. suid lo whii-li "<■ 
<v)iit>ign our d»id, the eiilijefi cf ihc Kinitarv ini|iiirtuiiit- i>f (lie ■'■ii 
luiH lint iiiitii witltiii ivimiHinitivvly ikkh'IH yi-ai> iv'cvivwi the iilloiitiuu 
which it nieritf^. Tliiit tlic soil exertti inipiirtant inAtieiieca on lll^ 
jtiihlir luiiltli, Mu-^ nil <);i I )/(■•) long In-ton- (lie time ol' Hi|i|i<«TgU)v 
mid estfiicivc rt-Kwiivhev <iii tlie jiiilijoct ligiire anmny the wrlif* 
itivc-.1t i^i til I im of tin- iiiihIi'i-ii h_vj;ii-iiisl, hut lij- fur tin- fjninteKl port 
of tlu- iittciitioii )Miid to tliL> otudy of tlie soil luu Ihvd due 10 wn* 
sidenitiiinH of public wenltli nithi-r than of puldie licnith. With 
the gnulual ili'vcliijuticut, liowcviT. of ii mow Hccurati- knowlclp 
of the t-iuiww* lit' dii<«w, hn^ eouie iui iucreaj-iug inlen-st tii thcrela- 
tioiw (tf the Koil tci lhrn.1- nuiMw, mid what liio' hithirrto twfl "» 
wthor neglct-ted fit'ld of exploration uow bids Biir to be irell ttii 
tboroiicbly tilhil. 

Tliat portion tif tbc Rirtli's onist in which we s» hypii-nij* *" 
inliT(*t<Ml ini-biilw tin- j-ujH'rtiH.il Iiiyi-r, known nw tilth or arablffwl- 
which ia the rej'ult of the dii-tnt^^itioii of rocks and dcciiy of inin'W 
mid vnpotablc life, and the tttibt^oil, whicli lies directly lienmth. The 
former varicw from ii few iiiclie!' to «<'venil feet in (K'[ilh ; the !»"** 
exteiid.-i fi-w nr many fivt dnwiiwai-d to the hanlpau or othw imp«- 
mmble xtmtiim. 

Soil U » inixtiii'e of sand, clay, and other mineral subsiann:^. '"''' 
huraiiM, or orpiiiip nmtter, and livii^ orpinianLi ; and it \h cIsumM 
aceordiii); mk one or another of it* coiiMitiiwit*! predoniinatR'. Toe 
Lir<n»l i'ln.-«<ili^«ti(iii (if Mi\U ineJudes wind.-, elays, loamh, roarlf, ||IIUI"^ 
nn<l \Mw\«. 

Snndii M>it» mnfiixl nlmoat wholly, or a1 lout more than foiir-lifih^ 
of pure «nd of any kind. 

(if/iy* are stiff ■'oilh eonsirtinit chiefly of xilicate of abimtuum J"^ 
other verj- liin-ly diviih-d iiiini-i-jd loiitiers. Clay exists in jxiptii-li*** 
the r^iiiid)e>t ijox-ibk- ^il[^^ I* very ("he^ive, |mws<-w4-s a hijib di-^nv '" 
pliifliriiy, aiHl piiivf a ven- imjtortant |wrt in detenu iniii«; ibi- fern'"?' 
of Miil*, their t(-xtiire, and their tnimeily for holdiiifr v,-nler. It* |'l»^ 
tioity is due li> the presence of u "mall profkortion of hydrattil .-ilini''' 
iumI ii* HKMlifieil ver}- jthaily by tlw adililion of h*:* titiui a hundndln 
]mrt of iwiiMie lime. It i* eseiisliuj-ly ini|H.'l7iMSibl« t<> Wilti.-r, «■" 
when wet driw with j^rmt tUuwuue. 



laOMt nro niixtiin>» of miiiiI, vIhv, mid hiimiis ; b<-nc« Uieir proper- 
tics iKtrtnkf of the eliarsictcri sties of thcw siibKlHtn-i.s uit-onliiij; in the 
cxlcni to wliii'li wicli is |iii!H-iit, When snnil pretloiiiiuaU-i*, tliey are 
il(«igii!Lt<.>d m- lif/iif ! and whon olay pR-vailn. lln-v iia- known lot hfuri/. 
'I"h*!**' (pnnft, Iiowevpr, have no reference to weijjht, but to llie oilw or 
diflic'iiltv wilh wliieh lliev urc workul in the urm'ivw*^ of :igrietiltiire ; 
and, in<li<t!d, tho^^e soils which are the li;;lite>-t lu thii^ .■^iixc iiiv the 
hcjiviw"! in ni'tnul weight. Since l<mnin a>ii.->inl of varying [Hiiimi'tions 
of the chief coustitiiento, it is obvious that the won! Iwini oiav huvc 
but litilo ."itfiiiHcinKT without nome iinnlifying: lemi, and they are, there- 
fore, dividixl into five elai^iici^, as fullows ; 

1, lloivv dny iDoni^ ■.iminining . . - - 10-26 per wsil. of miil, j 

■ 3. ijHin. crjiibiitiiriit . . . : 4(MH> " " 1 

■ -L Suiidv liioHi, (■onioining .... ■ OO-TJi " " 

H A. I.JkIiI Hinily luani, <,i>nlninin|| 73-60 Ha J 

Mixtures Mintiiiiiintf Ic^ thun 10 or more than 90 jKTC0nt.of tund um 
elaiwed, rc.-[Ri'tivi-Iy, as clay or samh 

ifiirU are niixtnr<^« of chiy, smd, and nmorphoni* eaU-iiim earbomite 
in varioH- ]ii'oiMirli<)ns, and iMiitain, often, ixitafih or [>hos[)hale.« fiMra 
liie fiinnii iind llora of the kiii. Knirn ihcir (^intent of nirlxiniitc of 
ealciuEu they are knou'D often as lime r-oils, and accirrlin}; a» one or 
nnothiT conMiriK'iil [inHloininutis they aiv de-->i^inti'd n.-> chiv inuri, Ntnd 
marl, and ribell marl. All contain varying anioniilj? of hiimiiM. 

Hiuiiim is a term uw.il U.t ile-»iirnH|e llic entire pnifhiet of vcjrctable 
deoom]>< H^ition in the varioiLi interme<liaie stajfcn of the |iroeefi.v It In 
the iwM-ntial element of ve|fetable monld, and is iKiv'i'wrily of most 
complex com|M>iition — so complex, indeed, that it cannot delinitelv lx» 
(letermintHl. It is einnjMised of a preal ninnber of eliwely related 
definite ehcnii<'al (-"inipoiinds, chief anion;; M-hieb are nimin and nlmie 
aeid, whieh are .«np|ios(il to ehaiiieterize bni\\n liiuiins ; hiiiiiin, iitid 
hiitnie acid, which doniiniite tlnrk, "r black hiimii!' : and erenic and 
apocrenic aeid^. Its prinei|)al eliaraeU-risI ie is its high |>ereei)lajrc 
of nitni;;eii, csiKvi^Ily Toiirked in some of mir prairie f-itls .■iiid in the 
"black -oil" found in the provinces of the Ural Monntains, whieh, 
iui-i>nln>^ to Von Heiisirii,' ivtntnins ils miieli iw t~n.mi ."i to 12 |>er ei'jit. 
of orgniiic rnatfer. It* c<jni])lete decay is niosl rapid in warm well- 
drainixl soil^ permeable to air, and in such soils the amount of hinniin 
pn-s4'iit at liny one time will !«? relatively small, while in *oils whieh 
are damp, not well ventilatetl, and, for months at a time, fii»teii, iw 
aeeiiniu lilt ion is favored. While its iihimale proihiets of derny art- of 
the prwitest inip-jriaiice tti vegetable p:n>wth, it does not follow that ite 
complete absenee ri'iidcr* n soil in-cessiirilv sterile, or even jioor, 
provided the ncccs^iry nitrogen ly «npplie<l In the form of Ditrativ. 
But ilii presence is necessary lo the (rrowlh and life pivK'OLses of the s»il 
UuneriM, wilhniil wlios4- a>ais(uiK'<^' many plants wniild fail to ihrivc. 

Peai, mtick, and liumuji goita contain large amounts of hiituns, but differ 

■ ' Zcitocbrifi ffir wiawiuuluftliclii: Zooli^-, XXVIII, ji. 3(50. 




273 



THE SOIL. 



soL-unlin); bi the Miulitioni^ iiiidvr wliich tlic}' itiv fnmu-d. /'oifttul 
inuci result from the inoompleto decay of vegetable matter aiMltr wmt ; 
tXvi fomu^r Irrni iij)|>)in< tn tliut nhirh i.-< Mmi|i:K-t nitil fi1in»iL-< ; iIh' InlUf 
ia less cun)|»i<-t, imt filtroufi, and, when dn', i>»><ily rediicol tt> p«uikr. 
T)i<-y <>iiiiliiiii lull n KMinll iimoMtit nf niiiionil iiiittlfr. liumxu mii an 
i-oiU wliH-h voiiuiin liir^ pcrcentugts of vegetable mould with onlinuj 
Kill rfuisiitlients. 

The i-x|>rv-'^i<>ii locAy mil iipplics to tiiiy kiud uf ru'H flotibttnini 
iii)i6^e»< «r rock, 

(•nitrtli/ mil" »«■ thiisi- wliiiJi ointiiiii iioubic Hmouot*! <>f pBwl, 
which eiinsists of snia)) fra^'meiits of ruck more «r lees wgni liy ll» 
Mctiuii of water, iind liir^i-r mid <niiirs<rr tli:iii Mind. 

Alkolinc or m& moU« an- soWm which eoiitain con^idemblo iim(iunt« 
of Miliilih- .«a)ts, etipccially i-arUumti- mid Mtlphale of indium suid ollf 
of uilciiiri). 

Constituents of the Soil. — The chief eonfltiltu-nt nf the .^^it is »i)ici, 
wliich, it U cstiniiKiil, f'liuiw Hbijiit tw<j-tliirdi<«f I)m- entire winhVifwl. 
Ni'\t in jibiiiidaiice iw nlunihiun), diiefly in the forni of clay (Hlinib-<tf 
iilinnintiiii). JJmc tiiid iiiii);iH'si)i iirc liir^- (v^iiMitiients exi.->tin)^ diicR* 
a^ curl>onme» in the form nf lune^tolle. Iloth ure indiii)>enfable t» tl» 
growth uf iiliiiito, anil linn- exfrt.-i u nitirke<i iiiHucnoi^ on tlie [tiiytic*! 
0)iuMtiiin of the r^oil and (i|Km the prwesseit nf nitriliealioti. Although 
it^ ]>rini'ij>;it com hi nation \a rarlxmate, it exists also lai^Iy ■» |>Ik»- 
pimtc iind Milplmle. 

livm i.-i univcrwuily prchent, and is of v('r^■ yreat importance to npf 
tutiiin, althiiuKh hut ii »iuiill mntmiit ii* iu'wii'd. The rwl and ulW 
colnp* of soils &Tf due lo the presiiice of iron etinipounds. >I»ii|5ine« 
i4tnnd.> .vcoiid lo ii-on in iiluHKiiuict^ Hniong the heiivy mctalfl, hni » "f 
nnicli h'K-^ iniportiinrc. It i* u ixin»titiicnt of nmny pinntf, ni.l.ilih' "' 
tea, diloriiie is not a large constituent ; it occurs chiefly in c-niMBn- 
tioii wifli Miiliiun, {lotHHsiiini, and niafriK-iinin, Its lolal lunounl lo 
Oixiinary tin|Mdluted i^oil seldom e.X(^t>ds y . ^j j pnrt uf the wIioIl-. Stu- 
pluir (Kftirs as sulphides and sulphate*, tne latter iLsually in eoiubint- 
tJon wi(h ciilcinm. It is vi-i^- iiwcusan- to vtireiwhle growth, iii> it i*"" 
essential element of vej^ciable albumin. Phosphorus in the fotni <« 
phonpluile.s of linte, mngne.iiu, inm, and ahiminii, i." aiiotlMT ^vwcnttw 
element, widely dUtribiited in hUiall amounts. StHlJum and |M>tii«iu' 
aiv prft-ent, chiefly in iho fonn of insoluble silicjiUi- and pariH' i^ 
vliloriikit. Thiir tottil in c-onihiiuitiiui >eldom exci-wlji -1 [xt n-nt, 

Nitni^en exii^ls in soils in three distinct forms : prolcids, anuiivD 
and its salts, and nitric acid and nitmtes. In avcni^* KoiU, the I<A 
nilnip'i) is n<it hirp' in .'tinonnt — considiTably less than 1 iwrecnl,— ' 
hilt in fcoinc exceptionally ricli tiumns soils 4, 5, and even |t-r wn 
aiv found. In the oi^nic <Y>nd)ination.-< (protcid^) il is not availnhlcl 
plant foixl, consiHim-nliy thnn- mu.<t he broken up into simple 
in onlcT lo Ik; of ilirect uee. In their decom[Mj^ition, tliv M-eor 
ammonia, \f produced, but not all the ammonia of iIm^ ^oil is from ' 
ttource, for some \)> brought into it from tlte uir tn* rain. And in tb 



THE SOIL. 



273 



I 



secoiid form, aW. it appears In be uot avuElublc lu plant food, hut even, 
an-nrding to JtnuchftKliit and f 'iofz,' fi«*mH to art as an cnorp-tio j)oi.*on 
whpu abiiurbcd by plant routs frum Nciluiionn ol' 0,1 to 0.01 per cent- 
strength. So it is probable that eouipleU' oxidation to the third form 
is nwrssirv for the nl>r«)rptiini <if niiy form of nitrogen, .^s "oon as 
the ammoniii is oxidized in its turn to nitric acid, this latter combines 
with Kodintn, [>otiis.-<iiitii, or uilciuni, and the re.'^ulliiig nttratv^ UTv then 
ready for ubsoqition. 

All of thew <'liaiigc.'» from the complex proteid to tlie simple nitrate 
are ciirriwl along by different griin|w of mit'ro-orgaiiiismw, biit no grwit 
nccumnlation of the end pii^ucta oceui-s, Ijeraus*. while vegetation is 
flonrishing, tbey ari' ■■eniovcd H:» tii^t ii^ fonuiil, inid «'ln'ii it lias (tiis'efl. 
thev are washed down into the subsoil by the riiin and melting snow. 

The nmuiint of orgnnio matter in soils \'aries widi'ly acconling i<i 
circnmstanees, but the amount ncc"?s«iry for vegt-tation ii< quite small, 
although oi-rtain oropn, a.^ tobacco and wheat, require much more ihan 
others, as oats and rye. The !«>il» richest in mganic nmtter sire the 
peat<* and Rineks; uejct come the very rich liimitis soils, which may 
yield more thau a fourth of thftir weight, Friim 10 to l.'i jun- «-nt. 
denotes unusual richness, and about 6 per wiit. may b« regarded ns a 
fair amount for n prtHhictivc soil. 

Phy&ical Properties of Soils. — Pore-Tolume. — In nil soils, no mat- 
ter how tilo^cJy llic inilividual jwrticles are juickwl, there must exist a 
greiiter or less amount of iutemtitiitl simci-, which nmy in- tiUwl with 
water or air, ur both together. The sum total of those interstitial 
sjwci'S is known as the poroKitii or /itiir-roliimr, jind t* expre*'*cd in |kt- 
centagc of the volume of the soil. Its amount depends not ujion the 
Bin** of the soil particles, but upon llicir unifonnily or lack of nuifonn- 
i^ of 6i7.e, and ujMin their arrangement. If we have, for instance, a 

Pio. 11 Fio. 16. 





very coarse soil, consulting of particles of uniform sire in* large ns pen.1, 
uiid anotJicr of uniform particles the mta- of umall shot, we shall find. 
on determining their |(orc-viilnmc. that it is practically the simic in 
each wi-M-, anil is pmbtdjly not far from n thin! of the whole. Packed 
in the most solid manner )iits.-.ibh', which is that in which each sphere 
rest!* on three Ix-ut^ith it (ari-ange<l like the familiar pyntmid of ninr- 
bks), helps support three in the layer above it. ami comes in contact 
witlj others at six c<piidi>l:int jKiints along its (ipiator, a.-« in Kig. l.'i, 
the volume of inrcrstitiid space will cqiiiil 2-J.Oo per wnt. of the whole. 
Packed as loosely as jK«siblc, no thut each rests upon but one, sup- 
' Uniuclir iDfdiciniH-be WixbunachrilH, 1K*.9. 
IS 




27-1 



THE SOIL. 



I 



p«irt8 another, and eomcfl in conlact with but four of its nuiphbons in 
thf Riimc liiviT a* itst-H", as in V'm. Hi, Uw; vulumc of thi? iiiu-rHiioo» 
will be 47.(i4 per c*nl.' Thns a Miii compijsetl of ^i^'Huil fnvins of 
iiniforni >iz(' woiiM biivc, i\^rrlli'i«< iif the i-oiir»on»is of the grains, 
ii [wrt'-voiume of not lew tbao 23.ft5 [kt wnl. 

Tlmt till- .iia> of the in(livi<liml (rr-ainri make.-' no diffeit'tice, may easily 
bt- (Jcmon^tnitwl in a. |UjiiL-ti«il manner. If we lake two eyiindri<«l 
glasH vessels of the Aanie si^e, till them to the saine height willi water, 
fttul tliim tiftfl to the one » nititHDn- of tiirgi- shot nnd to (he other iin 
equal meiiiiTire of much liner r^bot, and ^^et^'urv aw i>«lid packing as p<>^ 
ftible hy gfutli' luppiu};, it will be fonnd that the water in end) eylin- 
diT hiLe riiwn to pmcticully the Ninie height ; that w, that tbv iidual 
volume of eaoh is Hbont the same. There will be, perhaps, some slight 
€ii(l('ri.'nw iinc wuv nr (he olhcr, owing t" the im|M>!Wtbililv of tk-euring ^ 
abMoluie unifomiitv of jMirkiug. and to the error due to the iooquality ^ 
ol' the .i|)jii't-N idon;: thi- fin-unifcix-nrt- of the evliiidcr?. Bnt in nnmre 
we do not d«il with perfect (Spheres or with soils made up of particles ^ 
all of the same sm; but witn umla oonijKuted of angular pienr» of fl 
varying .tizi-. TIk- greater the variation in *ii!e of tln' [uiriieK^, the 
)^reati>r the poBsibility ol' variation from the limits of pore-volume as 
given above. Willi viirying stw, iliv «mnl! [Mtrtirlw niiiy tail into the 
upace? nuwie by the larger ones, and the »]iaees between the new c<;>mers 
may be lreiipa.-wed upon by ^'till :<miLili-r grain)!, and tut on until tlu> 
inlci-stitin) .iimhh' hai< lu-en rciluced to n niininjum. 

To ilhistrate thia diminution in a jiraetiiiil way, fill a large Iteaker 
with niarbh'K. then ]>oiir into It, from a graduate, suflteieut water to fl 
di.H[ilaee all of the air in (lie intemtioi'-s and note the amount of wal«.^^ ™ 
rcfpiiriil, wliii'li U the jwrc-volumc of the mai^. Next, jwur out the 
water as completely as possible and run on to the surface of ibe 
niurhhw n i|niiiility of eoiirsi' Miiid i>r slicil, and I'hukf the Vf»t'l gi-nlly 
ill all directions so as to favor their descent into the sjuices below. 
When all have penetniled that i.«n, jxinr in wiitcr again until it ajt- 
pe«r» at the surface, and note the amount rec|uirL'd ; this is smaller 
than before, on account of diminished air spaces. Now pour ofF the 
water a Mi-tnid time, add Ktill finer shot, uiid rejx'at the i>|H'nition us 
before. 8<> long as new matter can he added, so long will the pore- 
volunie ^liow a diniiinitioii. 

Irregularity of s'ly.v and shape of the particles may also have an in- 
flnenee in the other dirertion, anil cantie the formation of large spaoea 
and iiicrea-Hil pore-volimic. 

All soils, e\'en the most eoni|iaet rocks, have a certain amount of 
|H>iv-volumr, and some apjuirently conijHiet niassei*, sneh as sandstom;, 
have as mneh as 30 yter cent. In soils which are eement^il into homo- 
genenns masses, the pcni-- volume shik» to a minimura, but in ordinary 
soil" it amounts to aliout 40 pir i-ent. 

Permeability of Soils. — The permeability of a soil to air depends 
not, as it might ajifK-ur, ujion the amount of its pore-volume, but upon 



TUE SOIL. 



'lib 



siKe i>f thp intlivlttual .'sibipos. Id fact, a soil of higli potv-voUime 
may be alDi'K'i imperniKilili' fi> iiir in cr>iinnin.*tm witli *»».• yf U^^» [Kirt- 
vijlHnic, as ^^"ill In- .-}iowii ; and the |Kire-\-oliipje is uf itself do measure 
wliiilrviT of pi.-i'iiK'al)ilily, \>liicli diiiiiiiinijiw in iiii cxtruotiliiiiiry decree 
with diminution in tlie sizi^ of the i^oil ])arttclE<s. Tlie gri>uter the num- 
Iht of llie iiidividiinl hjijiciis, tin- ^ii-.ilir the uutiilHT of nn^li'.'< and the 
gresiter the frietioii i>f the Mittniip air; and. eoiivtr*cly, the los iho 
DiinitH-r, anil eon.>*ii(|ui'nlIy the larger the oi/e of the siuice^, the less the 
niimlRT of angles and the lesi* the olwstnietion. A wrie> t>f eJt [KThiieiits 
eondueted very earefuUy by Benk ' with diffea-nt kiiids of »)il in 
eyliniler" of equni height, timiiigh tvhieh iilr whh fnn^] under the Mime 
degree of pressure, yielded the following interesting n?»ult« : 



KitufB of nil. 


IHlIDBlBr uf (TtlO*. 


An- 


Fieante 

ia nm. at 

volar. 


UriB 
llunptr 


»«Ha 


M«liiini maA 
Ooneiiiml .... 
Fine Rruvul , . 
Medium KTBvol , 


Las tluiii 1 iiun. 

) lo 1 mm. 
1 lo 2 mm. 
^ U> 4 min. 
4 to 7 mm. 


Ui.B 
S7.D 
37.11 
37.9 


SO 
20 
20 

•na 

20 


auoiss 
aii2 

1.280 

6.SI0 

1&G40 


I 

St 

9ai 



'V\it\* it '» Hccn that » fine xand with a poix^ vol nine of 5d.5 |>er ocnu 
l)ernjilt<il the punt^ge of but I volume of air. while » ^ivcl of 
nu^liuni coarneniws with much lower porosity penniltttl ilic [nl^^^lg^.• of 
1I,*!84 ttmeo as much in thestimeunit of time. Itenk showed, farther, 
that with soil.-i of the (iner texturc-H, pernieabilitv to air is liirectly jm)- 
|Kirtionate to pn?)fMirc, but that tliii^ is not tnie of those of courser graiu. 



1EMb» of hIL 




Sin* af gnln. 


Bflihl 


1hrit> 

or 


RMlont 
talaBitatalr 








ralumD, 


prHHirc. 


I>UH4. 


Flneund . . 




Lmi tlinn j tnm. 


0.50 n\. 


1 


1 


■ 








\A 


1.4 


Metfiain mnd . . 




) to 1 ttaa. 


0.S0 m. 


I 
t 
3 


1 
2 








3.00 m. 


1 

2 
3.6 


1 
■I 


CoanwaaiMl .... 




I to 2 mm. 


o.eo u. 


1 


1 










•> 


1.01 










3 


2.-A 


» 






2.00 m. 


1 
3 


1 

iff 


fine KraT«l .... 




2 to 4 mm. 


0.50 m. 


I 

2 

4 


1 

LffT 
L'.30 








2.00 m. 


1 
o 

3 


I 

1.77 

2.42 


Mtdiatn prarel . . - 




4 to 7 nim. 


2.00 m. 


I 
2 


I 










3 


2:19 




■Zcil 


ichrih filr lliAloHJr, 


\W p. 3M 


L 





276 



TBS SOIL. 



TXw al>w»n> of auv mnnec-tion betwM^i pniv-votiunc and penneabil- 
\t\- Iia.i' l*een <L(ivni alw \>y \»n Wdib'clikowskr,' from whose re«till« 
lilt- I'olUiuii^ talile has been ooatAracted : 



VauntCMl. 




iOUD. 


lain«iof«lt 
lallMtt 


te*it^ 




AXXI 

35.47 


CO 
«0 

50 
M 


ftOd&S 

OuBMO 

7.3M 

S3.GS)> 


1 
]» 


CgancniMl. .... 
niwgniTtI . . 



Since permeability lUniintfhcs nnth tiDeneiM of textarc, it fnltowA that 
olay and -■'iniilatr ,-<i>iU pitAM?s:i thin jin>))en\' in the Mimlhwr tlvjn^H.-, nnd 
that when thcM.' nrv inixci with xaiidy M>iJ« xhey must iiec-»'«irily le^en 
it ti> a verj- marked extent. But clays and loani? may iNviir in vtiy- 
t>|Hi» cniinlily (iirm, tliiit U, in \itn-v fnif^i<-nt(< nf vuryinp size. «inh 
oon^iitting of tnyriadB of lanall partiolos held tn^ther hy the aid <if 
moisture; and ^uvb s^ils ^hiw u hi^rh jH^nnuihility, due to their tatge 
iotemtilial »*[iuc««, 

Tlie d«^T«' of [lemiPfthility to air i^ iiifluejtii'd V(-r\- prwilJy I>y the 
jniit of O'ntuintil muij'turc. the maximum infiticnec beinj^ exencd 
by dei'idw] Hetoesi*. Thi^ in due to the faet llut the givater the 
amount of water pnwiit hi itie iutei>tice», thegnutix the diniinuljon 
in the tiinKH^ av»iLil)le for the pussn)^ of nir aitd llie )2;rratvr tltc 
oKntnirtion to its mi'vcnivnt. Thus the tfiniiik'tf wriusion of tlie 
tntfp'iiwjt l>y water is etjiiivalent to abmlute iu)|ierra(flbility, eswpt 
when the pressure of nir is .iiiHiciciit to di!<pbe<T tJic wTilcr xnd move it 
along. 

Id the caee of soil* that lire only [mrtially wet, the diminution in 
permraliilitv varies according as the niojtiturc cntew from aljove 1^ 
ruin or from In-low liy ciipilhiry ntlnu-tion fii>m the water in the sulf- 
Hoil. This \h owing t*> the fact that wlioii llic Miil is wcHctI frckm 
ftlKivv hy niin, the superficial interstices are occluded more or less 
completely, and tlie air in those hclow is rcslniinwl In its movwiiont; 
while wlu'U tin- moisture is derived by capillan' attraction, the air is 
di:?iplacctl upwanl, iind ilic siijHificiiil inti'i-stict's an? more or less com* 
pletely o]>eu. The action of downward ai«l npwani moii^ti'iiiu(f hiut 
ixfn invi?li)^it«>d hy Renk,* whose results, in part, ai^ given in the 
folloiving tabic : 

* Beting nir Kcnnlnin ilrr PiTiiimbilitiLl dm Borlviw IDr Lufl: Arciiiv ror Ilvirients 
II., n. t«a. 

' Tlif hriicllt of tilt' rolimm nf rimli-iinl in llii« fij-^rimcm wnn threisfourth* of « 
mrtrr. intuud of ■ hiilf, wi in llie otw of iLe llin* uilivn, Wllb *ii v<iu»l b«uf4>( llw 
mnitt BTiiilil have been niucb larpir. 

' lrtK« ciUUL 



THE SOIL. 



277 



Kalnn of Mil. 



Mnlium gravel 
KiiM grtv«l . 
Cuanr lonil 



Fine tand 



fat*- 

•glamof. 



37.1) 
37.9 
37.0 
41.6 
AS.9 
fi5.S 



UoktiU*. 



ahonnt 
fruiii AboT« 
from btlow 

from aliOTv 
from bolotr 
aWiiE 
from nbote 
ftvjiii below 
ubw-iii 
fnjm nlxivi) 
from belaw 
abwnt 
from iilxive 
from below 

from ibovH 
from below 



Pnauir*. 



SO 

20 

30 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

1.^0 

ICO 

150 

ISO 

\m 

15(1 
ISO 

\m 

ISO 



BMMofalr 



14.03 
13.70 
14.04 
13.16 

32.i').i 
S.33 
1.01 
1. 71 
0.ft7 
0.11 
0.00 

aoi 

0.U3 
0.00 
0.01 

o.w 

0.00 



Permeability is lesaeoed also by frr'exiii(j k'lnpcnitiirw*, by rtM*oii of 
the fact that the coutainecl moL-tiire exjiiiiiil^ abnut one-elevoiith of Its 
voliiiiK! uM it fruczi-.-i, jiikI ho iM^iMi|iii.-.-> ihiil miik'Ii iitorv iijniih- in lh<- iiitci^ 
slice*. Moreover, when fro/eii, the moisture is iii a fixed rather than 
n movable con<lition, antl eau.te.-i the priMliicticiii of a cnmiHiel luaHs 
m<)re or Ic-jw rewrnbliiiji utoiie. The liner the trrain. the more wolid ihe 
I>r>nliiet, .ind the (jrtiiter the (UniiiiulirKi oC [n-rnieabilily. Keiik ' ilcttr- 
nitiietl the di mi nil lino in the ])ermeiilMlity of uoilfi of different ^rain bize 
due to freeinng, as follows : 



Kalnn of Mil. 


ScmrM 
«f motiUiTft. 


renuMbllilj. 


DliiiliiDtlaB. 


MolM. 


troma. 


" " 


fpiiii nb>«-e 
" Iwiow 
■' fibove 
■' lu'ltiw 
" nboTe 
" bolow 


1-1.(13 
13,70 
13.10 
law 
1.01 
l.Tl 


13,87 
12.20 
VIM 
1P.18 

1.04 
1*7 
0,07 
0.00 
0.00 
0,00 


6.2* 

io.a 

ft.4 
10.0 
H.1 
•2h' 


m a 


" below 
" nbovn 
" b^» 


0.11 

0.00 
0.23 


30.4 
100. 



The <leprre oi i>erni«ibility of soil to water, like that of i»emiefibility 
t" air, in governed t>y tin- te.xiiin: rather than by jiort-vdhiDie, as Is 
«hi>wn by Ihe following ivniiIU obtaiuefl hy von WelitjM^hkr>w>ky,' who 
det«rmin«l the rates at which water wimUl pa.>w throii);h colnmns of 
(•nil of ditleriiijr tirn-nejw (mekisl in eyliiiileo' of e<iii«l dirinietor. £Jicb 



' IVilniK iiir KciitJiiiiw. lii-t rvniivntiitil^I d™ IWfiis fib- Lull : -Vrvliiv (lir HviitunF, 
II., |>. 483. 

* ICxpcrimcnlcIlc' rnlcntuchung ubor die IVniiaabiliiilt dc* IkKlriM lUr W] 
Arctiiv fOr I]yitivn«, II., y. 400. 



t. 



278 



THE SOIL 



ej)cciiiicD wnn tti>t coinjik-U-ly Mititniltrti iind tliiii kept m) dunug uirij 
cx)M-ri]iii;u[, the wator supplied imag kept at <^>n.Htaiit tovd. 



llcl(bi of caluHB at lOU. 


»m. t KB' 


Hdfhl at mlar nluan abora mU mttat*. 


t»ga. -■■■<.. 


NMun tit wll Biiil fUt of (niD. 


AOUHintuf i>aUr-ilp>kaiff>l Ik lH'r*!"' im" 


f^nefond, lem tlmn ) uiia. . . . 

Mdlinin (and, 1 to 1 mm. 

(.'miM wnd, 1 Ui ^ iiiiti. - - ... 
Fit\« grarel, 3 lo 4 mm. . ... 
Hedliiai Riuvol, 4 to T mm. 


0X10024 O.U0O&9 O.0UOU ao«r:s 

aiT5 0;43A <).I±) U.°:i; 
1.767 4.014 l-Kl HH 
M70 IMTO T.4« ll.TM 
J4.»09 - lasTS 

1 



CompnrinK tlitwc rwult* with thow nlitained by the sune inwii- 
giit<ir ill luH c-xpcrimoiits on pc^rmmliilily in nir, il will Ir- iiirtiwl tJiit 
the (utal jHirv-vulume Iuia livn- i-vvii Iv^ ^i^nilicmuce. 



ii»tui«BrMU. 


HalcbL 


PiMmn* 


tolinM^ 


ItttlaoT p>n«l/ltu 


Taib. lT°«w 


Finrwind 


SO cm. 
GO cm. 
GO nil. 


.W™i. 

.*rO cm. 
«ti«m. 


4I.K7 


1 ' . 

iM m 



Capacity for Water, and Water -retainiiig Capacity. 

If to a voltmie of any ^ni piickcl into a cjliiKkT <if gUcf «r in** 
vri' juicl walor in .lUBh a way tliat all of the air in the intprsticee i* &^ 
placi>d, the soil i* then witimilnl nml the Riiniiint <>f the miitainw 
wiiteP ropnwcntfi tlio total "water rapacity," which, it ic sceti.niiwl* 
the porp-voliinK'. The " wuliT-iMiiiniiip i7i|wrily," i^ rpiili- amitlif' 
thing, and de|jciHls ujjon the rtnictnrc and c<im[io«ition <if tin- s-"*!. 
and, in » nunor di^n^t-, ii[iun other (■■•nHideralion)'. If for the mp'> 
vinus bottoDi we fiilixlitiite one of wire ^ui«.- or oiiiiriK.' dotli, tlie i'""' 
tjtinetl waUT will luyiii to drain away, owing to the t'orif of )tniT".*' 
and llie flow will hy dejjivei* lieei.iine lei^» aiul lew, unci tinnlly "*"■ 
Then the int<a«tioe»i, which opijrinally were filled with air aloW"" 
next with water, HIV rilled in {inrl with iho •>»<■ »ti<) in |cirt villi 'l" 
Oilier. 

By eiiin|Niriii)!: tin- oriirinal weight of the volume of soil willi ''• 
weight in tt« now wet oomlition, iiK power to retain water is «««!>' |»^ 
terniini'd. This power is the result of two fnni-^ acting in np}K*iii"'' 
to the t'oTrv of gmvity ; namely, snrfaw attmelion of itolidn for \\({ai^ 
and oipillani' attraction. The water which is simply adtterrnl I" ''* 
jinrfini'!- of llie woil gmin.-. in known a--< hygroMeojiie witter, whil-- 'J'^' 
whieli iM held in llie <7i|>illiiry »jui>i% i^ ralhxl eiipillarj- watiT ; iilnl •' ' 
the latter which, in any hut the course§>t soils, c<utMtittit(9 by far ll" 
larpT jiurt of the ivliiimtl nioUinre. 

Not all of the inter*tiwK of a miiI form capUIan' !i|in4'e!S ImiI ool* 
th(M»e "f which the boundarT.' wallfi are sejianlvd niily hy inirnib 



CAPACITY FOR WATER. AJiD WATER-RETAtyittG CAPACITY. 279 

wliii-h came within the limits of capillary magnitude. Thus, a oounte 
soil inav <Hitiluiii cumiHinitivcIy I't'W Mich !ii]KU'i'!i, while nm- d a fine 
texture may have iti^ puiticli^ fiu clusi'ly appru\iniatc<l thai all of its 
intdvtitinl »[)»(!«* arc- (n|iillnry. It follciw», tlipi<di>re, that compact 
soiU posscfW greater n-tnii)i»f; jtowcr than thuse with larp- itiut- 
jilicti'* which |M-rinit nipiJ pfiviihiiinn, and that "hen the te.xtui-e is ho 
tiiip tliat all the MtuecH uri- vupilhiry, the iiiiuiiimni n-tiiiiiiiit; jHiwcr iii 
nnain<Hl. 

The iufliiencp of doil tttstun.- mi tv^wcity for Imlrlinfr water may be 
M«n ill the fatlawing tabic of some ut' the ni^iilts obtiiiiKti by Ilof- 
maitn : ' 



mADipm' or flnln 
iu uiin. 


rop^**luiiie nor 
I.WU «■. 


Amount of iv>ii- 
lainiJil iral«r to ft. 




s 
s 
s 
1 

\tm Uiaa 0.6 


434 

418 
410 
400 
413 
413 


£5 

77 

98 

160 

870 
347 


S79 
34! 
814 

2ao 

143 

66 


13.4 

S8.» 

66.4 
34.0 



TTic water-retaining (Mjmcity of mn\» i« determined very largely also 
hy the ainoiintft of oi^nir matter present ; a wiil rich in orgaiiic matter 
will, otiii-r ccinditionH Itciii)^ the liiiinc, hIiow more wati-r tlirtii iiiiotlier 
of less richncsti. The extreme Jtiflufnce in obsiTVc-d in the ea*e of 
hiiniiDi, which can hold ti-n liiru-H it.-> wei>;ht of wutcr. In view of tliiit 
inflnencp of organic inatt*r, it is very clear that one way to help keep 
a >oil dry i» to avoid di.->('har)rinf! filth into il, and tliiH kirji it elmn. 

For the piir|KiHe of illuslmtiii}; the influenee of very fine soil par- 
ticle" i<^lay) and nf oi^nic matter (huinun), the fiillowing results of an 
invest ijtation hy VVollV* may lie niiotcd. He packeii soils of varying 
clay and hiimits eontf'nt into a metallic vessel with a [KTmeable liottfua, 
Mittirak-d tlii-ni (.'oniplelelv with water, then ^ijfH.'rimjioKed a cohirnii of 
water of wjiiid cross--ection and 8 em. high, and ohserved tlie time 
r(.HjnirLil fur the tuhled walvr to Ik- delivere<l Ix'low : 



1 Nuurg df anil. 


Piiwnlai!* of elar- 


IVrvnUffv 

of 

bamuL 


tlmii nqofnd: 


VttouA 




Soun. 


BUl«L 


Vvrv Knv tuiiirl<r luniu .... 


13.74 


1. 


0.33 


S0.3 


1. 


Verr Bne <duHv loam . , . 


15.M 


1- + 


1.40 


2Sl8 


].!!7 


Blaok, rich. ('li]ill(v \niim 


IJLIT 


1.13 


SJn 


31.0 


iM 


Verv line nanrlv 1i«iii 


SSlBS 


1.64 


OM 


T6t8 


3.73 


Vt-rr c-lujcj- tiii\ . . 


41M 


a.TO 


063 


133,0 


OJiS 


Soil iriili imiMiUcrabW cIbt . . 


s^;« 


1.8B 


2.1» 


IB&jO 


«.S3 



It will be observed that the soil which permitted the pa-i-age of the 
water in the ^horti-Mt time wa> in)ort-.t in eliiy mid almost mi in hnmti.i, 

' Aiphiv flir lIvKiimp, I., [>. 27:1. 

' AQlvtitini; irip fln-rrii«i.'lii'n L'lilvrwuchiiiiu Kiiiilwii1lu*iiuflllcli • icliti(Wr Sluflii, 187''^, 



280 



THU SOIL. 



aiul tiifit tbc oae whicti reqiiirt^l tlie Ennpi-^l timv contliinwl a mnfiil- 
eralilu atnitiiiit nf olity, itoi ihc liijrlicnt, wilh n high iK-m-ntage <>( hiiiBos 
u]»o nut tile hi|;li(.-i't. The hi|;li(.i'l im.ti>or(i^!v of cbiv wu# iiKu>ciibl 
with the lowest nnxuuit of liiidiii.i, una the highest of humtu with a l™ 
<iiiili.-nt (if clitv 1 hill \\\vfA.- two I'liiU (Nik*. •> iiimI .t) svvev imlli W 
itii[)C'rn)o:ibk> than that (Xn. fi) which ciititaiiinl lc-« t-lay tliun tbdnii' 
niul Uin.-> htiiiiiin thnti (htr ottiiT. Il ■» W 1m' noted, howt-vtr, in thi-iiw 
of the t^jil uith the hi^licst ]ira]>urti<>ii of Hay un<l lowcfl of LniuilN 
that it cDiituiiii-d 1*2.8 [x-r <Ttit. of i-hiilk as ajjaiitst 'i.2X |ier«4)t.in 
tJio moi^t imperiueable, ami that ihi^ Mili^iaiKH-, tif \m* Itct^i Ditailiuiiali 
has a very gn-at iull licit i,i^ in dimiuiithiug the decree of plostiriiyuf 
cUyx. 

Soil Temperature. 

The BOiirees of heat in the soil are three in number ; rtnnicly. tht 
sun's niys, clK^miail diangv^, wiul the oriniiml htwt of iho «anh^ imc 
rior. The principal source is the sun. I'he heut tlerivod from dicmiMl 
ohan^.4 in not groat, and, iiidcoH, is not even woPtJiy of oonsidemiwu. 
ex*-!')!! ill wjil"* ven' rieli id orftaiiie iiintter : ami htix- tin- ftmi^ 
oceiir only in ihe pre.-enre of e(im]>arativfly high tenipcratuir ilUf 
U> ilv ui;ti(>ii of the sun. The third source i" c<_iii*luut mid of I'lw'' 
impoituDce. 

The soil ti^mpcmttiro itt infliieiiced by n ntiniber of conJitionis 
iucluding exiKtsure, atmospherif teinpcniture, o<dt)r, comi«K'tiic»s o""- 
position, and imii^iiii-i-. Ntilnnilly, thi- (•uriaccs expciMd to the gmiw*i 
amount of !-tinshiiic get more lieat than other*. The u«>i\-r tin.' iiigW 
of inddenec nf the min's niytt upproacJieH a right angle, thiil Is Oit 
more pcrpondiculnrly the raya i^.rikc, tlic gpwilcr the nniouiil of I"** 
PKwivfL 

Tin? nipidity with which soil-" iirc afl'ccK^I in <rilher direrlimi !'>' 
changes in atinosphiric tempenitiire vuriei' widely, bnl with any •'<t\ t 
i» only in the verj* uppemioHt laycre, the very surface in fact, tliot ■"• 
imnicdiiite ciirre--'[Kniding ri«.' or fall i* ohs<T\-cd. (^rnit smUlcti rlianj;** 
affect tlio >-oil below tlie surface very slowly, iind in llie decju-r by*'^ 
the iiiiixiniiini und iniiiiiiinm IciiijN'nitiirfj* oci-ur iiiwh UliT titan in ^^ 
alniii^pheiv nU>vc. The aiiniiul vamtion dimiiiishL?^ as llie dietaa''* 
from the Hurtaw incn.>MS«* ; nt linoen feel tlie atnplittide is, as n nh 
lc(« thiiii 10 degnt-K v., ami bctwwin fifty nud wghty fwi the tempa*- 
tlire is <«nstiint the yrar ronnd. 

Tlw color of a wiil exerin nil ini[Mirtniit influenw in the di^crniiiwl"* 
of its tcni|icnBliiiv. .K" is well known, a black surface cx]h««1 "• 
ihe sun absorlw Ihe heat rays more than n white one A coiuni«l 
illuKlnitbn of this fact i* the gwiiter rsipidlty with which i*now loelB 
vhen its siirtinv i.* dotud over with <!irl ami soot than when it ■* 
duui and white, nwiiig to the ab-ti^riition of iK-nt l)y iIh- <brk jart!''''^ 
lUid it"- i-oiumuuinilioii by condiiclion to the snow beneath and ol")"'- 
oot and ciiidePs work their way downward into (!• 
ther illurtration l< the' gruitcr fediiig •' 



SOIL TEMPERATURE. 



281 



wuiTiith coufpiTcd by blark elotbi^^ thiiu by white iu the bright (fiin- 
shin«. 

So, "iIkt (■ciiiditioii* b<.'ing tin- sjiiiic, & clnrk SHiil in warmer thiin u 
light oae, which reflects the heat rays inetejid of absorbing them, 
Obsorvmioii hiw shown n ditrcrinci- t)f mnr(' than !2J) (h'grcfc* ^. in the 
tpin[>eratiire of blark ami wliilc miiiiIs c\|ms«l H<ie by t^ide tn the 
tlirift r:iys nf iln- !.iin, but ilie whili- saml hy reason of reflating the 
beat niys will ii|>|K'nr tu br imicli liottor than it nailly U. 

The influence of compactne^ on soil temperature \'arieft with tliis 
WWOU. Actuinling In King,' tlic goniinil tvntk'noy of rolling tlic hind 
ia to make it MTimicr dnring bright, liiuiny weiitlicr, but in cliiiidy or 
<iild WMitliiT il rinds Lit |iminoit> fDiiling. Ht? lia- (tbsiTvt-il Ihat, ut 
tlie depth of l.o inches below the surfaw, a rolled field nuiy have a 
t«ni]>cruture 10 d<q;Te<M 1^'- higher tlian a similar soil not rolled, »n4l at 
double the di*lnnce he has noted a iliiTorcnec of 6.-^ degn**. Thii^ \» 
d\u- I'hictly to till- fact that a compact soil is a l>ett«r condnctor of heat 
thuu one containing largv int^-iMtiw* filli'd with iiir. 

The character of the mineral and orgsmic constituents of the §oiI and 
the amount of it« vontvnt of wiitvr vxurt tJie ven' greatest, influence 
upon its temperature. Rocks, snnds, and mineral >*ubwtjiuecs in gen- 
i^ral nn- lM-tt<.-r hint rrnidrii-tor!! than water, oi^nio mutter, and air, iind 
they differ aUo one from anolher in conductivity. Organic matter i>* 
■A |iiirlicuhirly |wwir condmrtitr of heat, and heiioe the greater the amoimt 
of humtu< a kuiI (MntiiinM, the itlowvr il» rvHpoti.-H: to the action of 
thi- Sim. 

The great iriHuenoe of moifilurc on «iil ffm]>eniture is due to the 
high ijMi'itic liout of ivat(-r, and to the loss >if h(«t which aeiiini|Minies 
the |>roct*s of cvM|(iirution. nio spt^i-ific hnit of onliimry dr\- *oils 
varies from a filVh to a fourth of that of water, altliough in e:icceptional 
rtiws il nnty aiiKuint to nearly ii half; and itii- wclt^-r tin* >oil is, the 
higher will be the s[>ccifrc licit of the mas.;, thai is. the greater the 
niiitilH-r "f heal nnilti neiv.-,-ary to warm a given weight I di-gn*. 
Thus it bup|>cu.s lluit a iight-i'olorccl dry soil may, in spite of the great 
influence of color, attain a much greater degree of warmth than a dark 
one which is ilamp. The difPcrciit soil (Tonstilncnt,-* have diffL-rcnt 
specilic heats, ranging from al>out ".1(1 for certain sands and clays, to 
altont 0.44 for dry hitniii'*, tiiiit nf water N-iiig iiniiy. Thns. In nilso 
the lempor.iture of lUO pounds of wMer 1 degree will require JMO 
unitB of htail, while to |K-rfi>rm ihe siiinc ofiiee fiir wpial weights nf dry 
sand, weathered porphyry, weat.hereil granite, and hnmus. will re<)uiiv 
n-siMwtively l(i, -JO, ;!0, anil 44 niiits. Theivfnre, ilie sitnic atnonnt of 
hwt neccssjirj' to raise a given weight of water I degrve will raise tlie 
equivalent weight* of ihe-se sub»taaci» resjiectively ti.07, 5.()0, a.:J:J, 
and 2.27 degrees. 

But although the high s|>ecific heat of water h of im])ortance in 
del^rinining f*>i\ lcin|K'i-at aria's, the chief iiifliU'iu'e of raoipittm- in ihiit 
direction is due to the great \ofs of heat which nt'<x>nipanics the process 
' The Soil, Xtw Yofk, ISH* j 



1 



rati SOIL 

of evaporation, for the cbai^ fruni th« liqiikl to the gmwous fitrm I* 
ai.tMintpltshi'd >>nlv at ike vx|m,*iim> tif bmt. The grvatrr the atunuQt nf 
vater pva[»trateil from a fjivMi •<«!, thrrHorv, iIk- prmtvr iIm- (-niiiHii- 
lun- ut Iimt aut! tl>e gn^tw llw lnweril^ of lln' i^^il leiiijieriliirr, 
t_'>tnvci><'lv, thf ilritT tl>r wiil, |)m- \c» iIic rvajx-nitioii, anil thi-jrmilK 
lie wumitli. Water doe- uot, h"W«'er, alwBVs tend to pruluor I'urr- 
iug iiT the tt-nipi-niliin.', dir, iit point uf (bet, it iwiy aiid oA<ii Aiw 
have the op)Kidte cffcd. In tito i^)irii)(;, for inf^tunt^, when ttir' fi<»l 
U u>A \ft (Htt «r iIk> ^hiimI ait<] vilwa rln- iiiicrstieiTS an- titlnl ail)i 
Olid water derived I'dku the iiM-Itinf* Uv iiml snuw. the wiirnii-r nir 
lia.-1eii^ the removal cf inct, aiwl, as it sink.- into tlw soil, ciirpliiiw 
downward tbr colder wiitcr uud ffHiiiietjiieiitlr ruiw^ Utc t(t»)<rnitiirv. 

Cbanges in the Character of Soils Z>ne to Chemical ud 
Biological Agencies. 

C%einkal urtton w eon^^ntl}' at work in tlte nhI, not alono on ttkr 
orpini*^ avn^tiiuentii, but ujMin ilii> luiueml nialtoi^ as well. Tlie 
Hinngr" wliieli ociiir in the lallernre ol' im|>iirtaiiix- (o the liTKirniM 
alniort H>lely in •'o far as Onry atl(vt the ((imlity of the drinkii^-iniUT' 
(.'iiui|iUmti'<J |>nieew<9 inviilviiig the d)i->>iu[H>^iti<)ii of or^^itiic maMifl 
give rii^e to <]iuintitiee of cariion dioxide ttliidi, t>eii^ taken inU> mAv 
tion by the wster in the iiiit-rrticwi, assi^iU^ in the prodtielioii of »lill 
nion' <iiinplitnted |tnKX^K4.>it whteh «ipij:r the minend i^^>niittllieut/h 

The ekitigei^ u-hieh, Ironi a piiblie health point of view, aiv of tbt 
gnutent iuien^t are thoM- whirli ntr in prt^frn^i in iIk* prncetK* knowt 
u the " M-lf-|MinfK<»tion " of Mitlc, in whieh the comf^ex ur^uic dih'* 
tern arc hmken up and redueed to simple rliemieal <iuhntanee» ilir<'U(^ 
tile intervention <<( Imeterbl life. In the end, the earlM«i i- oxidiwJ 
to (.XX, at»d the nilro^-n eitlier is set free, or is eonihined with hi'dn)* 
gen in tlte form of ammonia, or y oxitliiM-d to nitrie ]iei<I ;ind niinK^ 

'IIk* pn>e»'!V requires the preswtiee of atmospheric air and of niuirt* 
ure not in esoe««, and is favored by ten))M-ralnre!« Iwtwren M" ami IHI" 
F., tlte niont fnvonihle l^'in^; !)8°. It pmnxtb' nuwt vipttviiiKly wl 
piTl'eeliy nesirejit the Mirtaec, ai>d virtually n<a»^es at a di]>th uf nn*!" 
ticin diree (wt, little or no nelioii iN-eiirriii^ in tin- Mll»t«iil Iteyoini llw' 
depth. If too mueh orpiuiir tilth ami it» ntlendiiiit inoistnrc utv |in^ 
ent, the soil Iweomett lioggj" and tlie etuiUKes eannot proored. 

An influence of very ^nt iin|H>r1iin<v in itK eAVvtii on the jihe^iw 
and eltitnirtil l■Iwnn1eri^li(l» of "oiln ii^ tlmt esertixl by eiirtli wnni. 
whieh live ehi^fly on hnlf-dii'nyiil leave.-, ^thieli they <ir.ig i«l" (IW 
burrowi* to be iiswl »^ fiMxl and «,■« lininp< at^l phigf- fur the bunwrsi* 
well. Aeeonling to Clwirles Piirwin,' their ea-^tings ointnin 0.01" [Iff 
opnt. nf ammonia, and the hiinitis neid^, whieh have Ik^'U pitnifd U 
play ft very im[K>rl»nt jmrl in the di.-inte^jnition of x-nnmi- kimU '" 
roeko, Np|i«iir to lie pfneniteii within ihi-ir htKlini. Tliey swiil!"' 
rarth both in the proca« of excavatitif; their liiirruw>i aiid for lb( 
« !•( Wxf^aliir MimM tlimusb ihr Actiua of Wonoh 



>. 



SOIL- AIR. 



283 



nutriinont which it nmy orin^»u7:)ii<t ciora an iDiimriant ii>echuiii<»l 
iiftiot) "ti till? jfo\\ Kniiiis, lyiiiii'ing llicir «i/\ by iillriliini withiti their 
giz7^rtU. After filling tli««t*lve6 with earth, they sooucome lo the 
surfucr fwr tin- inirjin.ic nf chiiilyiD^ lliciii.-MjIvi'i*. 

"In many iiartw of England :i weight of more than 10 lonjf of" <lry 
«irth luitniiilly imismw ihrmii;!! the Imdie.i of WDrnin, and is brought to 
the Mii-taee 'Ui eaeh aere of land, s<i that the whule ><iii)ertlfriil lied of 
vcjiciabk' mould jiar^Mun tJirimgh their b">die.-' in ihe etturse i)f eviry few 
years." From various diita, Darwin uik-iilat(.-d that the awtiiig?, 
i>[>rcad out imiformly, would form, in the course of ten years, a layer 
varying from 0.83, in the ai»i- of a veiy [hhif whI, tii 2.2 indie--, in 
ordinarily rieh §oilH. Their meehaiiinil action and that of ant«, mule«, 
and other burrowing uninwU ha\'i; much u> do with keepiug BiiiU open 
aud friable. 

Soil-air. 

The air in the iuI<T»tJec« of tbo «jil differi from ihal of the ntmox- 

ne maiidy in its richness in carbon dioxide, which arises from the 
inpiiniiiim of iirgimic matters. It Is also jioon-r in oxygon, hut by 
no means always in a eum-<s|Kindin;; dc^-e, and it is u»iiully quite 
humid by mLton of the jiri'suiiee of soil moisture. 

The amount of carlxm dioxide varien very widely in diffcn-nt wiil* 
and at different depths of the Nime soil, and it fluctuates very consider- 
ably nl^o under dilfi'rin^ eondilumH ;it aiiv given piiiut in the same ihuI. 
Other conditions being the wime, the amount is most marki«i in soils 
rirli in wrganie mutter nnderpiing ileeomiKjfition-clumgi-s, In soils 
poor in this respect, the amount may lie no greater than in the atmos- 
phere. PettenkoftT, for instance, found rn the air of desert sand, 
which was devoid of oi^nic matter, the same amount as was present 
in the air imniedi:ili'ly almve it. 

In ordinary soiU, the amount increases with the distance from the 
Eurfaoe, as has been shown by Ffxlor,' who made a givat nnmbw of 
analysi--* of air at rlifferciit depths at a number of places, the observa- 
tion- extending over several years. The averagi- amounts found at 
de]>ths of 1, 2, 3, and 4 nietvrs, expressed in parts [jcr 1,000, were 
as follows : 



Dvpth Lb fudliprn. 


' 


a 


» 


« 


Siuion 1 . . . . 
StaUon 3 ... 
Btalion S 


-L8 
13.7 


U.S 


20.1 


28.7 





The inflnenee nf stiu*on al.«o was sliown by him Ui be vorj" winsidtTablv, 
llw highest amnuntf occurring during the hot months, and the lowest 
in winter. The averages hv months are jiresented in the following 
table : 

' Bodpn imil WB*er, Bniun«eliw«l]t, 1882. 



284 



THE SOIL. 



Jftimnrr . 
t'cbniaiy . 
March . . 
April . . 
Miy. . 
June . . . 
July . . 

AujCIIHl ■ ■ 

Scpicmbcr 
OnioWr . 
^uv»iiib«r 
December 



MaattL 



Mpth Is UIVtWIL 




Fia. 17. 



Tlieafi results are only such as might be expected wlieii we con&ider 
thiit ikt-uTiiiHisitioii of or^iiiio nuiilirH proci.'vd^ niovt vigurou<>ly williin 
(M^rtaiii limits oi' hi^li tvtniR'mtiirf.'. 

yiin'tiiiilioiis in the amomit pnwiil at any givwi piint nre <iiu- tn a 
number of vjn(litiuni> wliicli indiido ininfiill, tlif action of the wind, 
the rint! and fall of the siibHoil-n-ater, aiid diflerency!!> in acuioi/'pherio 
prea^un.- and tcmpcmturc. 

Rainfall, liy tilling the .siiperBcial interstices of the soil with water, 
interferes with the iintnnii jiniiiT'H of koII voiitiliilioii .■inii iiiii^^'X an 
immediate accumuhition ol' carbon dioxide, whieli, 
bowiA'er, h ttliorlly followc-d by a diminution due 
to absorption of the gas by the water, which 
tliii.'< iKHjiiin.'H 111 iiicn'jjHi- ill its [Hiwcr of attiicking 
and di^iKolviug tbc miiici-jl couwtitiiL'titti of the soil, 
IniLiniiKili a.i lh<' bulk of ilie abt<orl)e<l miufiill is 
held by tlic upjKT i^truta of the soil, it* influence is 
more marked llicre than at gn^ater depths. As it 
sinks downwanl, Imwcvcr, in very wi-l we;ithor, it 
drives tlie air before it, and khiscs its escujic at 
points where it.-s <:^r(ws U not obstruett^l. 

The action of wind is excrtod in two way*: bf 
pi'rfliirioii jiiid by a.i|»iration. By blowing strongly 
acrosj- the siirfjicf of the j«>il, it iispiniks tiif air in 
till- MpjMT layers and causes an uptrard movement 
in the air IhIow, or il may .■•iick it out at oue mo- 
ment and take its place tbc next. vVgalii, it may 
blow with ■"iicli foRX' agiiinsi the nurGiee as to drive 
the eontiiined air dowiiuiird before it, S" lb;it the 
iiiter*ti(?t« Itt-eonii' tilled wiili onlinaiy atmospheric 
air. The action is more markeil in soils of ordi- 
nary wsirseness of textnre than to very open soiU 
with iarfp- iiiterMtieiw, «'liich pentiit fn-er movement 
in the upper strata. This may readily be deinon*lrjtc*l by nirans of n 
sinipk-i-x|K!riineiit with (iieapiKiraln" shown in Fig. 17. Heivwehave 
a glass cylinder, inside which is a t^liuss tube extending from the holtom 




Appsrklui loihovrafliaii 



SOIL- AIR. 



and Ijcnt over at the top -■«> as to fnrni o. U, into wliich an nniount of 
\i-ater stifScient to form ii ^cul inuy b<? introduced. If now wt> fill t!:v 
int^'i-vcniiig siuioir up to tlu' top with sand, and tlieii direct against the 
surface of tbc liitltT w cnrn-iit of iiir liy iiii.'un» of ii ln-llnw!' ur by l>low- 
inil sharply through a tntw of glash or other iimteriaJ, the whole volume 
of air iu tile inti'T'sliifs is si'L in iimtioTi, whli-h is voiiiiiiiinicatcd to the 
air within tlie enclosetl tube, ko that thcr water in the U'!>ha|>c<l deprL^»- 
siou is MLtisuil U> iwcillnit-. If the waKr <'iim|ili>t<'I_v lilU tho short leg 
of tlie U, it may Ix' lorotsl over and «iu.*wl to drip. If, however, 
iiislt-iid of t-mploving sind, we fill the lyltnder with coarw** gravel, 
the r«ffilliUion of the water will Ix' either le.ss iiolitvabk- or oiitiix-ly 
abt-t'nt, the air which enters at oue point oii the surfac* comniutii- 
eiiling tl.< niolinri only to that irn mediately adjacent in the iipjH'r part. 

The rifTi' and fall of the water in the siihuoil assist in the priKliictiim 
of varintioiiH in ihe iinioinil of earlioii dioxide ; on the one hand, by 
itfi rise, forcing the rich lioil air upward and oiitwiinl, anil, on ihv 
other hand, by it^ fall, drawing the soil-air downwai-d and caiKniiig 
its pluw in the upi>er ctnitii to lie filled with iitiiiospheric air with 
low eontt-nt of the gan. 

OitViTi-iKHw in (eiii|»eniliii'v ami liiiroiNi'lric [iri-TWiiri- hiivo alw Uvn 
mentioned as exerting influence on the motion of the ground air. In 
spring am] suinnicr, the ground air is (^olde^ and deniter; and \a 
uutunin aiui winter, it is warmer and lijjhter lliiin the air above. HeiuK.' 
in the fimiier, it U-nd.- to remain sljitionary or to sink ; while in the 
latter, it rit^e* and niingk-s with the atnioMphere, which, utidor projier 
i-onditions, replam\-< it. Again, lhc--«; changt-s raay m^'-cur in both 
dirvctions witliiu the same ;<pace in twonty-four liouiv. For iii«tani¥, 
at evening and at night the atmuspherie air, l»cing wilder, enters the 
soil ; whik- bv ilay, iK'ing wanner, it-s dlRvtion i? rcvei'sed, and iiir i« 
drawn up from lielow. 

Movement due to leinjieraturt.' diflerenoe^ is almost mnstant, sinvc it 
\% only rarely that the tcmjK>ruturo« of tlie air nnd soil are in agree- 
ment. The influence of baroiiu-tric pressiire-i-haiigiw is not very gii-iit ; 
with fall in prewMiv, the tendency is toward upward niovcnient, and 
with ri«e, toward downward niovcineni ; but Fodor found I'rom the 
study of a large number nf ohdcTvatioim that the actual observable 
cluin^w were insignificant. 

With the various intlnenReri at work cjiiising niovem«-nt of the soil- 
air in nil diret^tion*. it is plain tliat the boII, especially if highly 
permeable, is endowed with a sort of respiratory function which ket-pa 
it more or le-si* well ventilatt^^l. 

Formerly, it was believed by Peftenkofer and others of the " Munich 
School " that the amount of enrbon dioxide iu soil-iiir might serve as 
an itidc:^ of the niiiount of impurity and of the rate at which the latter 
is decomposing, and that eoni{Kirisiiu of the amoiinU obtainable fri>in 
different .M>ils would serve to indiejite their n-lati^'e vluinlinens. But 
sueh is not the case with soils ec[Ua]ly permeable, owing to the influence 
exerted on .toil venlilatiou by so nmny varying and t^nflieting <»uses. 



286 ^^^" THE SOIL. 

Tndi'ctI, it hint Uvn ]irovo<I l>y Foclnr thnt a pcriumble Mil exteiMivcIt 
con tarn inatoci by ot^anic tilth may yicUl Icsk of tbim index of im|Miritv 
tluui onu fur darner, but Ici«4 fliiiM%|ttibl« t<> veittiUtiiig inflnvuoy, 

Soil-water. 

Tbe RioLitiin* contiiincd in tho noiI mar be designated in tliia dif- 
fcn-iit wtt;>, atvonliiiK to itj^ {HMttimi (incl the fonx-^ by which il i( 
bild in place; namely. hv|fr<iHco|iie, (niiillary, ami gravitation. 

Hygri)ww|ii<' wak-r i« lliiil wbirb ihIIiitcw tti ilii- Mirtntt-i of ihrwiil 
petrtidt^i iu ihe i>i-<?iH:n<M.> of air. A wrtaiii amount of nioistuir h »ii> 
ilcnnitl iipiin till- :<iirfuiT of niuit ><>lid MnKitnnoo!* ex]XM«d tn nrJiniir^ 
ikimpiK'K-^, iinil it :i(Ih<-rcji with grvat lonucity. TIte uinoiinl i>f "otpr 
»i> (>litainc<l iliflrrfl, "tlurr I'niidition.- liein^ tbe ranie, acixinlirijt Wtluf 
nntiin- of the *oil, sumr soil cun»titucnt» Mirpii»i>ing "tlwrx in lb"'"' 
piiwer til attract it, Tbua, soils rich iu organic matter (bumun] tnwi 
BTcater dogrtv of bygiiwopicity tlian "then* in wbirb Oiii- DiiwtiliicM 
16 piVH(>nt ti> a leiiHer extent. In soino tmils, ibe amount of by};r<M.'opit 
wntor \!> vi-ry niwki-d by ix«.-uiii of tbi- larj^ amount nf organic mstur, 
iini) Ix-wuiw ttltti* 1)1" tbf large Kurfacearea presfntitl by tlw will partitlw- 
Some idea of the tenarity with which thin muihturi' it* rc-taincd iiinv \v 
deiivwl fixim (la- fact tbut air-ilriod coils which a])|)i-nr lo lie i|iiite 
dry — the dust of conntry roads, for iiistancir — may yiehi ns miicli Sf* 
tenth of their wriifht of water on vimiiilcte dr)in(r liy (iiiliiiary lalNin- 
tory iii<'th(Kl». Iloth tbe nwtiiiture abBorbeil from tbe air atwl iIh" »"»lfr 
held on the M>tl ^raiiH by nnrface attruction after a condition "^ 
decided wcMiewi bas been ehangwl by the draining away of iheiwt, 
may U- tcnnitl bygroscopie, 

Tlic ui|iilliir)' nioiitnn:' is that whieb w bcbl wilbin th««w spoiw 
which have been .-[«>ken of as capillary in their nature. I'ndff 
urdiiiury eonditioiiN, tlii^e are inli'nnin^hd with k|ih(X'» which mar n(4 
l)e ivt dc»i);iiated and which contain air, and »o the captllan' inoistw 
does not onlinarily crpuit the [lori-vohnnc. The water in the c«iii!li*y 
►"[KtiT* may U- tbiit which i>- ntainifl aiivr tbormiuli willing from «l»>vci 
or it may have cn'pt npwurd or laterallv from jminttt completely «»- 
rated. Oipillary movi-nicnt iHxriirx in all dinvtions but it i^ niirt 
marked from Wlow upward to points where water is being willidw" 
by evaponition or by the dctnands of growing vigelation. 

'Hie blight to which water may r'lrv by virtue of ihiK lon.i' il«^»ii'l* 
upon the diameter of the spai'e!' ; the smaller the diameter, the pnul* 
the rise. Jurin*s law of I'lijiilhiry movement i.t, tiial llw biijtlit "" 
Hseent of «rt)tr and the nanu- liipiid in a e;ipillary tube is invefwly* 
Ibe *!iainet<'r of (be Inlie, Thilh, water will a.seend ten limes a» li'P 
ill a tnW having a dianu-tir of 0.1 mm. a.* il will in unolber itilli ■ 
diameter of 1.0 mm. It followw, then-fore, that capillarj' inovciB*'"* 
'i» tuiitit luarkcd in coUh of tine texture. 

C^[HllHry movemeDt is infliieiii-e<l niHlerially alwi by tctniMTatnt* 
ire of siil)t)tanc(^ held in Milutiun. It dimini^itw^i a# tto 



HOII^WATtiR. 



287 



If inperatiire riaes, and iucreaww as the teniix-raHiro falls, sto that noolii)^ 
n 9o\\ iiiiHiirmly will (■(iiisi- iiKTi'ii'".il mjiillmy nnivomciit, iiiul limtiiig 
it will aiuse a liill. But with uneven teiujK' natures, tbe motion will lie 
<lill'cn-nt lu'i^onliiig iis thi- tciiiiKjnituiTw vnry. ThiiK, if thi^ lower ptirt 
of a column of soil bo (•ooIe<i, the •iurfacL' teusidu of Its uontaHR'tl 
water will Ik' incrtsisiHi at that imint, and waI«T will Im- iitlnictitl fnmi 
the iBirl* aljove, prjivity UBM^ting; wlit-rcus, if it be heutctl, ita c-oii- 
laiiiol watjT will lie attraetwl upward. 

In sitiinitfd soilit, motion of the wnk-r in nm-tlircctioii if infliit^nix-il 
vcrv jtTfiitlv bv temjxTalHre. beeauw of the efffct of heat in changing 
the vijuiisitv of wiitcr. Thi- hi^liiT ihr tt-iniN'iiitnii-, the grt-jil^-r tin- 
diminution in viwosity and the freer the muvemeul. 

The influeu(v of di.uolvtil .-.ulwijinii's di-pi'ndt* iijion their nnturi!, 
come favoring, and others retardiug, moveniout. The rate is iiicrciiRtI 
by the [>rft*cnee of nitr:it«-r<, and i.i diminlnhM by eonmton salt and 
^■'uliiliutc of csilciuiii ; but tbc Kivoring intliii-riii- i>f tlic j)r*w(iii- of 
nitrates i^ wmntoraeUHl most markedly by iirg.inic subsiaitces pniduced 
in the dwom position of iimtten* of vegctjiblr origin, for ii minuti- imoe 
of tliese complotelv neutraliws the effect of sucb nniuuut^ of the 
former a--< nri.^ eommonly present in i'idliv:ite<l soil. 

It is self-evident that anythi[ig tending tJ] the dimiuution of 
enpillarity of a soil diminishes the i-iit« of eapillai'y flow. \\'hfn the 
soil is workecl in *ueb a way therefore, as to prtxhic*- an ojicn, eriimbJy 
condition in [ilaee of ono of eompaotness, the rate of capillary move- 
ment within it 1!- diminished verj- greatly. 

We eome now to tlii- tliinl <livisio[i, which has l>een ilcsignated tut 
jinivitttt Ion -water. This is the water which luis drainc<l away through 
the soil by the force of gravity and awumHlate<i in the wulwoil over an 
im|H-rmr»ble stnituTTi which ha" arrc-^ti.ilit.s fiirtber downwanl j<)nnicii'. 
This is what is commonly known as ground-water, or subsoil -water. 
Ita zone exteriils from l.lie siirtiiiti- of the imjH'rmcnl'le Inirrier upward 
1*1 that point wlieri' the interstices of the soil cease to be completely 
tilled with water, but ari' lilKi] pmlly with air. This point is known 
11* the gnnind-WHter level. The zone aljtrve It. through which water is 
moved in the oipillary spaees, is known as that of tbe eapillan^ soil- 
wntf'r, nnd extends a* fur a.» the water k moveit tbrongli tliat fbrec, 
Alwve this, at and near the siirfaci-, is the zone of evaporation, from 
whieh water is eviiprntif*il inln the atmosphere. 

'Pie im]uTmcable stratum beneath the subsoil -water may be eitlier 
ver>- fine rjuid, iomi>act cliiy, or iih-U. It tuiiy Im- thin or thick, aeeord- 
ing to eireuMi-tiincc-^. Rclow it. then- may be a succejtsion of alter- 
nating [wrmeable and iunH^rmmble strata, so that in driving deep wells 
a variety of stmtii are piereeil, and w[itcr« of vurvinsr crrtn])ositiim mav 
l)e secured. FK^'Use clay is practically ImiH'mu'iible to water, but at 
the same time it eiin oommunieiite it.s moisture to surtliii'-s with whieh 
il comes in Immediate contact, a fad which renders iieocssarj- the in- 
terposition of damp-}>roof material in tbe foundatiotis of houses built 
U]Hiii iU 



THE SOIL. 

Roclu var^- givatly in impermcaliilttr ; thr dcDMM of tb«D coouii 
ven* small amouDU of rooitfture b their |M»re6, «-faile othen znm 
fvrt<*tf lliat tlivv itMiT contaiD ait math a.<t u ikirrl of tbeir volome of 
wattT. A]r->in, most nx-k di^XHatS ETl- mare or Ices fiomrnl U<I 
MHunrd, Hii(i thu-'' |Knui( to a greater or Iww degree tlie paatoge of 
water at tl)c»p (Hiiitt*. 

Tbe water-beariDK etratum in usually gravd or sand, but ms* 
b<- |»>r<i4i» itr fi^-xinil rm-k. Itn (U-)itli U i'\<x><>din^ly varioUt. 
dejundin^: upon local geologiail nindition^ and at tuo |>i>int> nm 
wiiUrly M-|iiiRit(il, it may Iw n-:>|M'>-!i\i-ly t^lighi and cotinidrnihle. 

TIm- in^tind-u'ater i» in roa.^'taiii ntottuu Utlli lalcrnlly aixl vcnKalk. 
Ii.'i lalcnil movvDtenl, whaiev<-r ibi rate, de|ieiMlt< ujion thi.> M>Dliguniiii>i> 
of the iniiwTtmiibic UiyiT Wow, iind iiirt Ufaiii tluil of tin- "Hriiu* nf 
the land, (.ivnerally f^iitnkin};, tlte dinx'liou of tbe ninveinent it^ lim'ad 
ihf ntnrvt iar^' UmIv of water, Im- tUi:> iIh' m«, a \nkv, or a ri«vr; 
but it ia nut often possible to ddermittc, except in a general wiiy, from 
eurian; olM-rvaiiomi, whether at any given point the flow h id iHW 
dirvction "r iinottier. This i» i-^in-eiaily tnie wIh-h the waH-r-hfariiiB 
Hlratiim is thin and underlaid by an impenueable t^tmtum of verj* irtvg- 
ubr confortnalioii. 

Tbe rate of movnoent ie also exceedinf;ly variable ; it nmy l»p ftfl, 
or slow, or hardly penxfiuble. In Munidi, for in!>taii<<e, aronnKif 
to Pettenkofer, it ammint^ to a)»Mit Itftcfn feet iLiily, whWf ol 
Rerliu, it is outv ver}' iJi^ht. and at limes b> wanlin^. I> i* 
infIiieiKi.ll by llie «on%tiralion of the MllKmrfiire, by the pemf- 
ability of the »]hmil. by tbe aatonnt of the accesw-tu of nuiwim 
from rainfall and nH-Iitn^ sihw, by the ulMtarlei' inieqx^td Inlkf 
roots of trceri and oIIkt plants by oIIhth at its outfall, and by' Lbf 
u-illulnivral <»f moi-iiure by the nn-dn of vegetation and of cnmismuliii 
of men. 

Tbe rise and fiJI of tlw pround-wnter — that is, its vertical iw*'*- 
mcnt — de]M'nd ehirfly u]>on il»c amount of rainfall ; and, on llie dtW 
baiMl, upon the mte of witlKlrawnl by eN'ttl^iralioii, vep^tali'in, tm 
wiil<T supply nf citmmuiiilit'S, ami upon tiic frxtil^nit of, or lAi^unU" ic 
the outflow. 

The eflV^I of rain&ll b geneislly not ittunediately ]>erpe)>liM<'. f* 
so miieh time )nter^'«1ll■>t Itetween la^tvy falU attd |ien*-tnition llut t 
falliu); of tbe ground-water level may continue to be obuervwJ for ' 
loHjj lime after a (n-riod of pnwl weUKrw ; hut when tin- li-vel ri«S * 
IH a proof tint addirSon^ have i»wn rrociv«'d fmni alxive, tltoiigh ["f" 
lia]is tbe awepsion has travelled thr»U(:h a long clistance in tbe sou. 
Whiit the level fnlK it i" a ni^ tltat tlx- upfxY i<initii liav<- iMiinni'dif 
thmn;;)) evaporation, and that rapiUar^' attraeiiou has carried rarai 
Upwanl to replace iIh- \ir-^ 

Tbe ri-Hi- and full i.f ihi- ground-water level may be detenniliMl 
mcawBtlUkuaiiULtO day the di«iitn<v between ibe siirfiitu* of the 

ina number of wrll" in a given k 
tnpo'ineutiure or chain to. 




SOrr^WATER. 



289 



in nttjioliol n nul liearing a niimbor of -thallow metallic pupfi which are 
loivprctl into the water. The dijftunw between the |Miiiit on the chain 
ni lh(' mouth of ihe wfill and the up(M^nu()&t clip in which water is 
found indieulM tlu' positiuii of the wHicr-lcvcl witli rt^pect to the 
flurfnce. 

B_v removing nljHbicW to thv oiitthll nf the inKK-qrround river an it 
sotuetinioH is cillcd, and by eresiting new nutfallb by ditching more or 
It^* di^-ply, acciinliiig In individual cimdiiions, bv .'«inkiiijf drainage 
wi-lU, or by laying dniiu tile beneiitli the surface at etich <tepth» ux muy 
app«'ar t') be advi.-^able, the level nf thi^ ground- water may be con- 
i<idenibly lowcreil, and the soil theit-by n-n<IerLii coiropomli rifely drier, 
aii<I also, by reai>nn of the infliicnce of wat«r on soil temiH'rature, 
wiiriiier. 

Sources of SoU-water. — ^The princi|ml sfjurco of eoU-water, it ia 
tianliv neii--<Mirv U> miv, i» the iiilnfall, but by im mcau^ ull of tliu 
water ])reeipitate<l from the ainioHphei-e during a jilorm (icnetrates to 
th^ .-iiilisoil. Li-ihl i-.iiiis limy lii- whi'lly loMt by evapontiiun, and 
heavier ones, cj.|»eci:iny during active vegetation, may peiictitite but 
very slightly iMrni^ith llie siirtjiw. In early spring and in au- 
tumn, the amount which percohUes downwrird l* miMinilly luiieh 
larger in prn|>orlioii, A by no nieaiu innigniticant amount ot' moiHt- 
nn* i" tlinf ilerived bv aliMtrjitiou and e<jiidciiKalioTi from ii nioi.it atnioi*- 
phere. In periods of dronglit, this power of dry soil to absorb water 
from humid air in of the gmiteHl value ti> vegetation. Thr amoniit 
nbsorbcil ditTei^i awording to the nature an<I hygroscojiicity of the 
iHiil ek*ment><. Thui^, a MOil rich iii huniu.-> will altniet niore water 
than another coinpofle<l wholly of mnd. Condensation of water 
occurs when tliK ^nHitec i^ irold and in eontaot with ni'iiat air. TIiIk 
oonden»ition may ownr from above or from the rising moist eoil air 
just below, 

A tliini fionrwt of moiitture, of no greut imiiortuncc, is the breaking 
up of oi^nie matter into its constitucut elemental, in which jirriccss 
the hydrogen ih in greut part nltiniaU'lv release*) in (sombimUioii with 
oxygen a» water. Another and exceedingly iin}tortjint source of soil 
moisture, ini|»^rtant u<it Ixi-auMi- of (he amount, but IxTauso of ilir 
quality of tbc water, and beeauso of it* possible effect on the supply of 
drinking-water and on public health, is the w-aste waters incident to 
human life, which in ho great a proportion nf (iininumiliew are di^ 
charged directly into the poll, where, being out of sight, they an? equally 
out of min<]. 

Loss of Soil Moisture by Evaporation. — The amount of water 
which a soil loses by eva(>iiration is inHuenced by a numtw-r of factors, 
which include the water content of the soil, the height of the pemnwhle 
layer, the composition and structure of the soil, and the character of 
it« tturihci', and, parlieulariy, whether it in <iiver(il. In other wordji, 
the nspidity of the process is prftporlional to the combuied area of siir- 
fycvA ex]Hv«il, and to tlie faeility for repbicing the loss by withdrawals 
from bcUm', 
\» 



290 



TltF. SOIL. 



Influence of VegetAtlon on Soil Moistore. — Th« nDtouat or waicr 
in soils i^ intliiincii) jrivally t>y growing vegetalioii, wbicb rwjuirw 
Viwl Mijijily (or llii- |)n)]RT iiuiiitltrliiilK'e of ili> fiim'liitUK. It willulnw* 
it liy ul)8orpiion hv the root^, wliicti exteii<l downwiint tu miqiriuii 
(I<-)illiM, llic rout.- of wlii^tl, lor iiiHt.-iiKx-, ulliiiiiiiig ^ontftimi'!i a \rn^ 
of eijrlit fit'l iiiiii iiioiv. Fi-om tlie rool**, tlic waItT |Kit*c* into ibr i-ir- 
Rulation of llii^ jiliiiil, iiHHi^tA in tin- vnrioiM jiliyninl'igirat jit^n-I's^-!^, im 
tlivn, for tliL- xm*^X l^^rt, i^ ^iv4^>ii otr from tht- K^ivt^ into (Im^ ■limt- 
phcre. It lias Ut-ii mlouhiti-^l liy Pt-Heiikofer that an iiak «Ti|«ini« 
more timii viglit linu'.« llic r.iiiif:ill, nm! tli:it tin* Kiirtili/j/lui' tiMmlv it 
even mi>rc awive. Tb<- flilVcremi' Ix-twwfii tlie nui)fnir»^ rtwitriiMiiiin 
uti<) tliv uiiiMiiiit cxliulitl ni)fiir<ciit.-< iIk- {tniDiint wlitcb \k\s \teeii Miiii< 
drawn by tlip roots friini llio «i|iiilary liiwcti- and fn>m tin- wulcr-utlt 
itnelf. A> ihf wiili-r in i1k- i'ii|iillani\- U ivIi»i|U)t-liit) l>y tlitoi, ni'« 
comc'fi ii|> from IhUhv Ii> lalif \\i- jilaw, TIiiw il is llial ii plan! nrlM 
arts <liiriiig tin- growing wasun us a constantly W(»rking suciii'ii u]ifan 
tuif tending to <)ry tin- ground, and mi may bv i<txj)laiiHil, in jurl 
leanl, tlu> (Condition of wet4ie>^ tbiil i« acqtiiivcl bv wmie luncU iftcl 
removal of tree;., 

AH KTowiiijT ci\>]>s withdraw enorraoui- ainoiinti' <>f water, mid iiftfl 
tlic gi'owtli Ih'ooiiii^ M-fll xdMinM-d, il ii> ibi' ra[>itlnry wal<-r iii^in nbia 
dviwudcnup Em placLnl, for tXxe niinfiill |K-n(>lntt(« but a nh^iri di-cme 
into ou1ti\'ati<<i timd, nnd inoMi of it \n liwt by *>vapopatioii. \(rw\ 
not for tliL- tapillan- wati-r supply, no »'n>ii* iindd Ik- r^n-t-d. wir^ 
undtT niO!«l rxtnioitiinary (>oiKlitiniis nf wcaiber and by artitinnl t"* 
ji^utiun, siuLf but II iJiort jn-riod of drouj^bt would ciitliw I" pndiw 
wilting. According to Stopkbri<lge,' "The qnantitj wf wat<T Oii 
rifiuirt-fl intd tviijKii-nU'd by diffcivnt iigriculliirnl plitQta during tl 
period nf growth has bcvn found to he as follows : 

I anvof irhMl«xliata> . _ iOU.SSS ptiiiinili> of nw. 

1 " •' dnvw «h«liM i.oea,23< - - .. 

1 " " Muifluven exhilw lM,.^Si.«N - " ■• 

1 " ■' cBhbRRP cihulw S,M0,1M " " " 

1 " " Kr»|»-.vii..-.'xbnlm TSq^TSS ■' - " 

J " ■■ h«i^ pxhiik-. 4.4W.0SI " ■' - 

But Uic intbiciM-e of vt^-tntion on tlu- wat«r content of the siil 
not limiteil simply to its witWlrawfll and t'vapiinilioo into llic aUuf 
pin'n*, for it acl.H in x\w other <)ini-tion to iin|M-<h' surface (low and sib 
surfaii' dniiniigi.-. This is sti-n nion.- iiurtimlarly in tbv «i-'"' nf ti 
and forests. The fitii-st cover keeps the soil gT^nulnr and iinmul 
downwiinl ]R'reoliitioii ; the tree r^'ot,". iniK-tniting in all di 
prciH'Ut an eflt-etive nbstaele to rapiil lateral movement lliniu^l tlie 
Rcmo\'al of forests and t-Iearing away the surfiiee of the forest 
promote sudden itixl iki'lnietive fr^whet* in the springtime an*! d 
wlnM), Inter in the year, the water is n«il«I. Tlie ill eflerts of 
ntioH are noticed jiartienlarly in [xirtK of .Maim- niMl in the A 
<)aok», where strcann' that formerly mn fiill the rear round anr 
> Bock* inil Soik Niitt York. 16UL 



SOIL' WATER. 291 

(onpDts when the winter's hhowr are melting and but insignificant 
brooks or wholly drj' during the summer months. It has been statitl 
by Major Raymond, of the U. S. Engineers, that, in forest areas, ibur- 
fifths of the rainfall are Raved, while in cleared land the same amount 
k lost by evaporation and surface flow. 

Other Effects of Vegetation Upon the Soil. — In addition to its 
influence on the movement of soil-water and on its amount, vegeta- 
don is an important fa<:tor in the determination of soil tenijKTatnrc 
utd of the anidiiut of mineral matter available for succeeding growths. 
TSe deeply i>enetrating roots bring to the tissues of the growing plants 
1 Ut^ amount of mineral matters from the subsoil. On the death 
ind decay of the plant, these matters are rettiriicil to the soil at its 
«rfkce, where they are available for reubsorption as plant food. 

The effect of vt^tation on soil tomi>erature is of much irajwrtance 
nboth hot and cold climates. A barren soil or one from which veg- 
itUioo has been i-tripiRil absorbs the heat rays of the sun more r,i\>- 
iDy and becomes much hotter than one which is protected by growth 
rf any kind. The air above the soil becimies hotter, too, bet-aiise of 
greater ht«t radiation, and the difference in the snrfac* temperature of 
hn ground and that covered by grass or other vegetation is further 
bcreased by the cooling effect of evaporation of nioistni-e from the 
Inves. Herbage acts as a protecticm against excessive beating in hot 
dimate^, and as a blanket to prevent loss of heat in cold ones. In 
Nmmer, the areas covered by vegefcition are cooler than those which 
■e unprotected against the direct rays of the sun, and in winter, they 
■R wanner because of the obstacle to heat loss. 

Trees obstruct the sun's rays and impede wind cnrrenLs, and thus 
&e soil is cooler and at the same time suffen* Ic-^s loss of moisture by 
cnporation. The obstruction of the wind currents deprives the soil 
lit of one of the influences having to do with its movement, and thus 
■lerieres with soil respiration. The obstacle opposed by trees to the 
notion of air is so great that, in the interior of a piece of woo<ls, the 
•ir may be quite calm while a gale is blowing outside. In winter, the 
ohrtniction of the sun's rays aids in the conservation of the soil heat 
If [weventing the accumulated snow from melting, and thus keeps the 
■r&ce protected by a blanket. 

In cold climates tbe influence of trees may be at the same time pcr- 
waooB and beneficial ; that is to say, iwrnicious, in tliat the gr<)un<l is 
■Ider aod rooister than it would be hail the sun's rays fi-ce access, 
■d beneficial, in that the trees afford protection against wind. The 
■dicioua removal of trees will often render a climate more etjuable. 
u hot climates, as in cold, trees shonkl Ik reniovc<l only in case of 
taewity and after due consideration of the prolmble results. The 
West spots iu hot countries arc those deprived of the beneficial inflii- 
■eeaof vegetation. 

It may not be out of place here to mention tlie snp|>o,sed agency of 
foodland in protecting communities from " malarial exhalations " from 
niap localities. That the interposition of a belt of trees hai! been 



sda 



THE SOIL. 



iulluweil ID a nnniber of inslatioei by drciditl improvement in [niiilw 
hitiltli M> fur n.- nialiiriu b f^tiiwrattl, ^nnmtt wi-ll Ik- dt-niitl ; liiit iIk 
inijiruvftiH'iil i^ luH owiup to the fiuieicd jimixTty nC Uavw i-'AH- 
ileoM- iijK>ti llu-ir ^iirltii'i-!< ttit- malarial [Hiimiii, l>ut to iht- )ii<-r iluii th« 
wiii}p'«l t>uirvn* oi' llti« poiifiii, blutvn ti\nng by thv wind, arv Jilicnd 
out of tlic air i>y ttw. Innvni, or tlipniwlvew feek \Ik prolcrtion limt 
■flonk'i) iif^iuHt liirtinT iiivoliintjin- tiiov<-iii<rt>t.'s «i"l attach tbi-mxlm 
to the leevrurd side uf leaves aod trunkti. 



/ti 



FoUution of the Soil. 



The Mtil rvoi-ivtw polluting iimtttTH of infinite varivty nnd in itiileh 
ditli-Hii)* amminl!!, but their tmtiirr' and their amount siv "f Im 
imiMirinni'L- ivliuivoly thiin Iticir point of entrawv, Smie "f i1m« i 
pollutions are uitavoictablv, and tlicee, indeed, nn the onve vMin-niin; 
which we niiiy t^ive oiirsclvcit the leiwt I'lincern ; othns nix- ii\''iidil)l(', ! 
though nut alwiivfi, or even ui^tiiilK, withoiil the inourrin;; of i\(rii#. ' 

'I'lii- iiimvoiiliililr ]Hi11iuioni^ iiii-hidi- llic urine iind dro;i|< 
uniiiiuU, the iTiiY'iL^M-!' of !^ucli uk huve died nnd liiive (^ >, 
iioiiee of other aniiuaLs thiit net an ocnvvngpn, and vegietjihle BiHttin I 
of every niiieeivnMe itind in varioim litugivf of drt«y, Kxa-fiting 
under very nmif^ual conditions, tiucli, for instunee, n* may cxl>i in 
liiiir of "ur iir flmul or epiili iiiii-w. w lion Inrgi- iininWn< of bor-i'*, otnir, 
and other nninialn are killed kv die, tbctic, lyinj^ ut or iM'ur thi- i>urliinij 
arvof comjHimtive iiniiiiiH)rlttim;, 8iuce, ex{ioMM tooalnral proceswi<fl 
purificaition, they an.- resolved into i-im[ile innoonoiis MiliHiiinoes iriiidi| 
are (ilMorhcd by ))lnnl life or washed downward into the soil. 

The avoiiliible pollnlion;' lire mainly th'we wliieh iiuin <!c|»fiBJ 
IxMU-tttb the surfaee, and tb<*e are first, and of minor imiwrtaiio.-, Uwj 
bodicM of th« dtiid, iu)d i*eooud, of Viutt im)Hirtanoe, the cxcrrta anil 
other organic lilth that constitute sewage. The temporary etonigeoTr 
filth ill wnliT-tiiilit ix-<i'ptacle.-> built under ground cam, of eounw, 
DO harm to the i^nrroundiag soil, but it i» not into mich thai nun tUtt'J 
ally clioiises to deposit his waste. Water-tight ce9Bi»ools gmduillf 
become fillwl iinil then require to be emptied, while iIio^h- with perria 
boltoins permit the escajte of the contents <)owu»:!ird, WH|nirr w] 
tlioiigiii or (lire, iind are, there fore, a souiyw of contentment ami *•( \ 
Miving of expenditure. The filth thus introduowl is, however, Wc* 
thexone of hacUTial activity of the bonctlwni kind, and bcvoiui^ rtMwJ 
up in tlie Miib^^oil or is wni^lied awuy gnidual|y by the ground-wad 
which thereby is made unfit for human eonsnmption. Organic mnta 
dejxwiteil in the npjKT Ktratn of ihc H>i! are rewilved into tJieir <"'i"j 
Ktitiient elements with gi-ealer or lesser rapidity ai-cording to local > 
ditionn of distance from the niirfiiiy?, teniiwnttiire, dt^pw of moitV 
iind permeability to air, the process advancing most m|Hdly in • 
ventilated, modenitely dr>- soil near the surface, and lanxt unlavOftUf 
in Wet, vomjmel soils, far frfmi the ("urface. 

Tile influence of the physical condition of the soil Li ol»erv«l frfl 



FOLLVTIOt! OF THE SOIL. 



393 



qiiently in tlw exhiiniiitinri iif lK)di(« for one cniiiw or nnothcr after vnry- 
iup pcriud» of inWrinoiit. Thin*, in npcn soili^, IhhIic* may iIUa|i[KMir 
almojit oijmplctcly in the rniirsp of a ff^w ycaiv, wliilc in sliff wet 
clays thfv may Ik- fimrid even afu-r twciily ami nmvv y«ir» to be i>iitrid 
masws, still undtrgiiing a most gnidnal jiroetws of di^iinetrrntion. 
In<it-c<l, it iff Matiil tluil In i-\euvatiii{r mi ancient (■linn-)iyard in I^iin- 
don, the soil of which wa^ :i wot clay, bodice were rcniovcxl that showed, 
after two crntiii-iiw nf interment, no materially ditferent np])earaiiee 
from tliat of othi?i>i which bad bi-cn ImrittI not over a wor- of yiars. 
LKMynlly, Dr. A. Itiedil ' had an opjiortmiity to eonij^ai-e the rewnlta 
Pof dceomixiKilion [>riM-eiLili»K In IxmIIw Innicil for aljtail ihe snine (tcriod 
in soils that were res|»(vtive]y loose, well-drained, and well- ventilated, 
and comjKict, wet, ami iainermeablc t»> air. In the lir.*t iii.-<tan(;e, the 
remains were fairly dr\~ and quite inolTctisive to the sense of smell ; in 
the other, they were a sliiny, Inalhsomc mass of rottenness, which ;,'ave 
out such a horrible "tcneh that the ci'owd of idlers that had K'Uberwl 
was qniekly dij>si|iaui!, while ihose whose duty compelleil them to 
remain were made uiijtlcasanlly »ick, and conid nut rid i heriir«ei vc* of 
the smell, which eiiniK to them nntil several days Wl elajiscd. 

Ill the de(i.imp<>''iti(in of iTrfpuiii' sidi'liini-es in the soil, im otU'ii»ivt' 
emanations are noticed, if a fulistantial layer of eaitli is inter[>osed 
between fliciii and the iitniiwphere. •taeit as it liatt power to n>lain 
water in its interstiees and on the surface of it« ooustitneut particles, 
»o has the soil the tiirnlty of absorbing gsuscs and vajmrs, a proftcrty 
which cannot have esca[H'd the notice of any ])erson actpiainliil with 
the commoli aiilb-cbif'ef. The ^oil art-* in this res|«'et like cbaifoal, 
mid can tiike up not only odow, but also coloring niattent and other 
subntaiii'es, 

I*erhn|>« the most striking illiistnilion nf the affinity of soil for 
odori is the tliei iluit iUimiiniiling pui fiiun leakinir stni-t mains has 
in itjf journey through the soil been known to Ix- divested of its odor- 
ous constituents to stich an extent that, Ijeing drawn into houses with 
the soil-air, ilj* pii-senec ewiijKil oK-M.'rvalion until the pn.Hhietion of 
poisonous effects drew attention to the existence of an iiniisnal condi- 
tion of the air. 

A like retainiuK action is inanifest«<l in a less* marked degree 
tou'ard substances in .solution,^ which are held baek by tmrlnee uttrac* 
tion, II fset which has Ih-cu noted rc]>cateilly by hypicuist* and agri- 
nillural chemists. This is more noticeable in soils of fine grain, since 
such pr>rM-nt a far uresitcr arcjj ofitniiii Kiirfaci-. Holfuiann' (illcd two 
o'liiiders of equal size with satul of diiferent degi'ees of Hneness, but 
with tlu^ sitine total ]M>ix-voliimc, und to (.aoh vir» aildol from iiIkivc 
an (ipijil \-obinie of solution of common siUt, and then daily, (or tea 
days, an e^u.-il volnnie of distilliii water. The drainage of wicii day 

' Hdiii-lii'iiiT inwilfiiii»hi' W(ir|[pn«elirift. June '1, IMiW. 
• St* jiiuv 2iiii for un iinumiullv ilrikins cinmple, 

' frbcr linn ICinilTinii<'i> ^en %VriirnviiiiiciinKi-ii in Rodon iiiul GrundiTMMr. Archlv 
filr Hyuiifnd, II., p. M.\ J 



394 ^^^^^ THE son. 

wni> tr<«it<><] M to \i» <Hiiitrnt of ^It, ihm) it wa^i fnimd that, ulienK 
llinl fniiii tlip I'oorwr Hind VM-kitil Kilt i>n lite «Tt>ml day iind fi^i^'rtbf 
liii;ln*t rc-'iiill.- on tlic lliinl, from which time iIip yit-ld pr<^'r.-MVfl_r 
(Uiixllt^il, tlmt \'nim thf Hikt ^hnvrvil im iniw uiilil \\n- ^\y.x\\ ikv, »i»! 
iU maximum on tbi> i<ev«nlh. R(>|)etitinn uf tin- vx|K-riiiM.-iit in ihr 
Mimv wiiy ill nil |inrtioiiliir!< yioldul tiU-iiti(ii1 n-Hiilu. 'niiin tl tr f\»'»it 
that piilhitii'ii truvfU more i|iii4-kK' in ounirw^ rmil-' thiiii in lini>. 

Ill tho <I(niin)|M>Htliiin of proU'id Hiitxi|iin<v>. in the snil, Wsic *!>• 
stiiiitt* an- bclic-vol by ^'-•nw to \tv t'lirrnwl, w)ii<'ti iniiy Ix- Ixikeii iut" 
the syat<>ni, and so affect tlie resistance of the tiody lo dtscace w w 
fiivor iiirtH'tion. Thix, hnwvvw, ii* |)ui«ly ljy|Hithcti(nl. 

i\f- boA bt^on i-emarke<l, the pivwiice of bni-tvriu '\^ niseiitial fiirtk 
nwiiliition of 'iipinit' initttiTX in the siitl. 'I'iiin han Ihi'Ii ilhi^imixl in 
a striking maimer by l>nclunx,' who trralL-d stcrib- NL>il «il!i "tinli' 
oi^iiiic mnttt^n', Midi an uiilk, Migiir, nn<) Htarch |HiMe, nml then |ilniitt*l 
therein ihus iukI beaiiif. Altbuugh the n-^ulliiif; plnntc wctv wi-il ami 
for. fhfV did not thrive, but roniainni a* thin and weak as rlii"i|Hi 
fjiiiwing in <li.'ti]l<-() wah.T. The orpinii' inaMcrs in tbv wil wrt 
of no value in their "growth, for tbej- e<nilil not be uitK^irbtil n« *uch, 
but only after deennijMiiiition, Tlie addition of a little iiDt-teriliirti 
uirtb HiitlioL-d, however, to litarC the re(|uired pnioow, und IIkii tlw 
groutli improved at »iK>e. 

Bacteria of the &oil. 

The Imeteria of the soil are found abiio^t wholly in tltc MiprrfoM 
Inyerji, and Ih-Iow a depth of twelve fwi tln-ir tntmlHT b* n-iativetyfrt. 
A-« tlie}- need orjrjnie matter for their growth and niidti|ilii':ili<m, il 
may be inferre«I lliai the gnaier tlw ainiMint i»n'»enl, the gmiti-r will !• 
tboir number. Thus, they are Gir mure niiturmufi in rieh f^nlrn "^ 
than in ordinary niimI am) elayp. 

TheoondiiionK most fiivoriible to their <Wdo)mieiit iir«, in additi"' 
to the presence of the or^imii' |vili(ilnni, moisture and cenain liinitr</ 
trm|KTal«n-. Drjnejw anil extn-nw!« of bntt and eidd im- all iinfin* 
able ; luituration with u'ater may or may i>ut be, ai\-onliit(; to the vn 
ety, for tliere »r^ soniv lluit in n wet rich aoil can go un decouip** 
ttrganie unit ten*. 

In onlinarily rieh foil, the nnmlier of bat'teria ranRe- fn>m hunJw 
thoiiMtntU to millions jK-r enbie wntinK-ter in the Mirfaw hvyvr*. U-k" 
whieh tlivy diniinisli in numlwr very r»pi<Uy, iintil, at tvn to twel' 
fill below the Mirtatv, ibe soil 1;* iHUdiailly rterile. excf|>t for th* 
ihul have liet-ti wiisho) down or wirrinl by burrowing »uiinali>, iff, 
alwivr slatitl. de|>>>>iied by man in orgitiiie filth. 

The «'il Uti-lerin iin.- mainly of tlu- beiM'f>n>nt varieties, llw n| 
ntphyies whieh ]K-rfonn only useful ofti«>«, inclading the minniw 
xiirieliiw of the nitrifying organisms. While dilfVix-nr iixvic? i-f pill 
ogcuifl Inu'teriu have biin foiiiHl in ihe soil, and although eertuin u 

* ()i«n|ila pniiliiK, C 



BACrHKIA OF TUB SOIL. 



S9S 



tJiem, the bacUli of totunua atitl of malijinimt irdcina, are reiy gpner- 
ally ()rpscnt. this o\a^ of orpiiitniniB tiwls, a.^ a nili*, the omdiliuiis 
present Jii the soil nulavoraltle to lievelojiniciit. 

In the first place, the temperature is too low, exreptiiif!; in the vttry 
iippeniintit liiyers in wjirrri wwither ; nml, fiirtlKTiiiorc, the jHithii^'iiic 
kiiuU cannot thrive in tlie pns^eiice of the enomioui^ly nniniTous Mi\f 
riiphvIeK, ^'hii'li, in some iiuiniii-r tint iik yt-t Mit.isliK-torilv i.-xpliiitKNl, 
bring about their dcstruetioii. I1ii^ iietion hiu been (lenioup-tniled 
rf|M'iit(illy hy Kttch iintl others, who shnw<tl tliat antluiix Itncilli iinil 
other ptithogenic varietiw! can grow in sleriliwti, but not in unsteril- 
ixt'il, .-"lit. 

Klein' inputs tliat ftatho^-nic orptni.''ni» in buried iHidies ranmit 
mainiain vitality in the pi-esence of B. rwhiicrU tfmioijeitrii, whieh U 
nlwuvi> present in ilceomjioiiiM^ iHifliiw, iind thai, in most' uti^e", ii nimitli 
is .sufficient time to iu»iure dectnietion. He biirietl gnineii-pigs eon- 
iHiniii); viiriiiu.t Icinds iif niicro-or^inisms within tin- jilxloniinal eiivity, 
and at Uiflen-nt times exhunietl them ami made wureh for living i^petri- 
nieiiM. Hi; t'nund tliiit II. jti-iHlii/hiiu« liv«i 4 weeks, but not *! ; lfitaf>k- 
tiUu-'uKtui KKfriw, about the same; >^p. eholi-nr, 19, but not 28 duyi*; 
B. itfphomiH and U.iiiphfhfrhr, not longer than '1 weekH ; B. pesOs, 17, 
but not '21 dav«, and B. f<ihn''-uliim/', not 7 wwks. 

It is he!ieve<I that, in the deejior layers, awav from the aapi'ophytcs, 
the r-porc^s iif [Kitho^jyiili.' :>|H.^in('.'« nniy tind a IiHl^nieiit titvonibic to 
storage, but not to development, and that there they raiiy remain with 
dormant vilnlily. 

Many examinations of graveyard soila and of bits of eoflina have 
been made hy Dr. K. H. Wrljon, of Brooklyii, to dt'tjTiniiie, if jmsfilik-, 
the prewinw of palhiigenie biieteria as well an the nnutl>er of bacteria 
aa eom|«(irttl with those in other kinds of soili*. He found no nion; 
bacleria than in other*, and no [Kithogi'nie kinds whatever. 

Theiv is (me kind of soil (hat has l>een found again and again to 
liiive II de«rriielive action on jmltiiiKi-nii! Iiactcria, and that is pefit, 
which kills them very quickly, proltably through the contaiiuMl organic 
acids. 

The »oil acts as a very good filter, and holds back most of the 
oiganisnis, hm by the aid of (lowing gnmnil-wHter or water i-nleriiig 
from alwve, Ihcy may \w earrietl through ei>nsitlerablc distaneee. Thus, 
Drs. Abba. Orlandi, and Knndelli,^ exiH-rimeuting on the tiltmtion 
ea]nii'ity of llic soil about tlie tilter piilleries of the Turin water suitply, 
fniUHl that cultures of .I/irrofweciw protHi/i'uiti*, pounil with hirpe vol- 
umes of liipiid infi the ground at viirlons points, made their aptwirancv 
200 mcteni away in 42 hours, and 12 and '17.^ metei-s away in 7 hours. 
In these exp<Tiinent.-' the projx-ily of the soil for holding hack sab- 
Rtnncctf in sohtlion »-as manifestetl in a remarkable degnv. melhyl-eosiu 
and unmin, sulwlames which im[Kirt; intense ixil and gni-ii rtilomljon 
to *vt»t*T, and whith were a(hle<l with the cultures, not apjx^riiig uruil 

' Twt-iity-ei^litli Annuul Iteparl of Ihc Local Oov^mmt-iit Board, KuppItMuvnL j 

* /icilaetirifl tiir Hrgicnc utui Infcclioaikmnklinuni, XXI., p. 06. ' 



296 



THE SOIL 



long aAcT the organiittus hutl {msHtl tliroii]j:Ii, In tlic inntaiicr iu whitb 
tliey apjHiinil in 43 hotir^, tlie ooloriiig agents <4inlil out tw d(-u<.l(d 
until iitV-r 7o huure liiul L'lit|iMx]. 

The n^lutinn nf tlic mi) lo llie various palhogtuic bacteria will Ijr 
diM'iimiHl fiirtliLT utiijur Hcpiiniu- iKsdiiigx. 



Soil and Disease. 

T\w iiifliH-noc of ttif etiil on limllli iiml (]iM<9iiie tii a<)in!tte<l ttff 
genemlly, Iml is little undiTPtixKl. W'v know tliiit ivrtnin «'il f n'''- 
tionx likvor ihi- iH^riii-rciuv nl' ['uituiii dL-'is.-Hsf, but vihy thiii is fv ruuniu 
u problem for fuluro iviii'ari-li to solve 

Our iioiiims cniuH^ruiiig tlu- nitisnl relation of tlM> soil are pnUbly 
j^rtwlly ill error witli nwiiwi to wrtaiii <li»k»w?, iKing d«il»tlp* v(«(^ 
gcratecl as ii'jpiiiIh som«, ati<i e<iimllv umievclojipii »vith «tln-ri». (win* 
p«Kti(i(>n, ]K.-niiuibilily, lcm]HTiituro, moijitiire, i-vu|M>ratioD, wil-alr, w^ 
flucitustion» of the level of tlie subsoil-walcr, nil art- jtuppoMi.i] to bw 
iinporluiit rdiitioiiA to nwny of the ditxiiMS of inaiikiti<I and of ataad 
lifi- ill ni'Doral. 

Such fvitleiiw iiH JMnrs on tlie relation of the soil to diseases h giwa 
in p'tii-rnl tfrnin Iwlnvv. 

Soil Dampness aod Disease in General. — It lia>! Vmp bw-n nam!- 
Halty noltctil iliiil ihiiupni'^ts in iiud uiiir tin- surface of iIh* wW injnn- 
oiii^Iv ullVcli* tlie lirallli of lliowc dut'lliiiji! n«irliy. It wium'^ mUwH 
of tlio foil uikI ibiMipucv* of tlic nlnio!i|itw-n' inimcidiately oIkivc, «n 
appcitt^ to condu»' inoie ]uirticularly to rlK-uumti.-<iii, miinilgiv. aiid 
diKtii'H'H of llic n^vptmlorv tnirl. It lias Iwen notit-cd by ninny "t* i 
have inveMtigjiti-d the snbjwTt. that tbc gviioml l«-«Ith of tlmsp dni'liu? ' 
over <liin)|i soilw \e> much inlt-riur to llml of tlion.- more fnviiniMv i'^ 
cuitiHt-'iiioiti ill liiat riijard, niid iiwtni «■(■-■» of improvouicttt on n-i»i"™ 
irom damp to dry localitice are too conimonly known t'> iifl it'"' 
tratiou. 

It i" (p-nenilly agTectl tlint ii foil in which tlw jfroiiiiil-watrr k><-IH 
high, five lo ten feet, for instaiii'i', from the surfiice, is not laviiKiliif^Wj 
IhsiUIi ; mid timt a iUiii Iivel, lil>(Vii fivt and nion-, is iinobj<«ti<H 
on llic tioore of dampness. This Wiiig udniittMl, it niiglil tVMfH 
l)c mfi-rrcd ttinl artifiri.tl lowmiig of the grou nil-water will bel 
lowed by inon^'aw in wilubrily, and, as a matter itf (iirt. Hint U pli" 
wliiit does oo'ur. Uiit it shirtdd In? r-tiitixi, in onler to l»o liinlur 
ni-curiilc and in all fiunici". tliat while incrwiscd !M'id(hfulwss is ii i 
Mtpicnce, as a nih- it i.a not the object -uought, fur, as a gi-uenil tiiiogi 
soil drainflge, fsuccinlly on a larpi- mtiK-, bui* bwn varrit-d wit to ii«* 
the ilemanil!' of siicci^s'ful ugrictdture rather than in foiH^pwiK* <■ , 
solicitude for public iunlth. ' 

The iiii-thod.i I'liiployed ninv K- "tntitl gi-ncnilly a" iwrmsintt Inc] 
outlet mid removing; obt^lnidionfi to the outfall. Ditching iiuil tbej 
lyinslniction of underground eliannclwiiy.'i by iiHanri of drain ^ 
or rubble luxl fieldi>toiivs an: the uioet oumtnoD ntethods of tinia 



SOIL AND DISEASE. 



2»- 



ing. SoDietimoet, i^rainn^ welU nre drivea nt intpn'alii down tliroiit^h 
t\w iiti]K'niRi<ble elratiim into nu o|>cn Mibsuil, into wliich tliey then 
drain. 

TIk* <litli<rullii-» in the wny «f ilniiiiiiig (.'xU-iiitivc nrvus of iinlieulthy 
aiitl ii^iciiltiirally iiii product ivt- land lie chiefly in the lack of indi- 
viiiiml i„'<K)[H-i':itiiin. Sucli tindrrtitkliifr^ iiitist iit-Kt^Ninly Ik- iv-irritil 
ou in a ^y«temjilic nnitnicr, ami ought nlwuys to Ik' iiuder the direction 
of soiiH! w^ntnil aHclinrity — miini<-i|iLil, stale, or national. 

By nicuns of undcr-ilniinnjjc-, lli<in»jinili< and tlioriff:iiid>^ of scrvs in 
various jmuIs of this country, notahly in Illinois and Indiana, and 
X'a#t »r«iu^ of liind in Kii);liinil niiil on tlic iMintiiu-nt, hiivi.- Irvu tim- 
verted i'l-om unhealthy, malarious, and more or less unproductive tracts, 
into limlthy an<l richly pivHluctivi^- Miuntry; hut thi: iwheriK* iit not 
always successful in relieving a loculity of diH>usc, especially of malaria, 
HO h.-i.i hic-ii j.inviil in [i;irl.i of li.nly, Australia, and clst-whcrc. 

Soil and Pulmonary Tuberculosis. — 'I'Iktc i> uti nndonhied c<L>n- 
npct.ion betwi-eii tiiLs disiasc and soil dampness, which is must manifest 
when one invejitijiiitcs the prevalence of the di.'im.-**' ovvr the same wiil 
before and afVr soil drainage, by which it will always be found to be 
diminished. Wh* this iit i«> wo eiui oidy wjnjecture. 

We know that damjiuess is one of a jHtssibly cousidemble number 
of factont in pnxlncing {irc<li.s|Hwittnn to thi; disease. We know that, 
other conditions being the same, the dist^^a^e U far mure common on low 
dump soil-s than on ch-vnttil diy ones. Wo know also ihat tJie disease 
is com])arjlively rare in some parbt of the earth where the noil t» 
CXCu-jitiiHinlly tiry. 

The distribution of the diseiise and its relation to *oiI d^impness were 
first brought to puhlii- notitH? by Dr. Hmiry I. IlowditcJi.' of Itoston, 
at the annual meeting of the Massac husett* Mcdicml .SrKnety, in |J*'J2, 
who sulimittt^l two pro]H'sitions, the ri'SulLi of nior't (-xtensive invt-sii- 
galion, which were, in substance, that dampness of the will, wlietlier 
inherent or aa^niriMl by ifiason of piMxiniity of hMlics of water, is an 
exciting canst- of conMimption, which di.MTi«- can Ik* chirked in tt» 
course or even preventtnl by piMjjer attention to soil ninditioiis. 
Shortly afterward, .-<imitm- conchHiims weii- promulgaiicd in Knglnnd 
by Dr. nucluHiuii, who had been muking ol>scrvutioiis along the some 
line, not knowing thai Di-. IJowditi'U was siiuilarly cngwiitii. Tht^iie 
prupo«itions wcr- !ic«'ptcd by the profeitsion, and have bei-n tnaiiitatned 
ever since. 

Typhoid Fever. — It is Mieveil (piite generally (hat ihts rlUiiw i* 
Connecit--<l in some way with soil condiliotis as well as with drinking- 
vrator. Indiiil, then- nrv wmc nnlhoriticK who n^ganl the .-^oil an of 
infinitely grKitcr iniporlaiio<> in the causation of epidemics of this 
dis(«se and of eholera than drinking-wnter, which to their minds lias 
abr'olnti-ly no intlnenec one way or another. The Pi-ttcnkofer theory 
of the cause of thi^e outbreaks attributes it to the s>>i!. fii>m which the 

' Topogmphicnl I^Mriiiucioo luul IjKtU Origin of Coiuniiopuou in MuvcIiumiu. 
Tnnnaeiluiv, imZ 



298 



THE SOIL. 



exciting mune i» d'n'tribiitct] br tlu> ground flir, vrbid), sa has btto 
sl.ilol, is ill cunstant movement. 

Arimniiiiji to ihf ili-tiiijiiiir-hi-il ori^iitiitor tif ihf simI thtiin,-, tlic an- 
kiiirwn puif^iiii iw introiiiict'J iuio ilie snil, where, under ]»r*>p(» wwii- 
ttniiti of nrgiiiiio tiltli, and oUii-r inlliM>ii««, » KpccM» ttt fl'Riit^t>rK»i 
(Kx-iint, tki' cm) priMlutrt ul' wliicli ip> tlie oxvitiiij; i^iu^r, whii'h i.-^tlii^n 
»i|Ki)ik- nf inilitdiig tlit- <Iis4>a.'k- in tlioK- liy ulioni it is inliaUil. All 
ini|)i)rl(it)t in tlnf> jh-oci'*.'^ in IIw verlieal mowmunl of (In- gnjuntl-OBiT, 
ami it if «Tlainly true that ovct a hiii(t i>erii>H of yenr» of oWrvsliim 
ut Miinicli, iJK-rc wan k most ninnrkitlilv cniiicidiitre bdwccn cpidttDic 
of tyj>l)tit(l fever and flnvtiiiitiuii)' in tlie ^r(>iin<l-u-attrr level. 

The ifiiulttion inosi fiivonihic to hi^h niorliidity h--.i> iloniotixUUil 
li> Im? !i nipid liill alter iin nnn>^iiiilh' hijrii Kvil. The hi^hfft <lwlh- 
rtiti'w <liirtiig the thn*: cwvcPed oemrred during tin- years nf lowrrf lf«i 
ind Ihe lowest nitc« in the y«unt of iIm- high««( I«v«I, A i^imiltf 
<-it)iiri<li'n['(' tmfi lx<en noticed cl^wliere, but by uo niranH in nil or ms 
n nijijiirilv of liu^ tociilitien when.- involig;it)i>lM luive Ixx-n niiidr. 

The theory lia<l, lor a time, many atlhorent*', und tlw <>jiitnnwy 
bclwrtn the s>uil-llw^rists mid tlw " watcr-fiinaiic*," «.* iVltciikijItf 
uiIImI theiiif wn^ varried on ut timot with exceeding bilterucM^. Ilui 
within the [Wrtt tlieade, th* water tKM>ry has Ixh^i so thoroughly pnii'ci 
aw the I'llii'f, if not Ihe nole iiuusi- of rsten«ve niithrraks, iluil iaunvl 
ill tlio tht^iry hiis fallen nlf, and iv^ silpjHirlers are now fen' in iidiiiIkt. 
I'etli-nkofer ' him.-^clf, however, \n\» to the end a^ nnnmijiroinii'iiif,' a* "» 
the b«^uninp, and found no difficulty in apfdying it to the great cp- 
dnuie of eholem in Hiiinbnrg, in 1S!):2. 

Till' contention tJuit the cxlniordinaiy eiideiuieity that previuW * 
long ut Miinieh was due to the filthiiie^s of the i<ti1isoil, nhic): "i* 
honvyeonilM\l with i'>(-fi«))ooli<, ittniiol lightly be bruslted Uf^itir, for i( i^ 
a ftict tluit, with di<)mntinuanee of tbe.-^ alxiniinationM, ai>il nith ' 
py-^ein of inii>i\>vi'«l !H^-W('r!ip\ the lyjilioid fi-viT rale fell fn>m ilfl |W 
li<^n n" H h-itder ihiwn animig the lowi>t known. Xor wa^ this full i'u<\ 
m* hae \yfvn claimed, |rt rhunge in tite watei' stipidy, for the i^ntil <']''' 
deiuin< had ccai«il, und tlte full hud long I'^tulinned, belure tJic aiUC 
8np|>ly wu< elian^'d. 

Kx)N>rinient has shown lluit (he ty]i)ioid nrgtmiMn mny irttii 
vitality ill tt«- w>il for eonsideniMr peri'xU iiuder favoring niniljl 
tif wamith'and inoii-lure. Koln-rtMrn ' r»i>niVMl «■!» from ?e>"( 
jiluiTs in u tiehl, and wel tlw ejt|).<M^ H>il with diliiltxl ty]iboid oilnii**) 
one at lite t^tirfape, one nt u de|»tli of nine inelu.<;<, and a thinl at iij:lOTB 
InolieM. AOer UtO days, the Ittirilli on the ^nrfatx- luiil mnlti{>liiil. UM 
wlii-pp they luid lui-n jihui-'l i-ighttfn inehe* below, llu^.' roilM al«>l> 
fonitd in the Mirliwv layi-r. Ijiut on, in ihi- winter, no rexilix wml 
be oblaiiivd ; hut in tlte sfiring, Ite nioi^-leiKxl the |>atehee with i>1rHl 
bouillon ill ver>' ttiliite eottilition. aini ullt nvard huceecded in o1>biif 
iitg growths. 

) ManoWwr »nl(rlniu4i<' WnchnM-kltll. Mav 3, I8M. 
■ BritiA M«lk«) Jounat. Jan. tt. INSa 



jevnai 



A 



son. ASD DISEASE. 



299 



Tills [Kwitivo n-miU iwtwnli' willi (lie views of (joriiiiiii",' who foiiud 
that typhoid Iwcilli will live li>r months when inciniipletoly dry ; but 
awiTtliii'T to Flrijrp', i.ln-y iln not Mirvivc oimijili*tr liryiiijj Idiip-r fhiiri 
lil^eeii day-i. In air-<imil tomlitidii tiny apixiir to liave iminipairixl 
viluliiy for sonif ilays, aivjjrdiiiir to BrowiilK-,' who <lrii'<I iiiul ^Icrillwd 
"inliTWi-}' soil uml ihcii iiifert<il il with a limtli i_-iiltiiP- "f typhoid and 
ki'pt it at !)H° F, for a day. It was then lefl exiMisetl to the air for a 
witrk, during whicli timi- it Ki'iiim- siiffioiciitly dry to Iw iwsily >K«t- 
lored by the breath. Cnlliircs fnim thi? gave positive requite. But 
it sliotitd ht- ri-iiit<mh('ri'<l that air-^h'itnl t»t]] rontnins loii^idi'iiihU- 
hypnisraipif! wilier ; wmhiwiiK-iilly hi^ iKicilH wurt- doublless fairly 
wi-ll -iiipplit^) with till' npctvi)iary moisnirc (H' mure im{n>rlan<n?-, ajj- 
purcutly. than tbi.- (piwtion of nKii^tiin- — for all soils possi-.ss simw? — is 
the Datun- of the contained oi^iiio matliT. Dr. Sidney Martin* has 
shown tliiit iitipoUiiti.-<l (virj^in) soils riiv ininiiud lo itii.- U'phoi<I Uicilhis, 
n^nllesciif ihe amount of their cioutiiinod oi^iiic nuitter of vegetidde 
<irif;iii, while S]HtMnK*ns coniiiinin)-: )>olhilii)g materia] of animal origin 
favor its existence. Such, after sterilization, were plant<-d Mieef-s-" fully, 
uimI it WHS learned tliat, in the (trt-st?nee of inoi>ture, dift'ereuees in Icm- 
peniture hiid but little inlhicnw. Thus, the orpmtsin lliriviil alsiut 
t-fjiially well when Hixi^inienf* were ki'i>t at ilS" V., at onlinary i-oom 
leniperatnrv, and a« low as .17' V. By no incitns the Iwwi inlen-^iting 
observation made was with regaril to the duration of viability of the 
iHieithis. In one of the sterilii^ed polIut«iI soils, llie orj^iniism Mtis .'^lill 
aetivc at the expiration of 45tj days; and even then, after thorough 
drying and pulveriaition, active nfWh emild be obtained. In iinu- 
pany with vatnous species of baeleria, among whidi the pi-edominaiit 
tcinds wew itienilM'rs of the H. rjiti fjroup, it was rwovcred after 50 
days' exposure to telu(>er!ltur^^ ranging betMeen ii~° and lil" F. 

Ijnter ex peri men ts.' in whieh the typhoid orpuii^ni wa.-« plimted with 
different soil baeteriii, provitl that various s|ieeies from a partieulur --oil 
hadihe"p(>werofcom|iletely exterminating it within a short time, while 
uthcrs had no iuHuciice whatever. ThertHore, it wonid apiMiir, whether 
or not the ivjihoid oi^inif^m Kin e\L>it in a given soil, will de^xud ii|Kin 
the kind.-, of soil baeleriiL presi-ut, ;l'< well us upon >|iei'ia] eonilitious id' 
teniperaiiire and ihimpness. Dr. Martin foiinil the jKTiod of vitality 
in un.«lerilized soil.t to be ahtait 1 2 days, but in ito eo-se did tlw urgnniMii 
npjK-ar to multiply. He alleges two i-etu-ons wliy one t^annof exix-et it to 
thrive in (he snrfaee layers of .-oil. The (ii^t is that the more hardy eolon 
hurilln:! is most eonmionlv not to Ix- tiuind, exeeptinji in i-ases ctf reei-nt 
animal pollution, or present in sjKU-se proportion ()nly ; and this would 
indient« tluit the surfiK^e soil is nnfavorabh- to the grunth and vitality 
of non-sporing bacteria of intotiiial orifrin. The seeond reiison is the 
fru{iu.-m presi-mr of physitud eondilions iuimimi to mierot>ial life, 



' SWisfhrifl Itir HTKtene iiiitt liirotUonah runic lioiuti, XXlV., p. 403. 
» Public Hdilth, J,m.. 1««. II. -i-l. 

* tUfHin nf ]jLtcal titn-etrmu'TU Itunrtl, I89S, Lontlon, 1899. 

* Ibiik-iii, IflOtt, I.<iniji>n, IfHll. 



THK SOIL. 
mif^vUfi by llie cnormnus |irc|iorKk-nii)(x- of B|>orv« oS wmbie 

Tho cffVi-t nt' tctii(H-niIiin' cliiiDp!.-! tiiiv In llii- |in'*cnrn' of nnitiwl ii* 
crela inixctl with llic wiil is r^liowii bv (taoilnor' to l>f wu^cralJe. 
He intriKliKXMl oulttirrs of x'arioiw nr^nUnii^ in wiix- luisltrts iiiio i!ie 
iiiU-riur of fMii]M^<t licHps of viiri<iii:> ('iHn{wifiunii, wliicli iMwanir Itcalnl 
to ilifTerent t'Xieiil!*, and obwnwi lliat the Imcilli of t>-|ilwi<l ami 
cholera were (In- l(4i.->l nvii^tjiiit of iiU. With m))i<l iiitil riiiirknl Wr- 
iii;;, tliMT life wtis tihort ; but it spprnrs prolmbiD tluit iu ilio uti^iit 
of h<nt, will H'ith rlic frivcii Minxxiiidiii^p-, tln-v niiiv liw ihn>Uj:h 
tlti- winter, l.'ntlvr (hv ordiiiiinr' licattii^ thui iiomimxl iii thi' <x>in]i'<!li 
those two or|^iii»nii< were <ie8troyed in a wwk, wliih- ihv lix-illa^ «f 
tiilifi'i'iiio-iK r^^TiiiiiuiI viriilciil n iiiiiiibi-r of months. 

Hut anicle i'nmi what we glciiii fnnn 8*'ientilic n-M'jirrh with lie ;(«- 
v'liU' orptiii.-'ini^, wo know from ex jn-ricnw that then; an- nuiny jilaM 
with iKilIiitcd Boib where typhoid fever wat unknown until the ull^w^ 
tntion of ii .lin^lv msv froni without, and thiit, iiAcTM-iird, fiporndir <]!<(«, 
fur which no couvincin^j cxphiniition is afTordi'd. hiivc occiimil "l 
viiryinji iiiU-rvnIrt. And in iviuntn' di^lri(■^s, wlto.-k- inlinliiUiit» re 
not nivtn lo tnivclliiifi much U^^oiid thi- cx>nliiit^ of tlu-ir la^n^ ii i» 
notief^l fi^-ijuently that single itues occur iu the same houwlioM «' 
inteivnls of ii ycai- or lonjfcr. 

In such eiisefH, it seems hardly resiHtiuihle to wiy tluit the orijpiu! 
(tlsc liu.-* I<'l> niitliin^ iii> llic exriliti); chom- lor hiler attacks, uiiil ll»> 
tresh iiilnHluctions uf the Npccilic or^ini^ni niii^t liiive «HTiimii iVmi 
wonic iniktiown sourei-, for it is not unlikely thai llie varirty of oaiili- 
linns that afl'tvt the viability of the orpuiir^ni may. in Wime «isiS^ id 
li< ki'cp il alivf, and, on occafiiotiit, stimulate it Into a condition of ai'l^ 
niciiU'tl aetivity. 

Cholera, — ('oneeniinK the relation of this disease to the m\\, tluw 
!■ lull little lo Ik- wiiil. IVior to the dis<fiv<Ty of ihft spcdfie iHvniiWHt 
th<' soil th<-ory of the origin of cpidcmie oulbrenk^ had twi-^li-nil^i' 
vogiic; liiil now il ts Uiiowii that, even in tinus of gniiti^t iin'Milii™" 
of tile discjiK', the or^^aiiisni liai« never bivii iolind timlcr ii.-itiirsl i""- 
ditions in the floU, It can l>e k<'pt alive under eeriuin favomhle «">• 
dilion^ of nioisltire and W-nt i'm- vat%'in^ ]M'riiKl.-<: bni nndi^ lutinN 
conditions it is one of the least ixwistant bacti-riu and tguiekly di(^<. ^* 
Imvi- no I'viilfiic'i- ivhalevcr thiil cholera i.'« a soil disease. 

Bubonic Plague. — ^This lia-^ been re^rdt^l lu a Kill di'iuiso; ninl i^ 
has Ui'ii iK'liovtrd. from tin- fai-t thai rats have U-cil eonsi>ipuous wik" 
tiins of it in the early »taf{i''« of ilr- dcviisluliiif; oittbmiki^, tluit li«« 
animals have acquired the infection in the soil, and have bnxi|fU * 
to the nurfat<c, iirnj ihiiw aclci! tw ils mrriii^i. Hiit nits aiv nolori'WU 
frcipientei-s of jd.ices where filth of all kimlw a<vun)u1utes, :iii<l tl if 
not sintii)fe that where tliey and tilth abound, they )>evonie diiwascd, if 
the iiifwtivc agent i^ priwnt. 

The trenienitous epidemics that luive raged within ibe piLst few y«; 
■ '/xitiviiritl fur Ujrfivne unil [i)rei-tiur»kranklii!iten. XXVIU., p. I. 



soil. AND DISEASE. 



301 



pro»ci)t«I iiiiiti<iiiil ojiiMirtmiititf lor cxtcncivp study, wliicb tliiis far has 
)iff>ir(l<>ii no tvidcnfv whatever tliat tho dinaHf' is roil-lmrnc. It bus 
Iki'II shown, (jii tlir ciiiirnirv, llmt liii- )>hi^ii(- Inirillu^ (Uk-s not long 
sun-ive iu the wil. YokoU-,' for iiirtjinw, obl:iin«tl a number of niiw 
Uial hud i!ic<I of the disi-jwc, and hnriHl them in j^nnli-ii jitiil which \\a* 
kept well moii-li'Utd. At uborl iiitcrvaU, hi' i^nmviil tht'in Miwcssivelv, 
mid i-xaHiiiu-d ihein r-ultnrdlly and hv animal i-xp«>rimi'ntatioti. Th*- 
longest mtcrvai bctwwn iuunnt-nt ami |in>of of wmtiuiittl virulence 
was thirty days, and it was shown that the hijther the temperntiiK' and 
Hic more ni(>i<l the dccompotiilion. ihu «lM>rt«T (lie life of Uio organism. 
The soil in the immedinti> vicinity of the animals prove<I to Iw free 
fniin tbi' Ivu'iili. 

Diphtheria. — Although there is no prtwf tliiit tbc bacillus of djpb- 
ihiTin in found cvi>n wa iui occasional lodgt^r in the soil, there is a g^'n- 
enil agreement tlial a cIoh? i-ounccliou fxi?t*i bctwivn i^oil diimpniir^ and 
tlif jin-valcnci- of this di.-e.iw. It in true thiit exiwrimt'nt ha^ dcjiion- 
fitraled the viability of the orgaiiii<in in nuiiMt siiil.^ fin- liinittil jM-nodn, 
but it has never bien found iu soils othtT than thot^e in which it was 
dciMjfittfl tutculiouully. Ttio comnioii bdicf i* that a moist soil ih tin 
invariable concomitant of unu'^nal prevalence, and ihiil iu timei^ of 
^nmjmiiilivc fiv-ciloni fit)ni the ili^-tLSi-, the soil is diy and the level of 
the grouTid- waiter low. "As long n* the w>il is well >vasli«l by tho 
winter's high lidc and afn-rwaitls dried and nitrated during the summer's 
low title, uU goc* well: but so s<x»n «s tlicse siitUary itiovcmcuts arc 

■ested or tlu-ir ordi-r dliturbi-d, dijthlheria ]irftvails, niiching i(s 
cme of prevalence when stagnation at a relatively high level is must 
oomplele."' 

Awonling to l>r. 8. M. Co|iemiin,* llien- apj>eurs to be no direct 
relation between epidemics and rise or full of the ground-water, " pro- 
vidwl tluit t.h(' stnu'lnre .'ind atmosphere of the I1011M.S are not iifTii-twl. 
Many districts, which, usually dry, are liable to ix'wisional Hoods, are 
remarkably fni- from the disi'iise, so that it Hp[M'iirs tlial a [x-rsisti-iit 
impregriatiou of the soil with moisture is of more imm>rtancc tlmn 
Huctuations in the height of the gronnd-waler, particularly if these 
have anv eonsidenible ruTige," 

Oppoiicd to the views above espressed are the conclusions based on 
a iiHwl earefnl and extensivi- invcsligalion by Dr. Arthur Ncw.xliolnie,* 
uf epidemics of diphtheria in all civilized e<»untries and their incident 
oomlitions of raintiill and soil cnoiriUire. Dr. Newsholnie's eminence 
as a skilful interpreter of the value of statistics, and the fact that no 
fiueh exhaustive inijuiry into this question has ever before been made, 
enlillr his emiclnsions to more than onlinary weight. .Admitting lluit 
personal infection is the chief means by which diphtheria is spreail from 
town to town, nod from nnmtry to eountry, Ik* sumninrin's hU i^iser- 



■ CculmlblDtt frir Kaktoriologic. Ablli. I., XXlIUjr. mm. 

' NoiicT mill Fioh, TrMiliH! on llytricnr, ISM, p. 183. 

' Sit'vfiiMiMi Hiiil Miir|ihv, Tim t 1mm III llyKiono, \%9i. Vol. [., p. 388. 

' The Urigiu ami t![iiHuJ uf l*jTi(lFt[ii<^ l')i]ibtlieriu, Louilou, 1893. 



30S 



TltE SOIL 



vutiult^ uii ilic rt'lutioti b^twcvn tninfiitl and ground-vrftk-r nnd tbetiigia 
til' epiik-mi^- tliplithpria an folloxvs: 

" 1. All ■•|iiili-iiiii- '>r ili|i1itliiTiii ni-vri- ori^iiuili^, in iIk- towiitvuii} 
cixiiitrioh in wliidi I liavi- Uin able to wilUvl fiiols, wliiii llicre h*i 
Ixrii II Hi-ri<s i>ry«Hr» In wliicli mcli vuir*!* raintall \» nbove tbi-aven^ 
aiiiuuut. 

" 2. An epitlemic o( (lijihthiria never originates <ir onntinoes io i 
wrt v«ir (i. c, II joir in wliicli the Uitiil iinntml niiiifull i* niiilrrnllr 
alinve the nvcniji:!- uniniint), iinlciri jWk wt yi^r tViUou> »« tv>i •* 
niiin- ilry yi-iim iiiitii<iliali-iy |iri'[tilin^ it. 

" :t. Till- tpidiniiiw III' (li|>litlii'm, for wliicb aocurate datu un- tvA- 
nIiIc, linvc all »ri)pjiiit<'d in dry ynint (f. r., vntm iu vliicli ibr Mil 
jinniiikl riiiiitiill i> nmtoriiilly Ik-Ihw tliu iivcm^' iimo«ii)t). 

"A. Tin- j;ri'ut«it an<l most cxtiusive i>i)i(ii«iit>< of iIi|>Urlii>ri«liii)r 
«K'i-iimi.i «lii-n tliiTi' liavi- lic«'ii fmir t>r tivo conj^'CHtivv dn- yiiiw.llir- 
c)ml<-niic .hi .met i men i^turting neiir tlie bt^uning «f thi» Sfrir^, ai "'li^ 
tiniui not iiiilil iimr it" ond. 

"5. Piy yiiini imply low {;niiiii<l-natcr, nii<l wc find, iIu'oYiot. iu 
tla- y<'nr!« of (■[>i(lciiii<' di|>l)llit'i-iii tluil tin- Kniinnl-«iUt'r i> cxtviili'iiully 
low. Tlic txiul vuriiitiuni^ in the fjnuii id- water wliicli most fiivnr vpi' 
dcmif dipbtlioriii raiinot, witli tho diila to liand, iis vH hv Htntiii: L>ut 
it in proljubk- tliiit wlitn lliij^ !;• rUini-tl ii[i it will Ixwonii; elwir whv in 
<-xi'i'ptii'iial y«ii» wiiioli have u dvficieiil rainfnil epidemic diphtlifrin i» 
fitlii-r iiW'iil or l)(i( slifjlit," 

It lin>< otlcn In-cn [toiiilod out tliat lot^il H>il i-onditioti* mai-»if, 
dunipiiiiw of Iniltiliitioii.x I'Viii in <lry yi.'ikr>, mii-Ii dunipiuKs, lor iu^tuun. 
as olitainK ill houses built over wpt imjicrvioiis cluyi^, i-iiiidurc to iMl- 
Iwtwlwof diplitlicriii in tin- lUvi-Ui-r^ i herein ; but. iw is well known, <iia> 
diinipneiifl aet- ay :i vi-rj' inijKirliUil (k-prci^Kint of tlit- viliil f«fvWiiiBJ 
prcixiarv tin- niiii'ons nii-nibranes of the respinitory traet for the fwct- 
able ri'ivptiun of I'iK.fitic or^ini!^ini> of viirimi'' kimU. 

Malaria. — It has ev<-r Imh'u held that the most iutimati> n^nlw* 
exi-its ktwecn tliL- soil and innlurin, ec|i«fially prondiK-nl in dictrli'** 
alHuindiii^ in nuirHh land!*. It Ii&k bei-n iioii<f)l r<')ki'Utiilty tlul id 
malarious eiiiiiiti-i<'.i the uplnriiiiig and I'XC'SVation of wet or ilam[i -"O 
are connnonly followed by the wvhitcikx; of the dit'Ui.-*!.' iiiiiou^ lli» 
labonTii so entpiffed. 

Infection apj>tm> lo lie esiH-cially eonimou nftt-r Mindowii ami al 
ni^ht ; when'lorc ilwellerfe in phwys where the dii^tiiw is rife Ihivi-IkW 
vtijolntil to avoid goiii}: about after nightfall. This is fxplaiii<'<t liy iW 
a»i«um|ttion lluit the ]>oiM^>n, ro«tdenl iti the noil, i» brought up inU'li'* 
atmosphere by the soil air, which ris** toward evening by tnuon « 
elianKV!* in density. As to the iiiltuenoe of the ri"- and &11 ofOT 
level of the Rroiind-%vuter, tlu' evidence is veri' ciiiillictiiit;- '^'"^ 
anlhorilifs lind tiial it |>1iiys a very im]Hit-tant iwrt, i^mie find no i^' 
miflion wlmU'Vcr, S«neoftlK»H' who ixiTojjnize tlic cxinnertiim asnrt 
tlint the disenee iucreases as tlic level riw*, while otWrs, uotjtbly ViifK\ 
have foiiiid tlie relation to he ej£ai;tJy n'venmxl. With tsucli abMJuldj 



son. AyD DISEASE. 



303 



(■out rail u'toiA- conclusion!', ImwwI oii obwrvatious oouducted lucwtly 
without systi'm and for short periods, il would tiwiti nfiiionnblc to 
rtini"! it't; mallci- Ji» nn ii[<cii i|ii(-.iti(iii, witli tlu' cIihuocn iu favor of the 
|>(>!<iiioii tiikon bv those who ileiiv all ooiineRtion bftwiHtn the disi^isi- 
mill iiiov(-Mi(-n(.-> of lh(- uiili-r in llu- Mtli^oil, (.-xiTjit in sn far txa the 
iiioveiiieut is downwurti by reasoD of soil diaiuage, wbcrelty tlie .ntirlhije 
layiirs «re rendered dry. 

With Rfpinl U) the very coinmoii ii!f;<ociiitioii of the dii^ease with 
marshy localities, it fbonld Im> said that malaria in it.- wor»1 foniii> i« 
bv no mmTii^ rim.'oininoii in dtM.Hi;'!* lliiil iirc tiot (i> Ijt- claii^H'd Ms wet ; 
and, funberniore, that ilitTc are many and txtensive marshes in this 
voniitry nnd olscwhorc, in nn<l ncnr whioh tho tlL^ioftM' i» unknown. 
SHn<ly soils ri'Sting on wet cliiy, and rocky solid in \vliich i-onsidend)le 
vokinii'-'' of wiittT itri' lu-lil in ti.-vsiiivs, may Ih- (|nit<^' a--< nmhu-ions us 
the avcni;re tufirsh. 

The association of malaria with mar^heH and other wel soils, ibe fact 
that brisking into and cKcuvatiiij; v,\-t »oiU Imvc the disctutc a» u common 
conseqnem-e, the danger of t^>ill(; alKHit after siinilowii, anil es|Hi'ially 
of sl<i.-jiint; out cil'diMirs in mnlurioiis districts, and other u|i|inreTil evi- 
denees of eani^id relation of thw soil, are all fompatible with the iheorv 
of iraiisferreiii^ by masquiloc), which lately ha.-> en^i^il tin- iitleiilion 
of HO many ^cienti^itrt. 

But if ihc soil have no diroet causal relation, how can ■mt- e\|ilain 
the sn(>|"Wil intliK-rnv of tlic will air at nijjlit ? Very siinjily. Ad- 
milting; tliat itifi-i-tiuii i.-> eaiisi'd most eorimioidy at iiij^ht or aftL-r nnn- 
dowti, it i]iuy be :[^ldc<l that it is at these times that mosqnit<H-s are 
most aittive. Kut, again, malariid )K>ison is s:iid tn Ix* eoneentnit<''l in 
the lower stnitn of the atnio^iihen-, that is to my, not nutiiy feet from 
the inKumd, So. indeed, are mos<]nitofs, 

Il has been sliiliil timt snbsnil dniina^' bus converted vast tracts 
of malarir>iis eoimtvy into sidubriims Girmintr land and sites ilir 
flourishing (owns. Hen^ the t:roiind-water level lias Ixcti drjiwii 
down; how does this affect mosqnitocs'' By draining the snltsiiil 
we dnun the Mirijiee, ami bv iliaininj; the snrliii^ wi- nihice the 
op]«>rtunilies for mosi|iiit<>-breediiijj;. Moreover, the Miil is cleared up. 
setiUsi an<l etiltivateil, and eiillivation ia incompatible with standing 
puddles. 

BelivverK in the soil-malaria theon- point out that mosi[nitoe8 are 
diulribnte*! mncli more widely tluin nmluriii, and ask wb\ the hvo arc 
not in this nwjH'et in greater agreement. If it emild be fiikkil that the 
original parasite i» diftribiit<.-<l us widelv as the mos<|nitii, and that all 
varieties of mos<(Hitoes have exactly the Nitne cliaracteri'^titw, or tliat 
ibcrr- w but mw spi-eies, the (jiutstion wonld be a difficult one. But wn 
cannot a-wcil that the |^KiniT<itc Is disscniimitc"! «i widily, and we know 
llut ditrert'iil kinds of niosqnitof^ have very different characteristics, as 
will be •ih<iwn in tli'' ihiipter rchtiri'i thereto. 

Tetanus and Malignant (Edema. — It U well known that the 
cH^anisms of these two diwasej* an- Ibnnd veiy commonlr in most 



THU SOIL. 

^nk'ti wiilri, in road diist, and lo mhI !n general which has beeo to- 
rit-hcil l>y the ndditinn nf di-n>iii|Nk->iii^ orpiniv miitlpr. Bill in ppiir 
of the (iid lliiit o])j)<trltnii(y f'lr infection thr»tt)^i iibnifioiis ctil«. mid 
wonmls uf the luiuiLi, Ini, inid ntlu-r [xinx is ii martcr of dailf >K«iit> 
rciii'i- wirli n Im-p- i)ni|Mii-ti(in of tlit- |xi>i>k', thtw; dLN^-iwoi* arc i-»ni{snf 
ttvdy iiDconiRion. They are nolii-ed luoM commoply ia au*s of ai«s 
iiijiirioi, siirh iw <-otii|MJiiiiil fnu'tiiww, and in Hliaiu-ring wixntiln tiur t> 
cxidiixivcw. 

An iiunniml Dumber <if iviih'-i of tctntius ncnurrvd in vuriiMin Ifmiliiics 
ill tl)i> ciiiintrv fullituint; on the niiiiuiil •Li-tobntioii of natiaiul indr- 
jx'ndem-u in IH'Jit. lu Nt'w York City llietv wi-n- 11 ilnill>« in * 
^iii);l(' day, and in Ko.it»ii no kw than t> on tlio Mimt- diiU'. all fnllinlii^ 
injiimw to thi' hand due to mniiuti crackers niiide, it i^i cLiiniHl. «iib 
Ditrii^tyeerin or aintiii>iiiiuri jm-rult! ni' iiii i-.x|i1<>»ivc^ (iiniKm-il uidi 
orditian' uirtli i>r Nind lis a vdilvh'. Thv Hniie ihin^ vra^ i>|iHf\'iiJ a 
UtUO, UK)l,and 11)02 Ihroiiglioiit ihc Innd. In dikii^r, iltcn-urr^iiii 
]ixM tliiii) 2t) iUtilli)> fix>in telanuii durin); the twitity days fntu Jiiiir2o 
lo .Tuly 14, UHKl, all tun ."t of wUieli v.cw liumi wikmid." fmm ix|>Iimv» 
in (Ik- fimn of lilank «irtri<l;r(>. lint examination of c-annoti cmift' 
in llic- author'!^ Inlwrnitoiy, liy Dr. D. II, Walker, dikI of bbitk cami'lprt 
and wiwU. Iiv Di-. H. (.J. WciU,' of (.'himjK), (l>r untlirax »[ior««, Iwn' 
yieklwl alisoliitcly ne(rati%-e results ; and ii \t- nwiwt likely, tJicn'fon-, ibai 
the infii-liiin Lh due to the oi^mi.-nii* almidy on tile Mirfucx^' of the Jirt* 
hand of the cclchniiit when the accident (Kx-niv. 

Anthrax. — 'I'lx' Imeilhis of anthrax liu.« Im-n found in tW soil i^ 
|)nstnnv> in whieli infi-cttxl Hiiinud« Imvv been conlimtl, and tlvcuf tlui 
nt oiietinie that, lollowuig the him'ing of animals dend with the dt 
the wiil eniild be irifecti*! tliopounliiy ihriHiyh .»|iore fiimmtiun, lln 
bcinj: lu'r>ii)rlit l'> the nurlace hv earthworms there to Iw the (Ww'iJ 
fresh inftvtions. Now, hcnve\'er, this view is repirded as tu«w 
flinoc the s]>ores are not Ibnncd within the [HitrefX'ing uiixsm, 
(he Imeillnti il«'lf in soon deplroyed in Ihc proce«i of tlpctimpo«ilioii 
of the tissnee. Thus when » IxhIv i.^ buried, tlw- orpuii^m* w 
wjou n?iideiMl in<-ii|itkb)c of reprodnctimi or of eontiniiing their ""B 
exisleiin-. 

Tin? tliiion- thiU the spoiw im- bronjrht to the surfece by bunowiW 
earthwormi<. \m^ tleniolii^hed by Koeh.* wh(i<« ixhk'Iumimm wi-ro b(W« 
iijion tlirei-t expi'rimeiit, and was abandoned by I'arfetir hiniM-lf, «u* 
first sajjf^'slnl i( iNttiUi^- of limiinp'.ix'nv in ih«- siij>erficiid layer of™ 
nt a sjMit where, two years previously, a cow, dcud of the discs.-*, !>» 
Imvii Imric^l iit n ilepth of <iver two mi^i^rs, a de|»lh not onlicuinl.'^ 
tutelictl by cnrthwoniLS in their biirrowin);. 

The«-fiirv, it sit-tns most likely that fn'sh onlhn'iiks amonR nttit 
grnniitt on fietil* where others Ikivi- dic<l and have Ikvh biirieil are do* 
not to llie bnrieil orfcunis.nn^, bat lo timse which in one u-ay or U' 
other, from tlM< blood or (lejeda of fonner iTU^n*, linvv Invu doposili 

> Utill-iil Nt'«t, Jiioo 1, I90I, ]>. R.%4. 

■ MtttliviltiDi^ii •iiH ikflii kaisrrlicliMi Owmdlicllsauilr, ISSI. 



SOIL AND DJSJUSE. 



SOS 



on the Burfaoe. We liaw no evidenco whate\'er that man ib even 
oocu.-iouiilly iiiti-i-liHl iliriftly with the (li.si«»'! ('n>m the ^il. 

Epidemic Diarrhoea. — The ^rcat |>rcviik-Deo of dtRirhinil i]i)K-uscs, 
e»|Hfiall_v iituoii^ vory young fthihhvii, during (he bottiT months of the 
y«ir, liJi!^ lunp ciipifjitl the alU'ritkni i>f siiiitiiriHiis an « trcim'M<liiii« 
facior ill tlje alwavM high ileath-nite of the firet age ixriods; hut be- 
yond tJio ob«.T\aiic<; of « few eoinotdt-ncts, no connection hiw bvea 
proved to exint l>etwecii It uud the hjiI. 

Si>iiie nothririlie" liuve iiilvitncMxl the mthtir mfe [iro|>OHition that im 
iinuiiual degree of oi-ganic ^HillutiOD, not ncctvstiriiy txerenientiil. |ir»t>. 
ably niakc* u siiil timii- lavorable to high morbidity and inortaliiy fmm 
diarrtitPii, but this Is a pnjposition tluit is ofiennl witti e(|iifil or gniiler 
j*ocurity in tlie ca^ of any infective disease the eatise of which ha* not 
bt-eu aeeiiRitcly dcnnonstniteil, fur ihe !(■-■« we know of a <<an.'H.-, the 
greater the ditlicully of refuting gi>ituiloU!i theories eoneeruinjr it. 

Il haji hivn notieetl tluit the njiwunl eurve of llii- diwiuse diK-n not 
be^n until the soil at a given depth liiw attiiuicd nomrwhere aboiif a 
piven lem|KniIure, ninl frum thU i* inferrtHl a eansal relation. But one 
might go turther and note tliat, at this trODirivhiit iidvutnred stage of tho 
warmer .•^eii^on, leiuiin fruitn have just appeared in tlie market, or that 
the i^(u«on for others hu-s gone by, or that eertutn binN of the «ir hsvo 
just liatcbed their fir«t broods, and then with eqiml right discover 
cniiMtlily in any of lUva: coineidenei^ 

In the investigation of milk supplies in single cases and in groiijw 
of CMMi* in ><ingle hoUfiehoKIs ;ind in iTii-(itiitions, various verj- virulent 
organisms liave Ixvn found, inelutliug B. ctilerilidin »porog€nt»; and 
thix orguiiu<m huit b(<en niiieh nought for in tin; soil. 

The results obtained by Houston ' are thus far the nio'^t indicative 
of poMible ioiplimlioji of the soil. He examined '21 siiniple.'t of miil in 
vjiriou^ conditions as to oipmie matters, and tbimd that positive results 
were verj' depiiudeut U|>on tin- nature iind i-xloit of the orgnnie iKtlln- 
tioo. Se^'cn wiits, 6 of whieJi were virgin soils I'outaining frum vei^' 
little to mtMlerate amounts of vegf'table matter, an<l the wveiith from 
an unmiinunil orchiiixl. gave ahi^ihilclv uegiitive rewilt*. Three sup- 
(wiK'dly virgin, but rieh hi v^etable matter, and 4 iinmanured orehni-d 
and garden soils, gavi- vwy slight evidence of n jiosiiive eluinieter; 
ami the reiiiHinder, consisting of 1 from an orchard, 4 from manured 
gunlens, and 2 which had been ]>oUuted cxiensivoly \vilh e.vercmentnl 
niatU'W, vii'ldi-d the siMiriw in nbnndan<'e. 

It is not unlikely that the infecti\'e agent, whatever ils origin, owes 
milch of its di.HM-niiimlion to Ix^ing blown »bont in the dn.->l of tiie air, 
and on thi^ ]H>int l)r. E. W, Hope' bus made the interesting observation 
that, during a ijoriml of twenty years, at Liveriiuol, the higli<-M <Ieiilh* 
rale o<'currMl in the year whox- lininmer had the iciist r.uiithll. and the 
lowest in that in which the summer niin was greate-i in amount; and 
that tlu! fourii.t-u yeur!< wilii uveruge dn* :<nmmer-->, in which tiic iin^u 

' l{«i>on of XiunX riDTirnmrm Riiuril fov ItiOy. Londnii, lt>V9. 
' Pullk- Umlth, July, IMW. 



1 



3oa 



THE SOIL. 



Jiiuo t4> ScptomtHT niinfiill WW 10.9 inHic:*, »v«raf^ about M pfT 
ci.-nt. more tnorlality (liiriii); tlit- {(lurtor than tlip bix uvcR^ti- vtiA sm- 
ii»-rs witli a mi'iiii niiiitkll ol' i:i.8 iiichi-H for tho w)m-!*j«>iiJiii); ]i*niid. 
Tlio oxpliuiiilion tilltri'*! U \\\v very pljtii^iUU- ono, llml Ih-jw rWvrt 
wniih the atmosplicw antl the aecuiiiulalious «(' dust and filth in ibt 
»trt«-ti«, cm nxil'", and cW-w Iw-rt?, nml thun diiniainii |)m;(Iu.41 MipfiU-. But 
until we have further e^'i(le^<.■c of ouniiec-liou, hat^.tX ii)>uu actual 'ta\v- 
ligation and nut ii{>oii cunjcinun-, wo cannot make any {KMulivc iLvcmiia 
of the relntiuii uf thv t-i>il to ihe disuMe. 

Goitre, — The varioiw theories wmneding individual (vuLMitDcni* of 
Uif H)il witJi Boilre Imvc now \kvu woll-nijih uiiivcrsidly uIhuhIiidkI. 
(dnoe no one of them 1ms lR»eH found t»> Imld good in dilTerHit loaliliw 
hiivin;; thi- siiiiu- general M>il cliumt'ti.-ri.'itiR'. ThiL-i, the niniPH^tiD 
liuicsloDe iht-ory, whieli ni i«<>me quarten- \n AxW in fuvor, ran lunllv 
stiind in Uie faivof the taei that. In .-wnne vaM traett^ofsueh foniiatidii. 
»• in parte of New ^^hIimuI. fur iustunMs the <lL«<iiw i> iinittinilly 
unknown. Similarly, the metallie sulphides eeca|»e eonvietion, for in 
diHtriet.'?! wlirn- they uliotnid exieiiNively, the dLo.tti^ may be HlK«eu(, ui"! 
Ui others when- they iiri' unknown it may prevail. 

Yellow Fever,— fondcniiu}; yellow fever tn- a f*oiI iHsiaiM', w* ess 
only ;tuy that the evidence of eonuL-etion \t inirely oimiinstHnliulii 
mncji resembles that acK-anetxl in siipjiort nf ihe theory as to nial 
The «inie di^f-trvuf effwts of exwi%iitintf wet roWn, and I'^jx'ebUy tl 
in wbit^h viotiins of epideniim liave lain undisUirl>e<l Ibr nmuy y™i\ 
have often l>e**n re|><>rt<'<] in a, very geiieml way ; but one nmy w|w* | 
great difficult}- in attempting to loeute with geographical aceui 
MCtie of miniy of tlie ni<>.-4 int4>n^ting and i^triking of th(«<e 
happenings. While it may Iw [loswihie tluit tlK* mtil ofler- the can- 
roKiavnco within il.-^If where viiiiiity may he eoniw'n-ed ami, perliijis 
multiplieation favored — wc have «» yet no evidence b<4iriu^ en 
question. 

Agikintit the theory- of causal relnlion iK-tween diritnrl)an<:e of tlw 
and iiutbre»k« of yellow fever, nniny iti^tauoo^ may he cited, in "lit 
unibr iip)«n.'ntly liivomble eonditions, the neetim^niv of the otio 
not Ix-eii fi>ll«we<l by tin- other. Thus, iu I8fl4, th<' rtreet^ itf Jnrll- 
Bonvillo, l-'bi., and of Drtmswiek, Ga., were d«g up during tlic out 
Minimer; in IXHO, at Mobile, .\ la,, about \1^ niiW nf luiuvdiiit 
Kwrrs were laid rhtring the t^nmmer; between IS1MI and It'iH) t 
stn-ete of New Orlwiim, l-i., wen- exiensiveiy dug up in tin- ecHirw 
puhlie inipixiv('ment>, !in<l t» not one of tlieH.- |>lnoii< did the 
iiiullh apjw-.ir III suffer in eou£«i{U«-nc« of the exesivations. ' 
contrarj', in New Orkan.-, when it wuh vtxiie<l in ISHTaud 1$99 
yellow fever, the piirtK of the city where the stnet« were dug Up 
liened to be singularly free from the di^tti'C. 

As in llie «w of mahirta, tlH- will theory w giving way lo thtl 
transntiivion hy nii>M|nil'>e«. 

Other Diseases. — With regard to Ibe ^mneelitin which may esi 
twtwwn tile soil iitid dyaent«rr. tcvlet fever, and other diseases, 



EXAMiyATWX OF SOILS. 



307 



ceraing the oi^nisms uf which we are in the dark, it is beet to admit 
frankly that tm do not know, rather than to make gunvml »tal«meut« 
l)ased ijii iiiUL);iiiiii;^. 

Oiir actual knowledge of the relnlion of the soil to dii^etk-te iimoiinl» 
in hrief to thii^ : thai Mirfai-c iliimpncss i» liivrtnildv U> the develop- 
ment of oenaiii disc-ases, jui rhpiiinatism, neuralgias, aud affections of 
the rwpinitory Inu^t ; that <-onit'ruiiig sume dL-^-iisos then' !» a vr«ilth 
of purely fiirrumstantial evidence ol' eonnwtion, opposed in each ciis*? 
hv evidence In the eoiitrary ; that the soil is (he home of many »[Kvie« 
of organimms, some of winch siiv |Kitho{r('nii-, und oflVrh iiiKler certain 
tAvorahle conditions! an at lea^t teniporarj' asylum to others ; but the 
preponderance of evidence thus far giKit to tihow tliiit under normal 
conditions the soil is more liki-ly to jirove hostile tliaii hospitable to 
mum uf the infective ugt^'iitc with which we arc well ac4iiiiiiit<.'Ll. 



Examination of Soils. 

The complete exnmiiiDtion of ii fioii iiielndes (^hemicAl, phy--<iciLl, and 
bacleriologieul determimttions, but iuasmuch tv the chemictd analysis, 
bcyiind the e,-<iinmlion of water and organic nwtler, is of no esjHH'iiil 
interest to the !runitariun. th«i]);h uf gn^t importanci- to the agncul- 
lural chemist, we shall, with the exceptions noted, conline ourselves to 
the proce»se;f involved in the phvitieal and hm'te-rii'lii(;ical ttwtn. 

In taking samples, a place should I )e selected which lairly represents 
the locality, and nndcr some cinmiiisliinw* a niindn'r ol' K|)eciuien£ 
should he obtained. These may or may not be mixed and treated 
SK one. About two [tonndii of the soil may be broken up by being 
passed through a coarse sieve, then t^preiul out and left for one or 
Bt'veml days expusnl to the air, and to that extent dritn]. Ti>di^ier- 
roine the relative proportion of the gniiii!^ of thllercnt sizes, a weighed 
unonnt of the samjile ia now passed through a stories of sieves of varj-- 
ingcoarSiene«", niaile of metiil or porcelain with circular open "inhvm, 
which in each sieve are of uniform diameter. Those usi^d by the 
German »cicnti)'t« have ojicniugj' rt^jRi'tively J, I, 2, 4, and 7 mm. in 
diameter, by means of wbich a specimen is separatwl into grains of less 
tbsn ), fnmi J to 1, from 1 to 2, frnm i to 1, from -1 to T, .^tid over 7 
ram. in diameter. Other sized ojienings may be used, but thi-se fulfil 
all n-<(uiivmenls. Thes[K>cimcn U )ul«smI first throufrh tin- eoarsc.-t of 
the set. and then, in order, down to the finest. If the parliclcs adhefc 
6rmly, the separation U done l>eftt with the assistance of water; and 
iihould it hi- ne^V-ssary, a pt-i»t1e covered at the working end with rub- 
ber may also be employed. The separate parts are then dried and 
wcigiiwl, und their rcsjn^ive uniountv cx prc.'*scil in j)ereenlag«>s of the 
whole. 

Till- fintwt iiarticles, that is, tlioseof Iiw< than J mm., may lK-se]Mirated 
still further by the pii>cci(» of washing lu an ehitriuting apjiaratus, of 
which there are several kinds, none of wliich, however, gives reeulfai 
tltat an mure than appruximntvly accurate, «ince ao many different 



ao8 



THE SOIL. 



foroM and conditions oom« into pl»y t<> inflnenoc tbe prDowH. VitJi 
some, the eepnralion is efi'ertcd bv causing tin- panicles to sotlle dosti- 
vunl throui^li II voliinio of water, the liitiviiiHt oaefi reaching (tlii^int- 
icftlly, Ittit not whully in pnicticv) itic buttoni fir»l, wmI the liglitM , 
settling out last or reuinining a Inng time ia liUBpensioit. 

Ad upiMimtuM of tliiH 9orI \» hIxiwii tn Fig. 11^, which tvqain»iut' 
explanation. Another, know-u as Knop's silt cylinder, is shown in 
Fig. 19. This i)t a v^'limlor cArrying InUiml ttibm fitKtl wilb .'>M[Kii''ki, 
situated at «iuiil diatanoea (10 cm.) apart. The simple is plaiwi io 
lii« cylinder, whieh in tlien HlU>d with water and well shaken. Afteri 
piven time the uppiT stopcock is opened and tlw water :ilKiVf it w ilia«Ti 
ofiT. Then aAer the lagwie of another interval, the eecoiid is uikoA 



Fia. 18. 



F^a. 19. 



d 



13^^=^=^ 



^ 



A|4«nilu» f»mp*nUnn oOliii' rBiUcle* atlolL 



Knop'* (tit exited*! 



and next, in the isame way, tlio third. The prvcess is rejteitt^tl o'lti 
llie wnah water comes away eh«r, then the lowest tube is opentd, : 
tbe r*-<t of (he water above t(w refnaiiiinp material drawn off. 
different ptirliotts may tiieu be colleetcd, dried, ai>d neighed, awl| 
rotative projtortiouiii expivMiil il< iK'forv in |>crcoii(uge!i. Or the i 
may Iw dried aw) wetplied and the n>nuiiiider etttimatcd by iliOV'rmn- 

Bv another methoil. tbe waiihing is carried out by means of an of 
warn flow of water in u omicnl vi^m<>I, at the IxHinm of wiiic-h th 
mrnple is pinnxl. The water, <lelivcretl through a tube rencliine 
BMir the iKvttom of the vessel, wrries the lightiT iiin-r )Kini<Oe-' tipwun 
and out tlirongh the exit tube nivr the top. 8ucb an np]Minitus, ku 
as Si'hiiltr'*. is sbi)wn in Fifj. 2(t. 

Poro-volume. — The pore-volume is determined very simpler 
adding lo a voluuw ut water in a gradiiikictl cylinder a known voluo 



KXAatjyATioy of soils. 



Fia.SiX 



I 




of soil in tJifi dry etato, and iiotiDf; the Ueight to which tho wat*T 

rises. It. fur iiistuiK'f, ti) ii littT Jar tM>n(uining wntcr up to llm 

600 oc, roark, we add 500 cc. of driwl soil 

iu a« n<.':irly zm \wiifihh it^ niituiiJ aiaU' uf 

compactness, aud observe thut Uic Icvid of 

thf wattT i.* in coiKw-qiiencf raUod to thft 

850 cc. murk, it i'uthmri Ihjit the inorwu?*, 

350 w-, n-jiri'spnlK the aetiial hulk of the 

6oil grains, and thut llic dilTereiiw Ik'Iwwh 

this and the vohinie occupied originally by 

the wimi>to (500 cc), tlmt it* to say. ISO a*., 

represents the amount of interstitial space 

fillitl with liir. Thmi, sinw MO cf. of noil 

contains 150 cc. of air Hpsuv, it folluvnt 

that the pore-vohimo of the sample la x 

in the wiuation 500 : 150 : : 100 ix, or 30 

per cent. 

Ill outer to «ppn>xiiiiiit<.' more oloi<i0y the 
natural condition of comp-ietness, the sample 
may lie lak<m from thv soil by mcAn^ of a 
metallic cylinder with a cutting edge. It 
is then driwl in order to i'xjk-I the contiiiiiwl j^huUrt cium.iiDE .pp.r.iu.. 
water, which otlierwiw would eonstitutc u 
soiiree of error, and is tlien ailded to tlie water in the lit*r jar as liefore. 

Permeability to Air. — Permenbility to air may he determined by 
forcing mwisnriil vohmiiLt of air under constant pn'-ssure through a 
cylinder chwely psieked with the sample, and notiuj; the amount which 
is delivered dnring any given unit of lime. In making comparison 
tc»t<t between ditlijront soils, the wimc conditions must be observed iu 
every case^; that is to say, the length of the column of soil in the cyl- 
inder, the pn-ssuri' wnplovtti, and the unit or time. A still fiiTtlnT 
ooudittou which i-hould bo ohftervwi. biit which is commonly disre- 
garded, is the t*'m|»emtiin' of tht- air, for, a.* is the eiLse with liijuiils, 
llic viwosity of gases varies with change in temperature, though not 
in the same direction. The viscosity of liijnids is incriiisetl with dimin- 
ishiil h-niiiertitiiri-, whcrtsis in the cjise of gases the reverse Is true, 
l*isregTH-d of lIiLs fact leads to important degrees of error. 

The ap{ianUns for ibis dctcrmi nation, shown in Fig. 21, c.nnpris*"« 
u ga«-hoidcr (.1), a gns-metLT (Ii), and a cylinder {C) provided with a 
manometer (!>). For the pur])iM!i; of keeping the sfiil in position, 
lightly filting jK.Tf"in>tetl disks (Eaml F) of metallic gauz« arc intro- 
duced into the cylinder at Urth ends of the eolunin of soil. 

In (he pnpanition of tlvc cylinder, the disk F w first iutroduceil, ai>d 
tiieu the soil in added a little at a time, aud made as oom]iact as pos- 
sible by striking ihi- lower enil of the cylinder downwanl with reason- 
able fonv agninst the table. When the desired length of column has 
been reached, the di^k E is intHMhitt-d, iK'twiru whidi .iml the inlet 
end ((r) an air spuoe of sufScii-ut size is left to insure uniform pressure 



SIO 



THE sort. 



utpiiiiHt ttii- entire mrfacc of tlll^ dit«k. Tlio inlcit end in closed b^' 
metn.'^ iif a tightly fitting niUxT stnpfMT Iiiivin(j two ]>crfi>nilioni«, one 
cit' whioh i-jirric!* ilic iiili-l tube from tlic (^'as-nu-ter, ami tht otbtT ibt- 
manomt'tcr mdicuting the prcisnrw wiiiiloyi-d. 

Tln' iiiv-->!*iin- i« olitnined by mcaiw of a culumii of water coniinitni- 
ciiliii)^ with the <;lmnibi.'r (.if llic gitn-hoUIcT, wliioli in cmiinvUKl by a 
rubbiT tube with (be inlet of the meter ; and it \s n^gukted by a Ecrew 

Pio.21. 




Apparalua (br detennlnntloD of penniwbltltx of nU to atr. 



pinchcock on the ontlot tulM- of thi- I.i)t«-r. Tlit- forrc is applied. tHe" 
nfldiiig of tbf nii'trr ii« n<>te*l, and at the cxpimtiun of the niiit of time, 
one, five, or whatever number of minutes it may be, the reading of the 
meter is taltcn apain. 

Permeability to Water. — The permeability of a soil to water is 
expressed in terms indieiiiing the nniiitint of watt-r yrbieh will pni* 
firom above downward through a column of saturated soil during any 



EXAMiXATiny OF son^ 



311 



mit of time UDrlcr n given pn>K4un'. Thc! nppamtuH for this 
nation, fliown in Fig. 22, vntifiistt; i>f" ii metallic fyliii'lcr (^4) 
perlomte*! or gniixe Itottom \nx whivh ihv .tain])!!' "f Miil in jhickmI 
lUtl ntiollx-r cyliruk-r [H], ItkewiNr (if nictitl, jtroviditl witli ii 
^if mitlct tubes (c), at regular intervals, prcfpiiibly of o ur 
KTIm' lower ond of H 6u* tijriitly into the iijipcr end of .1, and 
n U miidv imiK-rviinis to water hy mamt^ of lollieifivc jilikHtcr, 
■wax, or other ^uitaUle materiiil. The aoil nicliin the lower 
r in kept in pliKV, utid itM snrfuve kept iiiluvt, by invalid of a 

Fni. SS. 



t! 




riii.iri iif iH-rmtistilllty ufaotltD v>tct. 

«) disk of gatuie or coame cloth. The outlet tnbi'^ provicU.'d 
t, 8«rv« to niatutjun n (^>ii«tant level, mid, therefore, a constant 
»of water iw desired. Water is admitted in a ooii^tant slream 
EfliiKler through it.- tipix-r itid, by iiUTtiiis of a rubber tube oou- 
Wtth a wilier fuuet^l. If it be desire<) to employ tike highest 
V o4)taitial)le with the a]i])KnitUH, all the iiirki' of the outlet IuIhm, 
tlie iipjMT one, iin; kept in pliiec. In tJiis ease, the pressure 
W rxpH'-ifiod by the di^^tanee liciween the top of tbv i*oil under 
»tioa and ibu up[M-riuiMi outlet, Ihruugb nbicb the excess of 




;]12 



TUE SOIL. 



vaU:T frnm tli« faucet is alhiwod to escape, by war of a rulilH-r Inbt 
leading to a «iiik. Siinilnrly.iinv otUur lieiglit niiti pntssiin nuiy In 
employed Iiy removing tlio writ of the correspundinp oulirt, v/\iA 
tliuf ix'ciimcn the ctlliK'iit. Wlmti-v<T tlit* lioi^Iit niuiniaiuc^l, it b 
nocc&wry to keep tlie deliver^' imkI of tlie inlet tubo btlow tliL> ourtiitv 

of tlu> WIlttT 

TLe prowf* in ax follows : Hjiviiip cliu««n \\w prcssuw and iuljrii*J 
the waste tube to the proper outlet, the water i§ allowed to run in wid 
foiXT ilH wtiy down tliroUfih the noil inttil the Imter iH^inien Hatunlcd. 
In order to intiiire complete »<!it unit ion, it \^ bcj-t, huwever, t" iininiix 
the soil cyliiid<-r, in oiiK-r (Iml. all ihi- iiir nmy thrrcby Ix; disjilaBJ 
upwurd. When this lia« Itoen iiceoni]>li»lii'd «n<I uiiter In'^nc Id run 
or drip through the gaim< bottom, the time in nott-d, and the dischar^ 
wutcr i» rwvive<i in a wiiitubic jirmhiale. At the expiration i>rdipiinit 
of time, the latter is removed nod it^ eonteniM nx^f^ured. The nyn- 
mcnt m«y bo rttjKated us oflen as may »wm lulviNible, and llw iflcrt* 
of varj'ing pn«sures nniy also be determined. 

Water Capacity- — Tlie jM.wer (o imtd water bi' drtcnniu«l bjr 
meann of » nK-IalHe cylinder uf known rapacity with a jpinro IkiHoid- 
This is weiphwl, then lilled with the dried simple, and again weietit^L 
Tlir soil next \a K^turiicfl (Minpletely by immor»i(in of the cylniiiw 
in water, mid then it iit allowed to drain as long as water cotilinur* U 
escape. When the watirr cch.w:' to drain away, tlie cj-linder iimpf^ 
dry ontMdOf and the weight of the whole iti taken again. The iocMW 
in weight is the aniiimit of water iieliiiiiwl, and it may be stawl if 
peni'«t:i(ie of tlie [wre-volumc, wliich should have becii dcterniim*! 
previom-ly, 

Capillarity. — The height to which wntcr will rbc in n eohiian <i 
Noil by cH)>ilhin>' nttnic-tion w determined by packing tbe sample ti^lillv 
uito a gradnatiHl giajw tube, the lower often end of whirh is iwverwl 
with coar^' linen lietl .-Ht-nrely on, ko as not to slip. The lube ii" ^ 
ported with its cloth-covered end resting in a iihallow dish fillwl mtb 
water, whieh U kepi nl eontitant level, llie blight lo which tlie watrt 
rise)' thiMiigh the eobiniii of soil is noted from time to time, until axent 
ceiLtes. The change in the color of the Mul, due to wetting, indicaltf 
\\w progreiw of the netion. 

Moisture. — The amount of moisture in a soil in determined miM 
aii-iimiely by taking a sample in itii natural ivindilton, by ntuuisi 
tnifw eyiinder with n cutting edge, weijjhing a portion of it, ami I 
drying it in an air Iwith at 10.^* ('. imtil it erast^i to lose 
The dirtV-rence l>etw(-en the original and final weighings represents 
amotmt of wnU'r in the given weight of soil. If it ii* dcsiml to 
tbe snionnt of wiiter whieh tbe s.ime .«nil will absorli from a i»ta: 
ainioHpliiHTe, the thoroughly dry wiinjilc may next be placed with a tiiJi 
of water under a U'l]-glii.t<. The confined :iir will beoonM- KituniU'l 
with atim-on^ vapor in i\ f\\oTi time, and tbix will be absorlwd by tlit 
M>il np to the limit of its euiiacity, which is shown wben itci weight 

longer OOOUnuC to ii;r-i'i-:i-a'. 



eXAMlSATlOy OF SOILS. 



313 



Thp hyprrnwopic moisture nf h »wil may Iw (1«tcrmin«] roii|j;hl_v by 
air-<ir\-ing a sample ami then taking a kiicwn woi^ht nf il iind Ix-ating 
it ill an air-lKitli »t. lO.'i'^ O.; or hy cxih),*!!!!; it t^i ii 'irv atin'mplinv in 
a bell-gla>))< cvtntaiuing an open dish of concentrated aiilphiirie aoid, 
iinitl it ci'n.'iiw to liwi- wc-iglit. 

Organie and Volatile Matters. — Since it is iDi]>osgil]le to dotrr- 

niine hv nrdinarv jinxTssi'H thi' exaet anmunt of orpinie iiiatler pn?^>nt 
in any soil, it is neee>«iry t" d(wif;ri:iW llif diitiiriiiti'in in weijjlit which 
lurs on siibjeeting a sample to i-neh a heat as will bum off the 
nic matter, und whieh ri-prr?u-iiU other l'itwiv> than (he liiit<-i-, a;* 

loss on ignition" or "oi^inic and other volatile matter." For this 
detcrmirmtiiin, ihi- soil which Ha:" u>ed for thi' a-tinialion of moisinre, 
or another sample, thoroughly dried, may lie plaeofi in a plnliniim dish 
and heated over a Run^en flame at no higlier temperature than is snffi- 
ncnt to keep the dish at a dull-n'<i h«it. Whwi all tin- nrpinie rmilter 
has been destroyed, t)te residue is allowed to cool, and is then moistened 
with a little saluniletl solution of nirhoEiato nf anunoninni, in order to 
restore the carbon dioxide that ljeIon(js to the iuorjranie CKtnsiituents, then 
drieti and gently iguili-d to es|>el the exe<\(« of ammonia, and finally 
wciKhetl. The loss represents organic matter, nirimoninni sjilts, nitrates, 
water of cryatidlization, ete, 

Determinatioii of CO, in Soil Air. — The imalysiK nf soil nir i.s 
conducte"! upon llie i:ime priiiei|»les ils that of ojilinnrv air, but the 
method «>mp]oywl i.-* iKi'e.isarily diflV^rent so far a.-* the obtaining ami 
handling of the sample are eoncerned. The reagents are the fame as 
reipiinx) in iho aniilvHiM of iitmiis]>lieri<r air ; th« apjiaratu^, however, ht 
quite diHerent, It wmsists of :i nnmljer of sections of water-pipe 
mth screw joint.-*, one hiiviug a [Siinled fool, aliove whieh are a miniber 
uf perforations within a limited area; an absoq>tioii tiilx', in which the 
barium hydrate .dilution is held and through which the air Is drawn, 
and an nupinitor, (See Fie- -^•) 

The section with the (winted end is driven into tJie aoil, and the ]>ipe is 
lengthened hy thciid<Iiiionof the other scrlions, sotliat iiiiy il<->tnil depth 
may he reached, and thus the air of any stratum may be withdrawn. The 
upper extremity i.s nonmH-toiI by a rubber tube with the inlel liibe of 
llic alworption ap[Ninitiis, winch latter may be a plain glass tiiln- ainut 
an inch in diameter with a l>t>nd of .ilmul !;{(> tli'jrri-es near one end. 
Bt'iler, howfviT, i.i the ajipiirjitu)< shown iu the lUuvt ration. Here the 
nhort leg of the bent tube is a large bulb, and th« long l<^ is a series 
of small bulbs, the eommnni<^;ilion;c Ix'twtvn which are of simdl diame- 
ter. In either case the inlet tnlw jms*e^ through a tightly lilting 
rubber stopper and extends to a point yiM iHyond the bend. The 
other end of this appunitiis is conneotc«l by means of a rnbljcr UiUl- with 
the iidct of the aspirator. Any form of aspirator may Iw used, Imt 
preferably one of a ciiiwu-ity of alwnl twenty litcrn. A mwmiin'd 
nmoimt of the illliite solution of barium hydrate, sufficient to occupy 
the greater jxirl of the htnj^ h^, is intiodnci-d into the absorption apjn- 
mtus, and the connections throughout are tested to prove the abwHKC 




1 



.-{14 



TIIE SOI 



of Irak.t. When llic nmlot rock of tin- nspiralnr in nppn«I, the escape 
of till- coutHiiicd WHtcr i-rrat*'?' ii purtiul vacuum, which U irlii-vttl by 
suction of air from thf soil au<l tlimiigh the whole appunitus. As the 
nir i-iiiorirt^ from the iiilt-t IoIk- "f the nl)i«>rp(ion itp]uirHtiit>, it |M.<Mr 
iipwiinl ill the form of biibblt'.u through the na^ii, lo uhirfa it <;ivo 
ii[i it.- c'oiili-iit. of C<),. Thi- niLMiii for pn-fi-rriiip the IiiiDm^I tiil»- i- 
tiiut vach liubblo of air iu its pusKigr from oac bulb t*> (ho next abuvr 
is neoeftsarily bmnglit iiil4i more intiimiU* and prohmgcil conlact with 
tlic rMgvnt tlum is the cn»« when (he pUin beut tube i» cmplo^til, (or 

i\a. S3. 







Apparmiiif for ilalonolDitloa otCOi In loll all. 



here the air bubble* jmss quickly along the upper inner surfaoe of the 
tube, and are not so exiww*! to iii« reagent as to low all the coiitaini-d 
CO . For this rea-^on, it is neee»«ar>' to dniw the air through a seoond, 
and, perhaps, a geri*» of such tubes, but one bulbed tube a* piciuied 
aliove is suf1ii-i<-nt. 

The water fn)m On' atpirator is mea^uretl ean-fully, and ita amount 
iodii-iIcA the volume of air thai h:i> tieen suckeil up out of thi- su^il to 
take ilc plaee, When the de-ire*! lunount hiiJ' bwn ncted upon, th« 
fftopcncb of the aspirator is dosed, and the reagent iu the alx*orptioD 




BACTF.RJOLOOICAL EXAMINATWS OF SOIL. 



316 



tube in tnui.-'ti'rn'd quickly tit a glA»M^l4)p)x>r(tl l)OttU> of «iiital>lc :•!»!. 
Fmm this [miut, th<r ilottrmiiiiitiuii is the siune as de^vribixl in Hk t-liapter 
on Air, 

Bacteriological Esamisatlon of SolL 

The bacteriological examitiatiori of the soil requires iieccwarily an 
iTilimiitv «C(iimiiitan«( with bm-iiTiolngiisil itvlinifjiif, a siihji-ct Ih-voikI 
the scope of this work, ll niiiy U- i^tutcd brJcrty thiit many i if the 
orf^iiiiMns liuit ii)liiiiiit the »iiil niity be i»<)).-Util by adtling small por- 
tioae of the silled Niniple to liqiictidl gcliiliii iind thi-u |)liiliiip^, or by 
^rinkliiig over ttio .lurliiif of ii iiiilri<-iil uicdiiirn, nr by 4mking witli 
<)i»til](.Hl water iind transferring thence to the proper nie<liii. 

The many aniiPmliic fnrni^ rHjuire, of course, tlie t<|)ecial treatment 
<if their clsws. and j^>mc of them may be prown on nrdiimry cidliirc 
media ; but many of the waprophytes, notably the nitrifying organisms, 
cannot be i.«i>hit<^<l by the ordinarj- uirtliod;^. For the ilctjiils invulvcil 
in the separation and identitication of the numerous varieties of soil 
organi^m^, the rwder ii< refcrrcil to ttiu staudard works on becteriolt^. 



&I 



CHAPTKR IV. 



WATER. 

Abwihtei.y pure water, that is, the substance compoewl wliollyof 
hyilr(it;vii iimi oxyj^cii, iiix) rcpm^-iitk-d Uy llie symlml H,(). i- De^■fr 
fuuutl in uaturc, atid i^^ iiL-vcr M-en, uxcpjit in famuli utii«>tiiit» ii>' n ItilNin- 
Ic^iry curiosity. Id the broad wniw, however, the word ftur* >§ qiplird 
t(i wiitcr coiiVfj'B tbf idiii of fninloni from huntifiil iii^nilii-iirK »nil nf 
wbiiltwiimwjeriii and suitability for driukin^ and tor tbe prtjiaratifn «( 
llxjti. In niiturv, nil wnlii- (nmtiiius mon- nr Ii-.^ji of gsMoiD) nml silid 
hubstaiiw»i in solution and suspension, and so long as thwi- atv nol 
prtwi-nt ill such aniouiitj^ om to affect tlie quality injnrioutily, and w Ici^ 
as they an? not intrin^icidly <ljmp(.'rou» to licultli, (In- adjortivt It rom- 
munly bcJd to In- ii|ipriij>riate. But in die senw tliai purity iinTh'w 
tbe limitation of th« lunonut of contiiinctl Mib>1un<H.T' of a hamili^ 
naturo, it becnnits a dilbcult qiieHiion where to draw the line wbere 
water coweit to be pure, and wlmt term to i>])p)y <» nil nntoflyni. In 
ibc sense lliat it involves complete abtteuce nf inatters intrinnifallv 
dnnjrcTou*. the liin: win be )^haq)ly drawn, ami water which lail* to 
satinty the requirementtt of the term may be designated iudtfft-nnillv » 
impure, pulUikxl, or ci>ntaniinati-<l. 

In the olajwio re[x>ni- of the State Buiird of Hettlth of Mu*«i("liurtfl* 
on public wntor Mipplio, ualers arc clasced aw " normal " or " pollulol 
according :ls they art' or lire not free fnjni dircrl or intlim-l piUiitlOB 
by the wa^xe products of human life and indn-itry. I'uder tlii" <la»i- 
licutiun it followi;, uuturutly, that nonnul watrr.-' nlll^t vary ven^ v'Mj 
in ajipeonuioe, oomposition, and general cbaracter, and that a uonnal 
witler in not ueeeitsurily snihiblc for dnnking, ulrbotijch iurapahlf "l 
pausing s|xN^-ifiL- di'M?at*'. Tbe nature and ami^iint of llie dis^'lviJ 
ninttcrs cannot but have ccmsidemble influence in modifying the fKf 
erties and cIIVtIs of a wiitcr. 

Waters may lie classiti«l ueeonling to source att followa : 

1. [tain and i-inivr. 

2. Surfaoe-water ( rivers, ponds, basins, etc). 
:t. <imiiii<l-wati'r |»l.->» known an j<ub»oil -water). 
4. Artc-i^ian or deep wcll-u'nter. 



BAIN. 

Rain i> the original oouree of nil n:itiim1 waters of witateve 
It results from condensation of the a<jiieoii!^ vapor of the atmo^plH-i 
and in its descent to the eailh it lake^ tip fnv'oouit and siisjiended nui 
ten from the atni<v>plierc, wliieh to (bat extent becomes thereby put 




SUHFACK n-ATEBH. 



317 



fied. In tbe open cnuntn-, after the. air has l>een washed for a wliUe, 
ttic tiilk-cttxl ntiti !.« wtv (.'luin, iind in, in i'm% the |iiiri-st. rnrrn ol' imi- 
ural watvr. If its fall is acconipaiiied bv wluil fmta dusn' localitiee, 
It vtiiinot \h.i obuiiicd in ><<> cUwi n ounAition witliin no ^hort a tiiiif, on 
account of tile prcaU-r imioiiut of siisjicndcd iimtttTS to be ivinslu-d down. 
Ncjir l\w >H'ti, it ofnitain-H mun- or h'Sn Hult ; and in cities and lai^e towns, 
it may have a sliphtly acid R-actiun. 

In its passagi' iJownwai-d ilirongh the atraoHpliore, rain absorbs con- 
siderable air, or, more priiiK-rly.tyniotilnnit.s of nir ; that i;*, oxygon, nitro- 
gen, carbon dioxide, and ninmonia eom{Hiiind»i. Since Ciieh gsii- lia^ ib< 
own eoetlie-ieiit of :<ohd)ility in vvater, and a-f air is u mixtiiri! and not 
a chemical union of gases, it follow* tliat wsiter will nbr^orb tlie con- 
Mitiienl^ of air iseiwraU-ly and iKVording to tlifir resi>pctive i«>lubilitie«. 
So it happens that the alworbttl air has u vcrj- difren-iit coinjKwitiou 
from that of atmospheric air, being mnch richer in oxyge^n and jHwrer 
in nitnigen, it» oxyp-n content being '•^■> iTi^tuul nf 21 per oeut. On 
rtaiching the earth, some of the ruin is evaporated, some sinks into 
tlic soil, and some runs over iho i«url'mH; U' strwuuN or other bodi^-it 
of water. The amount that sinks into tlie soil dejiends upon the 
{H'nni'ubiiitv of the liitter In \val<T. Thus, a xandy or gravellv Miil will 
take up more of the ruinlall than a close-grained elay. The amount 
whidi is returned to the atinnspheit' by ovajKiration is surprisingly 
large. It has been reckoned by Dalton that in the whole of England 
and Wales, about oO per oeut. of the toial annual niiiifall is lost by 
ivaporation. In the watershetl of the Rhine, the loss is reckoned at 
[K'.r eent. ; in tliat of the Rlioue, at 42 ; of th« Seine, at 67, »:i<l 
of the tiarunne, at 35. 



SURFAOE-WATEBS. 

Soriko^vatcre are collections of water rutmiug uloni; or stor«l upon 
the earth's surface in contact with the atmosphere, Under this htaid 
arc ine.ludiKl riveri" and Jiimaller stnanw. |»ondK, lakes, ami impounding 
basins. The)' vary according to the different charaet^^l-s of the areas 
which they have diitimnl or Iraverswl, or in whieh they ar«' Moreil, 
Thus, n water tluit has flowed over a rocky soil is more likely to be 
free from oiganic impurity than one Unit luis flowed over Uuimy soil or 
ba^ rilootl in swanipx; and one that has flowed through sandstone bot- 
toms is more likely to contain mineral impurities tlian ime that has 
flowrd o\'<-r the vii^in soil of n forc.-'t,, 

Snrfaec-water nurani! something more than the rain of the district 
pins the impnritie-s of whatever ehiiraeter, organic and mineral, which 
it lifw ei'llefte<l. Rivers and lakes, for example, are made up of rain 
that has run over the .lui-face of the gmund, dissolving in its oourw 
^niitll nniounls of ejisilywilnbie niattei-s, and of water that has come up 
fitiui tile soil below through springs, <)r thai has triekh-tl in from the 
upjier layers of ihe soil ; and ihe-e latter (v ii tribute mat t<Ts which may 
be of very widely different character from tJiose obtainable along the 



318 



WATER. 



surfofiie, acivirdiiig ti> llie gpologiral Rhamoter of t]>e Boil stnia that \an 
bwn iic'b-<l ii|>un. 

A river may take its origin in a sprinj;, and c»aRU<t fiir some time i>f 
grdiiml-waicr nliiiic, but iHiinlly it is nut Umg Ix'ton- !l nwiv^-A uciw 
HittiiM of ^iiHiicie-u-aler and soon acquirer tlie fharu4.-teristio^ uf llie latt«r. 
Again, saaw Uktsi and (MitKL-< nn- fisl almost H-hoUy l>y springs at llmr 
bottom!^ mid ^idi-» ; l>ul i-VL-n sty, their vraterK houii change In clinnirt^ 
and aoc|iim> the various forms of aquatic life. 

SuriiKH-'HutiTM may coiilairi miK-li or Vuxiv or no orpmir mallt-r. 
acwinling t'l fimimwtanoes. They may be rolored or e<iliirU»»; tlicj 
umy Ik- ricli or [iiMir iu tniiieral sulistimws^ Tlmsc which w-iiio hrpij 
from the ground will uulurally possess largely the eharaeterietin ^ 
ground-wuler, and th<if*e frf<- fnnu nvr-ewiioiut fmin this ^oum' «i!t 
approximate nmru nearly the eliameter of ruin. The <{(iality of Mirikw- 
waters in influenced by the heaMons, by dmught and rainfidl, by vt^ 
totiou, by rate of muvenieiit, utid by other vonJitioite, 



GRODND-WATEBS. 

Ground-irater is thai which penetrates the soil, thinks to rnrion* 
depthi*, iHX-onling !<■ the tialure of the sutl, iiikI avoiimulnhs on (Cnc 
mure or lewt imjierviout- stratum. It is not cx|>«»*d to lif;lil iim! ll»' 
atmonjJierp, likv siii'fiiii-w'iit*T. Il \ariw widily in iluinn-ier aiiMti^- 
ing U> the natnre of the soil over which it luis tuiw flowetl and tliivKi^li 
wliieli it lias jx-n-olalod. It enters witli more or less air and TOii" 
sohition, and fomcs in cmtiirt with ijie »oil air in the inU't^liw. 
which 1.4 much ricjier than atmospheric air in this gai^ Witb ih^ 
assistance of the (X>j which it hu.-> brought, and tlmt which il fiirtli*^ 
acquires in the interstices, it dissolvtv various miiiend constitui-iit» "' 
the !**)il. That whii>h pt-netraten vcitf" deeply has its solvent po"«»r 
increased by incnwH^I tem]K-nimre and [»r(TN<iirc. A* it enlcf» 11* 
soil, it brings with it wlmtever organic matters it may have dis^clvfl 
out of tlH- ^iirfiKv lnyer% iiml in lis d(?o(H'nl it iimy Iom- tlnin eiiiinly 
through the uclion of the saprophytic luu-teria of the soil, or it nor 
■oquin- still nion- if tlM> soil t>e jMilluied an<l so peitiMtible as tn {■'mill' 
rapid iKii^ip^' d<>wn»i»ni. It |iassc« slowly or rapidly throu^li th* 
interstict-s until it reiiebes an impermeable stratum, over wliiot it 
>«-iunuUli'«, Iilling the intetjiticics cumph-tdy. The soil a) this pii»* 
is said to be saturated, and the upper limit of »ituratif>n is kit««^>* 
ll>e ground -water level, or watt-r taWe. Ifc-twwn this and tlie siirfarti 
tlw watiT is in wmtact with the nir of the inlersticew, an<I is ktw'»" ^ 
ejipillarv moih^ture. The water table is bv ni* means nceeswarily hnrv 
niiilid, btit tollowji in » gencml wiiy the contour of tla- snrfiioe •'<( ll* 
<>oil, aiwl oHrn il is much more irn^iilar, and, by reason of loiiil;?^ 
logiral i-onditions, even quite different from wliat the surface f(>rni»l»<« 
wiHih) indiditr. Thus, «l mtc jMiinl in a Icvi-I xtrt'lt-h of countrf. ll* 
table may bo quite near tlK< surfiicc, uihI at another, a »hort dietiUKi 



OBODSD-WATEB. 



S1& 



away, it may be 8itniif«<l miKth more <Jeeply, owing to abrupt oliniipt* 
of level of the impermeable stratum. 

I